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International Journal of Food Properties
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Nutritional and therapeutic properties of
fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): a review
Qamar Abbas Syed , Zainab Rashid , Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad , Rizwan
Shukat , Anum Ishaq , Niaz Muhammad & Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman
To cite this article: Qamar Abbas Syed , Zainab Rashid , Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad , Rizwan
Shukat , Anum Ishaq , Niaz Muhammad & Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman (2020) Nutritional and
therapeutic properties of fenugreek (Trigonella�foenum-graecum): a review, International Journal of
Food Properties, 23:1, 1777-1791, DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2020.1825482
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Published with license by Taylor & Francis
Group, LLC.© 2020 Qamar Abbas Syed,
Zainab Rashid, Muhammad Haseeb
Ahmad, Rizwan Shukat, Anum Ishaq, Niaz
Muhammad and Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman
Published online: 26 Oct 2020.
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Nutritional and therapeutic properties of fenugreek (Trigonella
foenum-graecum): a review
Qamar Abbas Syed
, Zainab Rashid
, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad
, Rizwan Shukat
Anum Ishaq
, Niaz Muhammad
, and Haz Ubaid Ur Rahman
National Institute of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of
Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan;
Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad,
Faisalabad, Pakistan;
Department of Allied Health Sciences, The Superior College (University Campus), Lahore,
National Agriculture Education College, Kabul, Afghanistan;
School of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Current lifestyle, eating habits, stress, environmental factors and intensive
use of synthetic chemicals in food processing and agriculture have radically
increased the progression of several human diseases. Globally, researchers
have been looking for natural therapeutic substances that can be used to
treat or delay the onset of these lifestyle-related disorders. Numerous types
of medicinal plants have shown the potential to be frequently used in the
therapeutics due to the presence of several bioactive compounds. Among
these, fenugreek is an important herb which has been recognized as an
imperative medicinal plant by various scientists around the world. This
herb has been widely reported as benecial against numerous diseases
such as cancer, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and inammation. Due to
its medicinal value, the extracts/powders from dierent parts of fenugreek
have been eectively utilized in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Accordingly, the present review is an attempt to highlight the important
nutritional benets and curative applications of fenugreek as an eectual
therapeutic agent against dierent diseases.
Received 16 April 2020
Revised 13 September 2020
Accepted 15 September 2020
Fenugreek seeds; Trigonella
foenum-graecum; health
benefits; therapeutic value;
flavonoids; cancer
The importance of including medicinal herbs in the dietary choices is well-known for maintaining the
health lifestyle and preventing several types of diet-related ailments including diabetes, cancer, hyperten-
sion, inflammation and cardiovascular diseases.
Despite the astonishing advancements in the medicine
and combinatorial drug development, use of herbal plants for treating or preventing various diseases is
being enormously practiced due to their vast nutraceutical properties and safety aspects. Numerous crop
plants are nutritious, functional, medicinal and nutraceutical in nature. Fenugreek is known as one of the
plants having all these traits and an eminent spice crop used in human diets.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) belongs to the Fabaceae family and has been used as an
important spice since ancient times.
About 70 to 97 different species of fenugreek are being cultivated
around the world. As it has origin from Greece, the species name foenum-graecum means ‘Greek hay’.
Although it is a familiar spice that has been added in the human foods, literature also provide us the use
of this natural tonic to cure several types of lifestyle-related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases,
hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, cancer, liver ailments and sexual disorders such as testosterone-
deficiency syndrome.
Fenugreek is also considered as a rich source of dietary fibre and other
CONTACT Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government
College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan; Niaz Muhammad National Agriculture Education
College, Sarak-e-new, Chelestoon, 1001, Kabul Afghanistan
2020, VOL. 23, NO. 1, 1777–1791
© 2020 Qamar Abbas Syed, Zainab Rashid, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad, Rizwan Shukat, Anum Ishaq, Niaz Muhammad and Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman.
Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
important nutrients needed for proper growth and development. Studies have also affirmed the
nutraceutical and physiological properties of fenugreek which support the potential applications of
fenugreek in developing numerous functional food products and pharmaceutical products.
As fenugreek is rich in several phytochemicals, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroidal saponins, amino
acids and minerals are present in fenugreek, it can be used for nutritional, nutraceutical, medicinal and
therapeutic purposes.
Fenugreek has been extensively used as a flavour enhancer in several tradi-
tional cuisines. Additionally, the medicinal properties of fenugreek such as anticarcinogenic, antidia-
betic, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-lithogenic antimicrobial and immunological properties,
make it an important compound to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.
In addition to
the medicinal properties of fenugreek, it has also been used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in different
types of food products. Moreover, use of fenugreek extracts or powders has also been reported for
developing bakery and extruded products.
Nutritional value of fenugreek
Fenugreek has a vast diversity of nutrients and bioactive compounds which are required for improving
the health and functionality of biological systems. The fenugreek seeds have 58% carbohydrates, 23-
26% proteins, 0.9% fats and 25% fibre. Similarly, fenugreek leaves have 6%, 4.4%, 1.1% carbohydrates,
proteins and fibre respectively.
Furthermore, fenugreek also contains different types of minerals
such as potassium (603 mg/100 g), magnesium (42 mg/100 g), calcium (75 mg/100 g), zinc (2.4 mg/
100 g), manganese and copper (0.9 mg/100 g) and iron (25.8 mg/100 g). Vitamin C (220 mg/100 g) and
β carotene (19 mg/100 g) are also considered as the important components of fenugreek.
Fenugreek is also a rich source of several important amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid,
leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine. Additionally, it contains minute quantities of sulfur-containing
amino acids (cysteine and methionine) having significant physiological roles in body. The most
abundantly present free amino acid in fenugreek is (2S, 3 R, 4S)-4-hydroxyisoleusine. About 80% of
amino acid content of dry fenugreek seeds consists of the non-protein amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleusine
and during the phase of growth, this amino acid proliferates rapidly. Studies have revealed that the
proteins present in the fenugreek are of better quality as compared to the other plant proteins. In an
investigation, Feyzi and his coworkers compared the quality of fenugreek proteins with soy protein
isolate and affirmed that fenugreek seeds contain higher protein contents with better amino acid
profile as compared to soy protein isolate.
Additionally, fenugreek proteins were rich in aspartic
acid and glutamic acid. Results also stated that fenugreek proteins have higher denaturation tempera-
ture, foaming properties, solubility and stability as compared to soy proteins and therefore can be
employed as an effective protein source in various functional foods. Moreover, sotolone, an important
functional phytochemical used as seasoning flavor, is a prompting ingredient of fenugreek.
Fenugreek contains significant quantities of alkaloids (trigonella, trigocoumarin, nicotinic acid,
trimethyl coumarin). It also comprises other important, valuable compounds like flavonoids and
polyphenols. In the alcoholic extracts of the fenugreek plant, extensive variety of flavonoids, such as
quercetin, luteolin, vitexin, and 7, 4-dimethoxy flavanones, is present. Some other groups have
Table 1. Nutritional/health impacts of fenugreek components.
Nutritional components Health impacts
4- hydroxyisoleucine (amino acid) Insulin stimulating activity
Fiber (soluble dietary fiber, galactomannans,
non-starch polysaccharides)
Binding of food toxins, protection of colon mucus membrane, promoting insulin
secretion, water retention in the intestine, controlling glucose absorption
Phenolic acids Antioxidant properties
Micronutrients (Vitamins and minerals) Regulatory functions
Flavonoids Antioxidant properties
Protodioscin Inhibition of leukemic cells
Diosgenin Hepatoprotective, anti-carcinogenic
1778 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
reported alike results of the existence of aglycones, kaempferol, quercetin, tricin, and naringenin.
The compounds were sequestered from the specific parts of fenugreek plant and also from the excerpts
and hydro lysates of stems, leaves and flowers. The phytochemical examination of fenugreek exposed
that the maximum of flavonoids are existent as glycosides which are complex due to the conjugation
with carbohydrates by C-glycosidic and O-glycosidic bond. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (quercitrin),
vitexin-7-Oglucoside (afroside), and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin) are rare examples of flavonol
glycosides existing in fenugreek.
Apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin) and apigenin-8-C-glucoside
(vitexin) were sequestered by fenugreek seeds. The occurrence of isoflavonoid phytoalexins aglycones,
such as medicarpan and maackiaian, in this herb has also been reported. These are known as ‘induced
isoflavoniods’ which can be produced due to some external factors such as microbial activities.
A generalized discussion about the nutritional impacts of fenugreek has been provided in Table 1.
Bio-availability of active compounds of fenugreek
As fenugreek is rich various functional ingredients, therefore, the bio-availability of these components
is very important. In rats, the bio-availability of furastanol glycoside secluded by the extract of
fenugreek seed was tested. Researchers considered the pharmacokinetics, tissue delivery, and elimina-
tion after oral dose of 200 mg/kg of furastanol glycoside extract. Researchers distinguished that after
only one administration, the zone under the curve was 0.177 g/mL h; supreme concentration time
period (Tmax) was 72 h and half-life (t1/2) was 40.10 h. The extract was engrossed gradually down the
intestine and took moderately gentle distribution. This glycoside was also noticed in tissues of lungs
and brain, representing its channel via blood-brain barricade.
In another study, it was stated that pharmacokinetics and tissue delivery of flavonol glycoside,
vicenin-1. Researchers testified, later one oral administration of 60 mg/kg of vicenin-1, the Cmax was
7.039 g/mL, zone under the curve was 0.044 g/mL hour, and t1/2 was 11.60 h. The supply of vicenin-1
in various rat tissues, the flavonol glycoside was perceived in greater amount in the lungs and liver and
much little concentrations in the adrenal glands, brain, and kidneys.
Studies also provided the
evidence that almost 40% of the original dosage of vicenin-2 was quickly absorbed in the small
The glycoside has many beneficial effects in living organisms. The bioavailability of this
compound is very important to play the role as antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory in living
Therapeutic eects of fenugreek
Role in controlling rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is a joint disease in which chronic inflammation occurs, which is characterized
by the injury of tissue and synovial proliferation. Elevated energy expenditures and pro-inflammatory
cytokines such as interleukin (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) perform a major role
to increase joint soreness and painfulness. In a study, to check the fenugreek mucilage role to prevent
the arthritis in adjuvant tempted rats with arthritis. On the seventh, fourteenth and 21
day, the paw
volume was measured. Rats were given anaesthesia, samples of blood and tissues were taken to
examine the enzymes which cause inflammation such as cyclo-oxygenase, lipo-oxygenase; assessed
the readings of cytokines such as inter leucine-6, TNF-α, arthritic ratio and rheumatoid aspect. At the
day of adjuvant arthritis, fenugreek mucilage at the dose level of 75 mg/kg showed the maximum
results to stop the oedema in rats. These results were compared with the results of standard drug used
against oedema‘ indomethacin’, and fenugreek showed the better effect against oedema. The actions of
enzymes which induce inflammation and the amount of mediators were becoming less after the
treatment with mucilage of fenugreek. The study of synovial fluid’s function and structure, exhibits
slight inflammation with usual synoviocytes (mesothelial cells), supplements of fenugreek were given
to normalize the characters of these cells .
The study concluded that fenugreek mucilage
supplementation resulted in oedema inhibition by decreasing the activities of inflammatory enzymes
due to its anti-arthritic potential.
Role to ameliorate VLDL overproduction and insulin resistance
Figure 1 shows the different part of fenugreek to improve the conditions of hyperlipidemia, liver
mulfunctioning and insulin resistance.
Hepatic SREBP-1 c inactivation by improved manifestation of Insig-1 and Insig-2
Hepatic steatosis and high level of lipids in blood induced through the lower levels of CREBH (cyclic
adenosine monophosphate responsive element-binding protein H) caused via decreased hepatic
High blood lipids
Liver malfunctioning
Insulin resistance
Regulates blood cholesterol levels Regulates gene expression
Lowers very low density lipoprotein
and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Improves Fatty acid/
Metabolic inflammation
Blood lipid profile
Liver functioning
Insulin resistance
Improves the
Fenugreek leaves and seeds
Play protective role against
Figure 1. Role of fenugreek leaves and seeds against hyperlipidemia, liver malfunctioning and insulin resistance.
1780 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
insulin-induced gene-2a manifestation, that results into hepatic lipogenesis and hyper activation of
SREBP-1 c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein). Mouse models were used to check the effect of
the seeds of fenugreek in lowering the amount of lipids in the blood. For 7 weeks, 2 different groups of
mice were nurtured as a control food with vehicle or a food that consists of 2% powder of fenugreek
seed in vehicle. Between these two groups, weight of body and intake of food were observed.
Appearance of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2b messenger RNAs, were
induced after the consumption of fenugreek seed shown in the examination of the protein appearance
of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 and mRNA in the tissues of the liver of mouse.
Protein levels of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 were expressively up-regulated in
fenugreek-fed mice. Analysis of the changes after the transcription step exposed that seed of fenugreek
consumption reduced the stimulation of SREBP-1 c by the breakdown through proteolysis, shown by
the fewer vigorous form of SREBP-1 c (N terminus of SREBP-1 c) in the hepatocyte which were
The results were constant when insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 appearance
increased which helps to keep SREBP-1 c on the endoplasmic reticulum also avoiding its movement
from its place as well as triggering in Golgi apparatus. Final outcomes shows that by increasing the
expression of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 by intake of fenugreek in very low
amount just 2%, it hold back the triggering of SREBP-1 c as well as hinder the lipid synthesis in the
Increased insulin sensitivity by upregulation of glucose transporters
For 7 weeks, CREBH-null mice were given a diet high in fat-containing seed of fenugreek 2% or
vehicle as control, to consider the insulin sensitivity. Diet, which was high in fat lowers the glucose
tolerance in CREBH-null rats were shown in a glucose tolerance test. By taking the fenugreek
enhanced glucose tolerance, showed by the noteworthy reduction of plasma glucose levels at 30, 60,
90 and 120 minutes later the glucose injection of 2 g per kg through intraperitoneal injection. After 15
to 30 min of injection, levels of the glucose in the blood, touch the peak and then a drop happens after
30 min, in both vehicle-treated as well as fenugreek treated rats. The peripheral tissues and organs such
as muscles, liver, adipose tissue of the fenugreek treated rats, uptake the blood glucose quickly, that’s
why the concentration of plasma glucose lowers much faster than the vehicle-treated rats. From the
blood, the transportation of glucose into hepatocytes and adipocytes are carried out by the glucose
transporters 2 (Glut-2) and glucose transporters 4 (Glut-4), respectively. After the intake of fenugreek,
increased level of Glucose transporter-2 and Glucose transpoter-4 in the liver and adipose tissue was
shown by the analysis of messenger RNA appearance of Glucose transporter-2 and Glucose transpor-
ter-4. That’s why the swift acceptance of glucose takes place in the rats fed with the fenugreek.
Additional by inspecting the molecules which give signals to insulin in the liver, fenugreek action
improved stimulation of receptors of insulin directed by the sturdier tyrosine phosphorylation signal
upon insulin management.
In the hepatocytes, increased insulin sensitivity is shown by the mice which were fed with fenugreek
as phosphorylation at Akt Ser-473 was much resilient instead of control group. Trigonelline increased
the insulin sensitivity in cells of McA, it was shown when in vitro, compared to the mock-treated cells,
the pre-treating McA cells by trigonelline (50 M) for monitored by insulin usage (1 µg/ml) for
15 minutes also prompted resilient phosphorylation of the receptor of insulin and protein kinase
So the seeds of fenugreek increase sensitivity of insulin through controlling the transporters of
glucose and signalling transduction in the adipose tissue and liver. The fenugreek has great potential to
control both type of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 as it improves the condition of insulin resistance. It also
helps the liver to perform its function better.
Anticancer perspectives
One of the primary causes of death nowadays is cancer in the world. Serious side effects occur with
generally used therapeutic medicines which only increase the life span of patient from few months or
some years. Plant-based active components have shown their potential to be used as suitable and safe
alternatives having significantly explored anticancer effects.
In this regard, active ingredients of
vegetables and fruits are being utilized to prevent the chances of cancer.
Efforts are ongoing to use
the other approaches and ideas which can be effective in the prevention of cancer. In these attempts,
studies are available in which animals and cell lines were used as the investigational models of cancer
proved the effect of seeds of fenugreek against cancer.
It was revealed that a compound protodioscin derived from fenugreek exhibits an effect to inhibit
the growth against HL60 cells by prompting apoptotic modifications.
In another study, extract
from the seeds of fenugreek expressively stop the mammary hyperplasia induced by 7,12-
dimethylbenz-anthracene and diminished the occurrence of it in rats. It is recommended that
increased apoptosis after this edible herb consumption shows effect against breast cancer. The extract
of the whole plant of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) exhibit the cytotoxicity effect in vitro
against the most of the different types of cancer cell lines in human like a neuroblastoma, IMR-32 and
HT29 cancer cell line.
Researchers inspected the outcome of extracts of fenugreek (aqueous as well as ethanol) on the
development of breast cancer cell line (an estrogen receptor), MCF-7 cells and stated as decreased
mitochondrial membrane potential and inversion of phosphatidylserine by the early apoptotic changes
and decreased cell viability after the consumption of ethanol extract. Further, when DNA splits into
more pieces comprising many of approximately 180–200 base pair has also been witnessed.
In another study, the anti-cancer properties of fenugreek extract were investigated against
breast, pancreatic and prostate cancers. The findings exposed that the applied extract was effective
in inhibiting the growth of cancer cell lines of pancreatic and breast cancers however, no effect
was shown on primary or immortalized prostate cells. The possible mechanism for anti-cancer
properties of Trigonella foenum graecum extract was the induction of programmed cell death.
In Balb-C mice model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), extract of the seed of fenugreek shows
the effect against the neoplastic. In mice when the alcohol extract of the fenugreek was administered
before and after injection of EAC cell, there was the 70% reduction in tumour cell growth.
extract of fenugreek exhibits a noteworthy effect against the inflammation and improved macrophage
cells count as well as peritoneal ooze cells count.
Fenugreek seed’s ability to lessen hepatic oxidative stress and its antioxidant properties were
applied in wistar rats with colon cancer which is induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 100%
colon tumor was induced by treating them with DMH also showed the increased lipid peroxidation
and in the liver-reduced glutathione amount, catalytic activity, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione
transferase and sphincte-r of oddi dysfunction. The food consist of the seed powder of fenugreek
abridged tumor in colon occurrence and lipid peroxidation in DMH-treated rats and in liver it also
amplified activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, sphincter of oddi dysfunction and glutathione
Trigonella against gall-stone and gastric ulcer
In a study of Pandian and his colleagues, use of Trigonella foenum seed showed antiulcer effect. The
consequence of the seeds of fenugreek is analogous to the medicine omeprazole that is used as the
blocker of proton pump in the treatment of gastro-intestinal issues such as gastritis, gastroesophageal
reflux disease, gastric ulceration and duodenum ulceration. In a rat model in which gastric ulcer was
induced by ethanol, the gel portion and aqueous extract from the seeds of fenugreek have effects on
mucosal glycoproteins and ant secretory action plays a protecting role against ulcer. Ethanol-induced
mucosal injury and lipid peroxidation can be avoided by improving the prospective of the mucosa of
1782 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
gastric against oxidation by the fenugreek seed consumption. Gastric lesion formation can be
prevented by the soluble gel fraction of fenugreek and its results are better than omeprazole. Gastro
protective and anti-secretory activities of fenugreek seeds are due to the presence of polysaccharides
and flavonoids presence in the gel portion of fenugreek.
Many researchers have shown the anti lithogenic influence of the seeds of dietary fenugreek. By
giving the high cholesterol diet (0.5%) (HCD) to mice for 10 weeks with or without the supplementa-
tion of (12%) fenugreek or (2%) onion, lithogenic disorders were induced. 75% reduction in choles-
terol gallstones by fenugreek supplementation, 27% reduction by the onion supplementation and 76%
reduction in cholesterol gallstone was investigated when the combination of both fenugreek and onion
were given. Showing highest anti lithogenic effect of Trigonella foenum only, and the onion does not
have any influence to increase the anti lithogenic effect. Thus, in serum, bile and liver the cholesterol/
phospholipid ratio was decreased dramatically. Fenugreek reversed the changes in the activities of the
enzymes of the liver (3hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reeducates, cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase
and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase) which were prompted by taking the diet high in cholesterol.
caused the inflammation in the gall bladder and increase the addition of fat of liver, this inflammation
and fat is considerably decreased by the fenugreek and by its mixture with onion.
Cholesterol gall-stone is controlled by some factors found in the bile known as pro and ant-
crystallizing factors. Rats were fed with diet high in cholesterol for 10 weeks, and the effect on the
composition of bile with the fenugreek in diet was examined. Due to the supplementation of the
fenugreek with HCD, increases the flow rate of bile, and cholesterol nucleation time, and decreases the
cholesterol saturation index in bile, cholesterol, total as well as glycoprotein and lipid peroxides. It also
has the increasing effect on total bile acid and biliary phospholipid, representing that useful anti
lithogenic consequence of fenugreek in diet is because of control cholesterol crystallization which
lowered the cholesterol amount of bile and inflection of the nucleating and anti-nucleating proteins.
As the seed of fenugreek is famous for its effect against the high cholesterol, its supplementation has
a very positive role in the prevention and cure of cholesterol gallstone (CGS). In mice when for the 10
weeks the lithogenic diet having 0.5% cholesterol was given along with the seed powder of fenugreek, it
decreases the occurrence of cholesterol gallstone.
The anti lithogenic effect of Trigonella foenum is
accredited to its lowering effect against the high cholesterol outcome as it considerably reduced the
cholesterol in liver and serum when the animals were given the diet having high cholesterol.
By the
work of many researchers on the antiulcer and anti-cholesterol gallstone influence of fenugreek in the
recent years, it is proved that active compounds like flavonoids in aqueous extract, gel and seed of
fenugreek have positive effect in these diseases.
Fenugreek against neurological disorders
Neurological disorders such as neuropathic pain are one of the most prevalent conditions and
empirical evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines and microglialcells are critical factors con-
tributing in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.
Researchers have demonstrated the potential
applications of medicinal plants for the treatment of neurological disorders using the animal
In this regard, fenugreek has also been explored as an effective medicinal plant for the
treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
The bioactive compounds present in the fenugreek extracts have also shown the potential to reduce
the risk of several neurological disorders. Several studies support the effectiveness of fenugreek
compounds against various neurological diseases such as depression, Alzheimer disease and
Parkinson disease etc. as illustrated in Figure 2 .
For example, Khalil and his coworkers applied
fenugreek saponins (0.05–2.0%) through diet on rats for 45 days and found that dietary administration
of fenugreek saponins resulted in the inhibition of apoptosis and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity
thus induced neuroprotective effects.
Similarly, Bin-Hafeez and his group induced dietary admin-
istration of 5% fenugreek seed powder for 4 weeks to analyze the neuroprotective effects against
aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity using mice model and reported significant neuroprotective
effect of fenugreek seed powder.
In another study, Garcia-Miralles and coworkers reported that ethanolic extract of fenugreek at
various doses (100–500 mg/kg) were useful in attenuating the depression through inhibiting the
activity of MAO (monoamine oxidase) A and B inhibitor clorgyline resulting in improved
Likewise, it has also been reported that Trigonella (100 mg/kg) plays an
important role in reducing the incidence of Parkinson disease by preventing the rotational behaviour
and by restoring SNC (substantia nigra compact) neuron and MDA (malondialdehyde) levels.
Wang and his colleagues explored the mechanisms of fenugreek flavonoids as antidepressant agents
through animal modelling. The findings concluded that fenugreek flavonoids significantly reduced the
behavioural abnormalities by altering the pathways and expressions of proteins and enzymes in
a positive way. Additionally, the activities of different neurotransmitters have also been influenced
in a positive way such as decreased MAO activity.
These studies support the evidence that
fenugreek compounds possess momentous neuroprotective effect.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of Trigonella
The role of fenugreek against the bacteria and fungi is newly exposed. Haouala and his group described
the activity of different parts of plant fenugreek as the antifungal, such as the seeds (ground and non-
Figure 2. Fenugreek activity against neurological disorders.
1784 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
ground), leaves, stems and roots by making their aqueous extracts in methanol, petroleum ether, ethyl
acetate then by using these extracts against the strains of fungus as Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium
graminearum, Alternaria sp., Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani. Antifungal potential
was shown by all the extracts made by different parts of plant and the specific fungal species and
specific part of plant decided the degree to which it is effective. Moreover, the researchers recognized
the main antifungal activity was due to the methanol fraction, that is completely repressed the R. solani
and Alternaria species growth. From this study, this conclusion can be drawn that Trigonella foenum
can be proved as useful source of dynamic biological compound for improved and new drugs against
fungus as antifungal.
Recently, Sudan and his colleagues explored the antifungal activity of
fenugreek seed extracts against Microsporum gypseum. The reported results depicted that the ethanolic
extract of fenugreek seeds at 100 μmL concentration developed highest inhibitory zone (16.5 mm)
exhibiting 38.4% inhibition.
Many researchers worked on the efficiency of the extract of fenugreek in contradiction of
Helicobacter pylori .
In a research, Trigonella shows the maximum pollens in honey samples
which have the highest action against these bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and Staphylococcus
Peptides rich in cysteine shows the maximum activity against the fungus majorly Defensins. Olli
et al. (2006) have efficaciously copied complementary DNA derived from fenugreek of 225bp defensing
rich in cysteine known as Tfgd1. E. coli shows antifungal activity due to the recombinant protein present
in it.
The fraction of fenugreek extract soluble in methanol exposed as nematicide and shows the
possibility to use it against nematodes because it causes the death of 92% larvae of Meloidogyne
It is one of the most important characteristics of fenugreek. It can use in many food
products against microbes and fungus as well as it has positive effect in body against harmful bacteria.
Eect of Trigonella against pulmonary brosis
Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the primary lungs disease in which stiffening and damaging of lungs tissues
take place Asththat ultimately results in improper breathing. The study was designed to clarify the
oxidation reduction balance and mechanism of inflammation relationship in pulmonic fibrosis. The
pulmonic structure is predominantly susceptible to reactive oxygen species prompted damage due to its
constant contact to poisonous contaminants. Rats were treated with BLM firstly to make a tentative
experimental unit of pulmonic fibrosis, then the aqueous acetonic extract and powder supplementation of
the seeds of fenugreek to check its potential as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The main outcome
that was observed is fenugreek has useful properties by constraining inflammatory reaction and perox-
idation of lipid in fibrosis pulmonic. Nonetheless additional studies on the seeds of fenugreek are needed
to be prepared to clarify its molecular mechanism. Therefore, the different treatments that contain
antioxidants could add to forthcoming real remedies of pulmonic fibrosis.
It is the need of time to
add the fenugreek in our daily diet, for its high nutritional profile as well as it can help in avoidance of
pulmonic fibrosis, even if it is of unidentified aetiology.
Fenugreek against obesity
Several investigations report that hydroxyl isoleucine ameliorates insulin resistance caused by obesity.
Researchers proposed that hydroxyl isoleucine down-regulated a tumour necrotic factor-transforming
catalyst which causes the change of mTNF to sTNF. The studies also provide the information about
the pathway of signal transduction and upgraded the insulin confrontation, which is induced by
obesity in adipocytes (3T3-L1).
Alike findings have been described in Zucker rats, which were obese
given the seeds of fenugreek. Researcher experiments the livers of the rats which were obese, the
decrease in tumour necrosis factor intensities, important rise in receptors of membrane and TNF
receptor 2. In additional research, it was demonstrated that fibre present in fenugreek ominously
suppresses the hunger and amplifiedin obese experimental units. Dietary supplementation of fenu-
greek is proved to have significant effect on loss of weight for short period of time.
When the
fenugreek powder was given to obese rats for 14 weeks, they noticed the change in nutritional values,
body measurements and decrease in the body weight was detected. Galacto-mannan that is present in
the seeds of fenugreek capture and excrete the sugars from body before it moves in the blood, this
causes the loss of weight.
When aqueous fenugreek extracts were given to high-fat-fed rats, they reported noteworthy
decrease in the weight of body, as well as in body mass index and drop in serum lipid profile and
cardiac hazard elements. Leptin levels in the adipose tissue are reduced by the fenugreek to control the
Similar interpretations were prepared in rats that were obese due to monosodium
In mice, the activity of furanostolic saponins (FenfuroTM) obtained from fenugreek
on the insulin resistance was assessed. The results concluded that administration of FenfuroTM
reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B stimulated by insulin. FenfuroTM also dropped
the assembly of fat and better insulin sensitivity and glucose acceptance.
It can be proved very
useful in weight loss without any major side effect.
Fenugreek in asthma treatment
Asthma is one of the most prevailing lungs disorder in which the bronchial tubes or airways become
inflammed and tightened the pathway for inhalation and exhalation of air. To treat the mild asthma,
the study was conducted to check the safety and efficiency of the extract of the seeds of when used as
supplement. TPM formula was used by adding the syrup of fenugreek in honey solution. In compar-
ison with the placebo and honey syrup, the aqueous extract of the seeds of fenugreek amended the
Quality of Life and the tests of lung functioning in patients having mild asthma. Extract of the seed of
fenugreek when used, it headed to a ten percent (10%) rise in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in
one second) and FEV1/FVC heights, in calculation of an imperative decline in serum cytokine IL-4
heights. By the findings of study, it can be suggested that in the treatment of mild asthma, use of the
aqueous extract of fenugreek can prove beneficial just with the few side effects. Fenugreek was
nominated amongst TPM treatments. During the study, once picking simple grouping to perceive
fenugreek special effects or side effects more closely, agreeing to TPM, fenugreek works to better
functioning of lung as helps the lung secretions and as a lung tonic.
In the fenugreek, the polyphenols having low molecular weight known as flavonoids are the major
part, which are active during the treatment of asthma and play the role against asthma to some extent.
In different studies, due to the presence of flavonoids in fenugreek, it shows the antioxidant effects by
constraining the lipid peroxidation and guard the airways from the stress of oxidation.
Stimulation of
mast cells and basophils are also interrupted by the flavonoids.
Fenugreek has antioxidant influence
along with the presence of a flavonoid named as quercetin, which can stop the formation of crystals of
Charcot-Leyden, and eosinophil cationic proteins that cause the pathogenesis in asthma. Fenugreek
likewise has the capacity to decrease the injury triggered by oxidative mediators.
Different stages such
as the formation of micro capillary tubule and cell migration in the angiogenesis can be prevented by the
As exposed in prior researches, in asthma pathogenesis the changes in vascular plays
a significant role .
It has been confirmed that the seeds of fenugreek have the distinct effect as an anti-
Recovered asthmatic cough and comfort in the secretions of lungs are achieved
because of the presence of 28% mucilage component of fenugreek seeds, this is the additional
conceivable mechanism of act of fenugreek.
In atrophy and asthma problem, the both IL4 was
chosen as Th2 profile to check the position of the association between the imbalance of cytokine (Th1/
The efficacy of the fenugreek was much better than honey, when both fenugreek and honey
was used in the process of treatment to reduce the IL4 levels. Swelling of airway and synthesis of Ig-E
could be happened when IL4 separated after T lymphocytes and mast cells.
Other studies resolute the
consequence of interleukin4 antibodies, interleukin5 antibodies, interleukin13 antibodies in asthma
pathogenesis therefore production balances among TH1 and TH2 cytokines could be supportive in
management of asthma.
Trigonella foenum graecum has an extensive range of dosage. 25 g of
powdered seed of fenugreek was finely endured and no side effect was seen, in a human study.
1786 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
Acute injuriousness values (LD50) recognized for fenugreek are 5 gram/kg in rats when given orally and
2 gram/kg in rabbit use as dermal from extract of alcoholic seed. The following important subject of the
study was the part of honey. Decrease level of IL4, improved lung function, increase the Quality of Life,
in the outcomes showed when honey syrup was used for the patients of asthma. When the fenugreek
and honey syrups are used in combination, it accelerated the efficacy of formula but when used
separately, the result of fenugreek syrup was better than that of honey syrup. Honey is used in many
treatments of TPM as a protective agent, but in lung diseases, it also plays more beneficial role.
At the end, in the primary study when the honey-based syrup of aqueous extract of Trigonella
foenum graceum (Fenugreek) was used as supplement in the treatment of mild asthma, it exhibited the
satisfactory results. In the treatment of mild asthma, fenugreek syrup therapy can be recommended as
adjuvant therapy, due to upright consequences and sound forbearance of the syrup of fenugreek.
From the different studies, it can be concluded that the daily use of fenugreek can help to avoid the
symptoms of asthma. It also helps in improving the function of lungs and respiratory tract as it acts as
tonic. In spite of the efficiency of the seeds of fenugreek established through the study, the main
mechanism involved behind its effectiveness is still mysterious, and more researches and studies based
on the multiple samples are required.
Safe use and adverse eects of fenugreek
Clinically noteworthy harmful adverse effects of fenugreek are not reported in the review of the
literature on fenugreek. Even though fenugreek is conventionally considered harmless and fine
stomached, but certain side effects are linked with its usage. Those patients who are allergic to
fenugreek or allergic to chickpeas must be cautioned in using fenugreek as the possible cross-
reactivity can occur. Curry powder containing fenugreek act as allergen in the patient diagnosed
with severe bronchospasm, wheezing and diarrhea. Transient diarrhea, dizziness and flatulence are
other side effects caused by fenugreek. After supplementation, blood glucose level must be monitored
as hypoglycemia is the effect of fenugreek. T3 (triiodothyronine) production decreases after consump-
tion of fenugreek and it causes the weight reduction. Fenugreek preparations can have coumarin
derivatives, causes the increased risk of bleeding due to increased prothrombin time and the interna-
tional normalized ratio (INR). Fenugreek use must be avoid during pregnancy as it has the potential to
stimulate the uterine contractions, observed in animal studies.
The use of fenugreek must be in
moderation or in specific dose when used as therapeutic agent. Overdose can have adverse effects on
health. Individuals must be conscious about any sign of allergy or any sudden decrease in blood
glucose and must visit the physician timely.
Interaction of fenugreek with drugs
The structural properties of fenugreek fibre can cause hindrance in the intestinal absorption of oral
medication. Therefore, fenugreek and its products should be taken with the time gap from prescribed
medication. Blood glucose levels must be monitored when fenugreek is taken with hypoglycemic
agents, because fenugreek can lower the serum glucose levels more than expected. It was observed 14%
reduction in potassium levels of small group of healthy subjects when an aqueous extract of fenugreek
were given. Thus, fenugreek may precipitous low levels of potassium in blood when used in mishmash
with some water pills, purgatives, mineralocorticoids, or other K-lowering agents in blood.
Fenugreek is also supposed to have an estrogenic constituent. When fenugreek was given the
decreased levels of serum triiodothyronine and in the triiodthyronine/thyroxine ratio, and also an
escalation in the serum level of T4, have been noticed.
The hypokalemic, hypoglycemic and
estrogenic increased effect has been seen, when taken with their respective drugs. It can also have
interaction with other drugs. One must be careful with timing and frequency, when taken with some
specific medication.
In the present review, attempt has been made to elaborate on the reported nutritional and pharmacolo-
gical uses of fenugreek. Due to its chemical constituents and active compounds like alkaloids, amino acids,
flavonoids, it acts as good antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory agent. Additionally, the clinical
applications of fenugreek are also attributed to its diverse chemical composition, which make this plant
a strong to alleviate the dependence on various synthetic drugs for curing the diseases. However, further
research is needed to explore the modern isolation techniques for bioactive components for the devel-
opment of novel functional foods and drugs. Moreover, economically feasible molecular farming
approaches based on microbial bioreactors should also be studied to synthesize the recombinant
pharmaceutical proteins by using the in vitro cultured plant cells. Likewise, proper investigations con-
sisting of well-planned clinical studies are direly needed to produce prosperous results for the mankind.
We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no
significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome. The authors declare no conflict of
Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad
Niaz Muhammad
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... In continuation to previous multiple choice question (question number:1-28), moved to collect and analyzedthe data of descriptive questions (question number: [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. Surprisingly, we received several views, opinion and arguments for same question irrespective of location, age and gender. ...
... 32. What is your opinion on medicinal plants?33. Have you tried using turmeric as a home remedy to heal cut and wounds? ...
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Background Traditional herbs are renowned from very ancient time due to historical, mythologicaland medicinal significance. In present scenario, traditional herbs are “Necessity of the new era” because they are also effective for deadly coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods To explore to pre-existing knowledge of traditional herbs, we investigated good numbers of participants from different location and age group. Most of the participants belong from age group of 18–25 (79.4%) followed by age group 26–30 (11.8%). Remarkably, good number of female candidate (58.8%) was actively involved as compared to male candidates (41.2%). Maximum number of peoples (26.5%) responded from Kathmandu (Nepal) and Mizoram, (India) followed by Nepalgunj (17.6%, Nepal) and Uttar Pradesh (11.8%, India). Results Interestingly, 82.4% peoples were aware about medicinal plants and 73.5% showed interest for learning. However, 64.7% and 35.3% peoples prefer medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical medicines respectively. Some participants explained that medicinal herbs are effective without side effects but very slow and are not helpful in emergencies. As data indicated 76.5% individuals were given the positive attention for medicinal plants farming.Data depicts that 82.4% individuals have been tried the medicinal herbs (turmeric, basil, giloy and aloe vera) in daily life and cured but 17.6% individuals were not cured after application. Besides, 11.8 % peoples were allergic and rest of the 88.2 % peoples was non-allergic to medicinal herbs and feel considerable positive effect (refresh, relax and glowing skin). Good number of the candidates was known to tulsi (70.6%) and aloe vera (64.7%). However, 14.7% peoples were unconvinced for medicinal herbs efficiency. Conclusion Traditional herbs are undervalued due to lack of knowledge/awareness and low availability in market. Therefore, present survey would be useful for society awarenessand daily consumption may improve the physical and mental health. In future, herbs farming would be good choice for extra income source and sustainable development in both rural and urban community.
... Fenugreek had a cytoprotective effect against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in human liver cells (16). Furthermore, Fenugreek whole plant extract has been also shown to be cytotoxic in vitro against a variety of cancer cell lines, including A549, HepG2, colon cells (502713, HT29), and IMR-32 (17). ...
... Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) is a medicinal plant from Fabaceae family. A recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial [58] has investigated the effects fenugreek as therapeutic complement for patients with borderline hyperlipidemia. Polyphenols have been proven in animal experiments to help reduce obesity and animal weight, as well as triglycerides, by boosting fat utilization and energy expenditure, as well as managing glucose homeostasis. ...
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Over the last four decades, the escalation in diabetes and obesity rates has become epidemic all over the world. Diabesity describes the strong link between T2D and obesity. It correlates deeper with the elevated risks of developing cardiovascular disease hypertension, stroke, and several malignancies. Therapeutic usage of medicinal plants and natural products in the treatment of diabetes and obesity has long been known to physicians of Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine. Improved versions of their abundant medicinal plant-based formulations are at present some of the most popular herbal treatments used. Preclinical and clinical data about medicinal plants along with their bioactive constituents are now available, justifying the traditionally known therapeutic uses of products derived from them for the prevention and cure of obesity-related T2D and other health problems. The aim of this review is to systematize published scientific data dealing with the efficiency of active ingredients or extracts from Middle Eastern medicinal plants and diet in the management of diabesity and its complications. Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for publications describing the medicinal plants and diet used in the management of T2D, obesity, and their complications. The used keywords were “medicinal plants” or “herbals” in combination with “obesity,” “diabetes,” “diabetes,” or nephropathy. More than 130 medicinal plants were identified to target diabesity and its complications. The antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects and action mechanisms of these plants are discussed here. These include the regulation of appetite, thermogenesis, lipid absorption, and lipolysis; pancreatic lipase activity and adipogenesis; glucose absorption in the intestine, insulin secretion, glucose transporters, gluconeogenesis, and epigenetic mechanisms.
... Since ancient times, fenugreek has been used as an important spice in many cuisines around the world, with around 70 to 97 different species being grown. In a study by Syed et al., 2020).Mutagenic agents, such as physical, chemical, and insertional mutagen treatments, fall under the umbrella term "mutagens" (Chaudhary et al., 2019). ...
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This study was accomplished to detect variation generated through eposure of fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds to seven gamma irradiation doses (0,25,50,100,150,300 and 400) GY by using twenty RAPDs primers as molecular marker ,results indicated that primers OPA-14 ,OPC-19 and OPH-01success in giving five treatments a unique fingerprint. Molecular size of amplicon ranged between 2913 bp produced by primer OPB-06 and 118 bp produced by primer OPW-04.Highest degree for polymorphism was 90.92% produced by primer OPC-05. Monomorphic bands appeared in their higher value in primer OPC-08. Primer OPA-15 gave highest number unique bands Primer OPH-01 gave highest value for (amplified, main) bands, discrimination, in addition to primer efficiency value. Silght variation produce among primers OPE-02, OPC-05, OPH-01 and OPA-14. This study revealed RAPD markers in detection mutation induced by gamma irradiation.
... Fenugreek seeds (T. foenum-graecum) have a number of medicinal properties and the seeds are used to treat various diseases from the past to the present (Syed et al., 2020;Pan et al., 2014). The leaves of this plant are used as a food. ...
... It is also used as organic manure to aid nitrogen fixation (Kumar et al. 2020). Along with nutritional value, it also has pharmaceutical importance: the seeds have been found to be effective against cancer, inflammation, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia (Syed et al. 2020). It has great potential to improve the functioning of biological systems. ...
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity reduces growth and yield of crops grown in metal-pollutedsites. Research was conducted to estimate the potential of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) tomitigate toxicity caused by Cd in fenugreek seedlings (Trigonella foenum-graecumL.).•Different concentrations of CdCl2(Cd1—1 mM, Cd2—1.5 mM, Cd3—2mM) andH2S (HS1—100μM, HS2—150μM, HS3—200μM) were assessed. Seeds of fenugreekwere primed with sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), as H2S donor. Seedlings growing inCd-spiked media treated with H2S were harvested after 2 weeks.•Cd stress affected growth of fenugreek seedlings. Cd toxicity decreased leaf relativewater content (LRWC), intercellular CO2concentration, net photosynthesis, stomatalconductance and transpiration. However, application of H2S significantly improvedseedling morphological attributes by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes,i.e. APX, CAT and SOD, in Cd-contaminated soil. H2S treatment also regulated phe-nolic and flavonoid content.•H2S-induced biosynthesis of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) could account forthe enhancement of growth and physiological performance of fenugreek seedlingsunder Cd stress. H2S treatment also reduced H2O2production (38%) and electrolyteleakage (EL, 51%) in seedlings grown in different concentrations of Cd. It is recom-mended to evaluate the efficacy of H2S in alleviating Cd toxicity in other crop plants.
Herbs, Spices and Their Roles in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods gives an overview of the many pharmacological activities associated with herbs and spices, including detailed coverage on their mechanisms and formulations for the food industry. Chapters focus on key ingredients such as Curcuma longa, Piper Nigrum and Trigonella foenum-graecum, with contributors across the globe providing the latest research and advances for each. This is an essential read for scientists who want to understand the fundamental mechanisms behind the bioactive compounds within herbs and spices. The numerous phytochemicals present in plant extracts have multiple pharmacological activities so there is extensive research into new bioactive compounds. The pharmacological activities of herbs and spices have been thoroughly investigated, and it is crucial that the latest research is organized into a comprehensive resource.
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Medicinal and aromatic plants are one sources of strategic income if they are growing and processed as a recommended product because of there are industrial raw materials for many products. Egypt is unique location and topography, is considered one of the most countries suitable for planting all kinds of medicinal and aromatic plants. Whereas, it enjoys with all conditions of climate required for the growth of these plants. Hence, it was necessary to pay attention to the means of modern agriculture that maintain the medicinal and aromatic “MAA” seeds to plants. However, there is no authentic information regarding the extent of space lined below “MAA” plants. The knowledge about the selling arrangement is additionally fluid, notably for medicinal plants. In these conditions, there is a necessity to judge the economic science of planting “MAA” seeds. Considering the inherent market imperfections that result from institutional and a total economic preference for medicinal plants required more confidence. There is currently wide recognition of the contributions that “MAA” plants build to the world economy and human welfare. Despite the multiple specifications of these seeds, providing a planting machine suitable for the small and light types is one of the main tasks for those working to develop a planter. These planters must adjust to produce the required number of seeds per unit area. The widely plants of medicinal and aromatic seeds cultivated in the Arab Republic of Egypt are the fennel and the fenugreek plants. Generally, the total planting area of medicinal and aromatic seeds is 105630 feddan for a total production of about 724,628Mg. However, the fenugreek and fennel seeds produce about 4056 and 5846 Mg respectively according to the annual bulletin of statistical crop area and plant production (2021). Therefore, many researchers turned to developing ways of planting and producing medicinal and aromatic crops. So, some of them planted him with needles and the others with broadcasting. The following considerations are considered the main steps to achieve the requirements of preparing and developing a machine to plant the medicinal and aromatic "MAA" seeds: 1- Investigate a pneumatic precision planter from local material to suit seeding fennel and fenugreek seeds. 2- Studying several variables that affect investigated pneumatic precision planter performance indoor/outdoor. 3- Evaluate the pneumatic precision planter for planting the small and light seeds.
The current experiment was performed to examine the therapeutic action of extract against gastric ulcers in SD rats. Though this experiment explains that the germinated fenugreek seed extract showed significant improvement in gastric mucosa conditions after Indomethacininduced gastric lesions (p<0.01). Further marked improvement in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, and Catalase was observed (P<0.01), if compared to self-healing and untreated ulcer induced groups. Histopathology reports also explain that germinated fenugreek seed extract improved the epithelial layer in treated groups compared to untreated ulcer-induced groups. Keywords: Trigonella foenum graeucum, germination, pharmacological action, gastroprotective activity
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Fenugreek is one of the familiar spices found in human food and has been used extensively for curing numerous disorders. It provides natural food fibers and other nutrients required in the human body. It is used in functional foods, traditional foods, and nutraceuticals as well as in physiological uses such as antidiabetic agent, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, enzymatic pathway, and modifier gastric stimulant. It has a valuable influence on digestion and also has the capability to modify food texture. In modern food technology, it is used as a food stabilizer, adhesive, and emulsifying agent due its fiber, protein, and gum content. Recent pharmocological exploration of the seed extract of this plant discovered anticancer properties. Although it has many potential effects, there are some side effects as well; therefore, there is a greater need to study the pharmacological and toxicological effects of fenugreek to examine its clinical efficacy and safety.
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Objectives: Neuropathic pain is a prevalent and debilitating neurological disorder. Ample evidence indicates that microglial cells and inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Alpha-terpineol is a monoterpenoid alcohol with inhibitory effect on inflammatory cytokines. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of α-terpineol on neuropathic pain in rats. Materials and methods: Chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was utilized to induce neuropathic pain in male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into control, sham, α-terpineol, and gabapentin groups. Normal saline, α-terpineol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally in the above-mentioned groups once daily for 14 days post-CCI. Behavioral tests, including Von Frey, acetone, and Hargreaves were used to assess mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hyperalgesia in rats. Iba1 immunostaining and ELISA procedures were used to assess the activation of microglial cells and inflammatory cytokines level. Results: The results showed that α-terpineol (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hyperalgesia in the neuropathic rats. The analgesic effect of α-terpineol (100 mg/kg) was comparable with that of gabapentin as a standard antineuropathic pain drug. In addition, α-terpineol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of Iba1-positive cells and diminished the concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the spinal tissue. Conclusion: It was ultimately attained that α-terpineol attenuates neuropathic pain through the suppression of the microglial cells and reduction of inflammatory cytokine levels in the spinal cord of rats.
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Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) seeds flavonoids (FSF) have diverse biological activities, while the antidepressant-like effect of FSF has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of FSF and to identify the potential molecular mechanisms. LC-MS/MS was used for the determination of FSF. Chronic restraint stress (CRS) was used to establish the animal model of depression. Observation of exploratory behavior in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) indicated the stress level. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level was measured. The monoamine neurotransmitters (5-HT, NE and DA) and their metabolites, as well as monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum, were evaluated. The protein expression levels of KLF11, SIRT1, MAO-A were also determined by western blot analysis. The results showed that FSF treatment significantly reversed the CRS-induced behavioral abnormalities, including reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time. FSF administration markedly restored CRS induced changes in concentrations of serum corticosterone, prefrontal cortex neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT and DA), hippocampus neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT and DA) and striatum neurotransmitters (NE). FSF treatment exhibited significant inhibition of MAO-A activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. FSF also significantly down-regulated the KLF11, SIRT1 and MAO-A protein expression levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that FSF could exhibit an antidepressant-like effect by down-regulating the KLF11/SIRT1-MAO-A pathways, inhibiting MAO-A expression and activity, as well as up-regulating monoamine neurotransmitters levels.
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Plants have numerous biological, clinical, pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes for many years; however, their use as a general platform for preparation of desired pharmaceutical and biomedical is relatively current. Secondary metabolites with remarkable and diverse biological functions are produced by medicinal plants. Significant advancements in nanosciences have enabled various applications in the development of new generation of drug molecules. Due to the application of toxic solvents and high energy consumption of conventional physical and chemical approaches, greener and eco-friendly methods are essential and vital. Plants can provide an outstanding alternative for the production of phytomaterials and biomaterials, and this review highlights the exogenous and endogenous syntheses of nanoparticles using living plants. Additionally, the plant nano-molecular farming of proteins including collagen, gelatin, elastin, recombinant anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies and recombinant anti-cancer vaccines, are discussed.
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Background Asthma is one of the important chronic diseases. The asthma prevalence is increasing in last decades. Despite the presence of good controller drugs like corticosteroids, about 60% of asthmatic patients use alternative medicine. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of Tregonella foenum graceum (fenugreek) seeds in mild asthma. Methods It is a double blind trial with placebo effect. One of the ancient prescriptions from Persian Medicine was selected. The participants were divided to three groups randomly. On group received fenugreek syrup one received honey syrup and the third received placebo. Duration of treatment was 4 weeks. Quality of life, Lung function tests and IL-4 levels were evaluated before and after treatment. Results From 90 participants to study 79 completed the process. After study there was significant increase in quality of the life and lung function tests and IL-4 levels in fenugreek and honey groups. Conclusion FEV1 level was improved more than 10% in fenugreek group. Treatment was well tolerated. No serious side effects were reported during the study. The aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds appears to be effective and safe in treatment of mild asthma. Trial registration The study was recorded with the Iranian Registry of Clinical trials [], registration code: IRCT2016011325991N1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13223-018-0238-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Scope: This study aimed to characterize the effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed and its phytoceutical trigonelline in anti-metabolic inflammation and ameliorating overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in insulin resistance. Methods and results: Two groups of genetic hyperlipidemic mice generated by depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH) were fed either a chow containing 2% fenugreek seed or vehicle for 7 weeks. Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that fenugreek seed containing diet inhibited hepatic SREBP-1c activation and the subsequent de novo lipogenesis by enhancing expression of insulin-inducible gene-1 (Insig-1) and gene-2 (Insig-2). mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes that were involved in fatty acid β-oxidation were also upregulated in the fenugreek seed fed-mice which was accompanied by significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and VLDL secretion, improved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ameliorated metabolic inflammation. These actions enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved hyperlipidemia. In vitro, treating a rat hepatoma cell line, McA-RH7777 (McA), with trigonelline was able to recapitulate the results observed in vivo. Conclusions: This study unveiled a novel mechanism of fenugreek seed and trigonelline in countering hepatic VLDL overproduction and insulin resistance by enhancing the Insig signaling pathways and ameliorating metabolic inflammatory stress in the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Trigonella foenum-graecum (fabaceae) is commonly used as condiments and spices in Indian and Asian food to flavour, colour, and texture of food, and it is employed in various medicinal purposes in traditional systems. The biological activity of fenugreek can be easily accessed from previous research conducted by several researchers. The present research was conducted to find out the antifungal potential of various extracts of dried powder of fenugreek seeds by means of paper disc diffusion method, with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous solvents in 25 μml, 50 μml and 100 μml concentrations against Microsporum gypseum. Clotrimazole was used as a standard. The present study revealed that fenugreek is a potent antifungal agent against Microsporum gypseum. The ethanol extract of fenugreek using 100 μml concentrations depicted the highest zone of inhibition of 16.510+ 0.85mm and 38.395% of mycelial inhibition against a tested pathogen. While drug extracts in other solvents also revealed reasonable to least antifungal potential. This finding tells us that fenugreek extracts tested proved to be a potent antifungal agent against Microsporum gypseum. It was found that ethanol extract of fenugreek is best effective against tested strain. This exploration of fenugreek extracts has confirmed its importance, particularly in the area of influence on dermatophytic fungal strain.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease characterized by synovial proliferation and tissue destruction. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a key role in the disease process and elevate energy expenditure, which further increases the joint pain and stiffness. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-arthritic potential of fenugreek mucilage in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 7th, 14th and 21st day. Finally, animals were anaesthetized; blood samples and tissues were collected for the assay of inflammatory enzymes like cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase; evaluated the level of cytokines like IL-6, TNF-α, arthritic index and rheumatoid factor. Fenugreek mucilage exhibited maximum percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 75 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug, indomethacin. The activities of inflammatory enzymes and concentration of mediators were decreased on treatment with fenugreek mucilage. Cytology of synovial fluid showed mild inflammation with normal synoviocytes (mesothelial cells) tried to bring back to normal characteristics on supplementation with fenugreek mucilage. Based on the observations, it can be suggested that fenugreek mucilage possesses promising anti-arthritic property and it can be used as a therapeutic agent for arthritis.