Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
International Journal of Food Properties
ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ljfp20
Nutritional and therapeutic properties of
fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): a review
Qamar Abbas Syed , Zainab Rashid , Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad , Rizwan
Shukat , Anum Ishaq , Niaz Muhammad & Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman
To cite this article: Qamar Abbas Syed , Zainab Rashid , Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad , Rizwan
Shukat , Anum Ishaq , Niaz Muhammad & Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman (2020) Nutritional and
therapeutic properties of fenugreek (Trigonella�foenum-graecum): a review, International Journal of
Food Properties, 23:1, 1777-1791, DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2020.1825482
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1825482
Published with license by Taylor & Francis
Group, LLC.© 2020 Qamar Abbas Syed,
Zainab Rashid, Muhammad Haseeb
Ahmad, Rizwan Shukat, Anum Ishaq, Niaz
Muhammad and Hafiz Ubaid Ur Rahman
Published online: 26 Oct 2020.
Submit your article to this journal
View related articles
View Crossmark data
Nutritional and therapeutic properties of fenugreek (Trigonella
foenum-graecum): a review
Qamar Abbas Syed
, Zainab Rashid
, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad
, Rizwan Shukat
, Niaz Muhammad
, and Haz Ubaid Ur Rahman
National Institute of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of
Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan;
Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad,
Department of Allied Health Sciences, The Superior College (University Campus), Lahore,
National Agriculture Education College, Kabul, Afghanistan;
School of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Current lifestyle, eating habits, stress, environmental factors and intensive
use of synthetic chemicals in food processing and agriculture have radically
increased the progression of several human diseases. Globally, researchers
have been looking for natural therapeutic substances that can be used to
treat or delay the onset of these lifestyle-related disorders. Numerous types
of medicinal plants have shown the potential to be frequently used in the
therapeutics due to the presence of several bioactive compounds. Among
these, fenugreek is an important herb which has been recognized as an
imperative medicinal plant by various scientists around the world. This
herb has been widely reported as benecial against numerous diseases
such as cancer, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and inammation. Due to
its medicinal value, the extracts/powders from dierent parts of fenugreek
have been eectively utilized in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Accordingly, the present review is an attempt to highlight the important
nutritional benets and curative applications of fenugreek as an eectual
therapeutic agent against dierent diseases.
Received 16 April 2020
Revised 13 September 2020
Accepted 15 September 2020
Fenugreek seeds; Trigonella
beneﬁts; therapeutic value;
The importance of including medicinal herbs in the dietary choices is well-known for maintaining the
health lifestyle and preventing several types of diet-related ailments including diabetes, cancer, hyperten-
sion, inﬂammation and cardiovascular diseases.
Despite the astonishing advancements in the medicine
and combinatorial drug development, use of herbal plants for treating or preventing various diseases is
being enormously practiced due to their vast nutraceutical properties and safety aspects. Numerous crop
plants are nutritious, functional, medicinal and nutraceutical in nature. Fenugreek is known as one of the
plants having all these traits and an eminent spice crop used in human diets.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) belongs to the Fabaceae family and has been used as an
important spice since ancient times.
About 70 to 97 diﬀerent species of fenugreek are being cultivated
around the world. As it has origin from Greece, the species name foenum-graecum means ‘Greek hay’.
Although it is a familiar spice that has been added in the human foods, literature also provide us the use
of this natural tonic to cure several types of lifestyle-related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases,
hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, cancer, liver ailments and sexual disorders such as testosterone-
Fenugreek is also considered as a rich source of dietary ﬁbre and other
CONTACT Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad firstname.lastname@example.org Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government
College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan; Niaz Muhammad email@example.com National Agriculture Education
College, Sarak-e-new, Chelestoon, 1001, Kabul Afghanistan
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES
2020, VOL. 23, NO. 1, 1777–1791
© 2020 Qamar Abbas Syed, Zainab Rashid, Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad, Rizwan Shukat, Anum Ishaq, Niaz Muhammad and Haﬁz Ubaid Ur Rahman.
Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
important nutrients needed for proper growth and development. Studies have also aﬃrmed the
nutraceutical and physiological properties of fenugreek which support the potential applications of
fenugreek in developing numerous functional food products and pharmaceutical products.
As fenugreek is rich in several phytochemicals, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroidal saponins, amino
acids and minerals are present in fenugreek, it can be used for nutritional, nutraceutical, medicinal and
Fenugreek has been extensively used as a ﬂavour enhancer in several tradi-
tional cuisines. Additionally, the medicinal properties of fenugreek such as anticarcinogenic, antidia-
betic, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-lithogenic antimicrobial and immunological properties,
make it an important compound to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.
In addition to
the medicinal properties of fenugreek, it has also been used as an emulsiﬁer and stabilizer in diﬀerent
types of food products. Moreover, use of fenugreek extracts or powders has also been reported for
developing bakery and extruded products.
Nutritional value of fenugreek
Fenugreek has a vast diversity of nutrients and bioactive compounds which are required for improving
the health and functionality of biological systems. The fenugreek seeds have 58% carbohydrates, 23-
26% proteins, 0.9% fats and 25% ﬁbre. Similarly, fenugreek leaves have 6%, 4.4%, 1.1% carbohydrates,
proteins and ﬁbre respectively.
Furthermore, fenugreek also contains diﬀerent types of minerals
such as potassium (603 mg/100 g), magnesium (42 mg/100 g), calcium (75 mg/100 g), zinc (2.4 mg/
100 g), manganese and copper (0.9 mg/100 g) and iron (25.8 mg/100 g). Vitamin C (220 mg/100 g) and
β carotene (19 mg/100 g) are also considered as the important components of fenugreek.
Fenugreek is also a rich source of several important amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid,
leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine. Additionally, it contains minute quantities of sulfur-containing
amino acids (cysteine and methionine) having signiﬁcant physiological roles in body. The most
abundantly present free amino acid in fenugreek is (2S, 3 R, 4S)-4-hydroxyisoleusine. About 80% of
amino acid content of dry fenugreek seeds consists of the non-protein amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleusine
and during the phase of growth, this amino acid proliferates rapidly. Studies have revealed that the
proteins present in the fenugreek are of better quality as compared to the other plant proteins. In an
investigation, Feyzi and his coworkers compared the quality of fenugreek proteins with soy protein
isolate and aﬃrmed that fenugreek seeds contain higher protein contents with better amino acid
proﬁle as compared to soy protein isolate.
Additionally, fenugreek proteins were rich in aspartic
acid and glutamic acid. Results also stated that fenugreek proteins have higher denaturation tempera-
ture, foaming properties, solubility and stability as compared to soy proteins and therefore can be
employed as an eﬀective protein source in various functional foods. Moreover, sotolone, an important
functional phytochemical used as seasoning ﬂavor, is a prompting ingredient of fenugreek.
Fenugreek contains signiﬁcant quantities of alkaloids (trigonella, trigocoumarin, nicotinic acid,
trimethyl coumarin). It also comprises other important, valuable compounds like ﬂavonoids and
polyphenols. In the alcoholic extracts of the fenugreek plant, extensive variety of ﬂavonoids, such as
quercetin, luteolin, vitexin, and 7, 4-dimethoxy ﬂavanones, is present. Some other groups have
Table 1. Nutritional/health impacts of fenugreek components.
Nutritional components Health impacts
4- hydroxyisoleucine (amino acid) Insulin stimulating activity
Fiber (soluble dietary ﬁber, galactomannans,
Binding of food toxins, protection of colon mucus membrane, promoting insulin
secretion, water retention in the intestine, controlling glucose absorption
Phenolic acids Antioxidant properties
Micronutrients (Vitamins and minerals) Regulatory functions
Flavonoids Antioxidant properties
Protodioscin Inhibition of leukemic cells
Diosgenin Hepatoprotective, anti-carcinogenic
1778 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
reported alike results of the existence of aglycones, kaempferol, quercetin, tricin, and naringenin.
The compounds were sequestered from the speciﬁc parts of fenugreek plant and also from the excerpts
and hydro lysates of stems, leaves and ﬂowers. The phytochemical examination of fenugreek exposed
that the maximum of ﬂavonoids are existent as glycosides which are complex due to the conjugation
with carbohydrates by C-glycosidic and O-glycosidic bond. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (quercitrin),
vitexin-7-Oglucoside (afroside), and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin) are rare examples of ﬂavonol
glycosides existing in fenugreek.
Apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin) and apigenin-8-C-glucoside
(vitexin) were sequestered by fenugreek seeds. The occurrence of isoﬂavonoid phytoalexins aglycones,
such as medicarpan and maackiaian, in this herb has also been reported. These are known as ‘induced
isoﬂavoniods’ which can be produced due to some external factors such as microbial activities.
A generalized discussion about the nutritional impacts of fenugreek has been provided in Table 1.
Bio-availability of active compounds of fenugreek
As fenugreek is rich various functional ingredients, therefore, the bio-availability of these components
is very important. In rats, the bio-availability of furastanol glycoside secluded by the extract of
fenugreek seed was tested. Researchers considered the pharmacokinetics, tissue delivery, and elimina-
tion after oral dose of 200 mg/kg of furastanol glycoside extract. Researchers distinguished that after
only one administration, the zone under the curve was 0.177 g/mL h; supreme concentration time
period (Tmax) was 72 h and half-life (t1/2) was 40.10 h. The extract was engrossed gradually down the
intestine and took moderately gentle distribution. This glycoside was also noticed in tissues of lungs
and brain, representing its channel via blood-brain barricade.
In another study, it was stated that pharmacokinetics and tissue delivery of ﬂavonol glycoside,
vicenin-1. Researchers testiﬁed, later one oral administration of 60 mg/kg of vicenin-1, the Cmax was
7.039 g/mL, zone under the curve was 0.044 g/mL hour, and t1/2 was 11.60 h. The supply of vicenin-1
in various rat tissues, the ﬂavonol glycoside was perceived in greater amount in the lungs and liver and
much little concentrations in the adrenal glands, brain, and kidneys.
Studies also provided the
evidence that almost 40% of the original dosage of vicenin-2 was quickly absorbed in the small
The glycoside has many beneﬁcial eﬀects in living organisms. The bioavailability of this
compound is very important to play the role as antioxidant as well as anti-inﬂammatory in living
Therapeutic eects of fenugreek
Role in controlling rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is a joint disease in which chronic inﬂammation occurs, which is characterized
by the injury of tissue and synovial proliferation. Elevated energy expenditures and pro-inﬂammatory
cytokines such as interleukin (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) perform a major role
to increase joint soreness and painfulness. In a study, to check the fenugreek mucilage role to prevent
the arthritis in adjuvant tempted rats with arthritis. On the seventh, fourteenth and 21
day, the paw
volume was measured. Rats were given anaesthesia, samples of blood and tissues were taken to
examine the enzymes which cause inﬂammation such as cyclo-oxygenase, lipo-oxygenase; assessed
the readings of cytokines such as inter leucine-6, TNF-α, arthritic ratio and rheumatoid aspect. At the
day of adjuvant arthritis, fenugreek mucilage at the dose level of 75 mg/kg showed the maximum
results to stop the oedema in rats. These results were compared with the results of standard drug used
against oedema‘ indomethacin’, and fenugreek showed the better eﬀect against oedema. The actions of
enzymes which induce inﬂammation and the amount of mediators were becoming less after the
treatment with mucilage of fenugreek. The study of synovial ﬂuid’s function and structure, exhibits
slight inﬂammation with usual synoviocytes (mesothelial cells), supplements of fenugreek were given
to normalize the characters of these cells .
The study concluded that fenugreek mucilage
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1779
supplementation resulted in oedema inhibition by decreasing the activities of inﬂammatory enzymes
due to its anti-arthritic potential.
Role to ameliorate VLDL overproduction and insulin resistance
Figure 1 shows the diﬀerent part of fenugreek to improve the conditions of hyperlipidemia, liver
mulfunctioning and insulin resistance.
Hepatic SREBP-1 c inactivation by improved manifestation of Insig-1 and Insig-2
Hepatic steatosis and high level of lipids in blood induced through the lower levels of CREBH (cyclic
adenosine monophosphate responsive element-binding protein H) caused via decreased hepatic
High blood lipids
Regulates blood cholesterol levels Regulates gene expression
Lowers very low density lipoprotein
and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Improves Fatty acid/
Blood lipid profile
Fenugreek leaves and seeds
Play protective role against
Figure 1. Role of fenugreek leaves and seeds against hyperlipidemia, liver malfunctioning and insulin resistance.
1780 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
insulin-induced gene-2a manifestation, that results into hepatic lipogenesis and hyper activation of
SREBP-1 c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein). Mouse models were used to check the eﬀect of
the seeds of fenugreek in lowering the amount of lipids in the blood. For 7 weeks, 2 diﬀerent groups of
mice were nurtured as a control food with vehicle or a food that consists of 2% powder of fenugreek
seed in vehicle. Between these two groups, weight of body and intake of food were observed.
Appearance of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2b messenger RNAs, were
induced after the consumption of fenugreek seed shown in the examination of the protein appearance
of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 and mRNA in the tissues of the liver of mouse.
Protein levels of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 were expressively up-regulated in
fenugreek-fed mice. Analysis of the changes after the transcription step exposed that seed of fenugreek
consumption reduced the stimulation of SREBP-1 c by the breakdown through proteolysis, shown by
the fewer vigorous form of SREBP-1 c (N terminus of SREBP-1 c) in the hepatocyte which were
The results were constant when insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 appearance
increased which helps to keep SREBP-1 c on the endoplasmic reticulum also avoiding its movement
from its place as well as triggering in Golgi apparatus. Final outcomes shows that by increasing the
expression of insulin-induced gene-1 and insulin-induced gene-2 by intake of fenugreek in very low
amount just 2%, it hold back the triggering of SREBP-1 c as well as hinder the lipid synthesis in the
Increased insulin sensitivity by upregulation of glucose transporters
For 7 weeks, CREBH-null mice were given a diet high in fat-containing seed of fenugreek 2% or
vehicle as control, to consider the insulin sensitivity. Diet, which was high in fat lowers the glucose
tolerance in CREBH-null rats were shown in a glucose tolerance test. By taking the fenugreek
enhanced glucose tolerance, showed by the noteworthy reduction of plasma glucose levels at 30, 60,
90 and 120 minutes later the glucose injection of 2 g per kg through intraperitoneal injection. After 15
to 30 min of injection, levels of the glucose in the blood, touch the peak and then a drop happens after
30 min, in both vehicle-treated as well as fenugreek treated rats. The peripheral tissues and organs such
as muscles, liver, adipose tissue of the fenugreek treated rats, uptake the blood glucose quickly, that’s
why the concentration of plasma glucose lowers much faster than the vehicle-treated rats. From the
blood, the transportation of glucose into hepatocytes and adipocytes are carried out by the glucose
transporters 2 (Glut-2) and glucose transporters 4 (Glut-4), respectively. After the intake of fenugreek,
increased level of Glucose transporter-2 and Glucose transpoter-4 in the liver and adipose tissue was
shown by the analysis of messenger RNA appearance of Glucose transporter-2 and Glucose transpor-
ter-4. That’s why the swift acceptance of glucose takes place in the rats fed with the fenugreek.
Additional by inspecting the molecules which give signals to insulin in the liver, fenugreek action
improved stimulation of receptors of insulin directed by the sturdier tyrosine phosphorylation signal
upon insulin management.
In the hepatocytes, increased insulin sensitivity is shown by the mice which were fed with fenugreek
as phosphorylation at Akt Ser-473 was much resilient instead of control group. Trigonelline increased
the insulin sensitivity in cells of McA, it was shown when in vitro, compared to the mock-treated cells,
the pre-treating McA cells by trigonelline (50 M) for monitored by insulin usage (1 µg/ml) for
15 minutes also prompted resilient phosphorylation of the receptor of insulin and protein kinase
So the seeds of fenugreek increase sensitivity of insulin through controlling the transporters of
glucose and signalling transduction in the adipose tissue and liver. The fenugreek has great potential to
control both type of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 as it improves the condition of insulin resistance. It also
helps the liver to perform its function better.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1781
One of the primary causes of death nowadays is cancer in the world. Serious side eﬀects occur with
generally used therapeutic medicines which only increase the life span of patient from few months or
some years. Plant-based active components have shown their potential to be used as suitable and safe
alternatives having signiﬁcantly explored anticancer eﬀects.
In this regard, active ingredients of
vegetables and fruits are being utilized to prevent the chances of cancer.
Eﬀorts are ongoing to use
the other approaches and ideas which can be eﬀective in the prevention of cancer. In these attempts,
studies are available in which animals and cell lines were used as the investigational models of cancer
proved the eﬀect of seeds of fenugreek against cancer.
It was revealed that a compound protodioscin derived from fenugreek exhibits an eﬀect to inhibit
the growth against HL60 cells by prompting apoptotic modiﬁcations.
In another study, extract
from the seeds of fenugreek expressively stop the mammary hyperplasia induced by 7,12-
dimethylbenz-anthracene and diminished the occurrence of it in rats. It is recommended that
increased apoptosis after this edible herb consumption shows eﬀect against breast cancer. The extract
of the whole plant of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) exhibit the cytotoxicity eﬀect in vitro
against the most of the diﬀerent types of cancer cell lines in human like a neuroblastoma, IMR-32 and
HT29 cancer cell line.
Researchers inspected the outcome of extracts of fenugreek (aqueous as well as ethanol) on the
development of breast cancer cell line (an estrogen receptor), MCF-7 cells and stated as decreased
mitochondrial membrane potential and inversion of phosphatidylserine by the early apoptotic changes
and decreased cell viability after the consumption of ethanol extract. Further, when DNA splits into
more pieces comprising many of approximately 180–200 base pair has also been witnessed.
In another study, the anti-cancer properties of fenugreek extract were investigated against
breast, pancreatic and prostate cancers. The ﬁndings exposed that the applied extract was eﬀective
in inhibiting the growth of cancer cell lines of pancreatic and breast cancers however, no eﬀect
was shown on primary or immortalized prostate cells. The possible mechanism for anti-cancer
properties of Trigonella foenum graecum extract was the induction of programmed cell death.
In Balb-C mice model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), extract of the seed of fenugreek shows
the eﬀect against the neoplastic. In mice when the alcohol extract of the fenugreek was administered
before and after injection of EAC cell, there was the 70% reduction in tumour cell growth.
extract of fenugreek exhibits a noteworthy eﬀect against the inﬂammation and improved macrophage
cells count as well as peritoneal ooze cells count.
Fenugreek seed’s ability to lessen hepatic oxidative stress and its antioxidant properties were
applied in wistar rats with colon cancer which is induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 100%
colon tumor was induced by treating them with DMH also showed the increased lipid peroxidation
and in the liver-reduced glutathione amount, catalytic activity, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione
transferase and sphincte-r of oddi dysfunction. The food consist of the seed powder of fenugreek
abridged tumor in colon occurrence and lipid peroxidation in DMH-treated rats and in liver it also
ampliﬁed activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, sphincter of oddi dysfunction and glutathione
Trigonella against gall-stone and gastric ulcer
In a study of Pandian and his colleagues, use of Trigonella foenum seed showed antiulcer eﬀect. The
consequence of the seeds of fenugreek is analogous to the medicine omeprazole that is used as the
blocker of proton pump in the treatment of gastro-intestinal issues such as gastritis, gastroesophageal
reﬂux disease, gastric ulceration and duodenum ulceration. In a rat model in which gastric ulcer was
induced by ethanol, the gel portion and aqueous extract from the seeds of fenugreek have eﬀects on
mucosal glycoproteins and ant secretory action plays a protecting role against ulcer. Ethanol-induced
mucosal injury and lipid peroxidation can be avoided by improving the prospective of the mucosa of
1782 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
gastric against oxidation by the fenugreek seed consumption. Gastric lesion formation can be
prevented by the soluble gel fraction of fenugreek and its results are better than omeprazole. Gastro
protective and anti-secretory activities of fenugreek seeds are due to the presence of polysaccharides
and ﬂavonoids presence in the gel portion of fenugreek.
Many researchers have shown the anti lithogenic inﬂuence of the seeds of dietary fenugreek. By
giving the high cholesterol diet (0.5%) (HCD) to mice for 10 weeks with or without the supplementa-
tion of (12%) fenugreek or (2%) onion, lithogenic disorders were induced. 75% reduction in choles-
terol gallstones by fenugreek supplementation, 27% reduction by the onion supplementation and 76%
reduction in cholesterol gallstone was investigated when the combination of both fenugreek and onion
were given. Showing highest anti lithogenic eﬀect of Trigonella foenum only, and the onion does not
have any inﬂuence to increase the anti lithogenic eﬀect. Thus, in serum, bile and liver the cholesterol/
phospholipid ratio was decreased dramatically. Fenugreek reversed the changes in the activities of the
enzymes of the liver (3hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reeducates, cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase
and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase) which were prompted by taking the diet high in cholesterol.
caused the inﬂammation in the gall bladder and increase the addition of fat of liver, this inﬂammation
and fat is considerably decreased by the fenugreek and by its mixture with onion.
Cholesterol gall-stone is controlled by some factors found in the bile known as pro and ant-
crystallizing factors. Rats were fed with diet high in cholesterol for 10 weeks, and the eﬀect on the
composition of bile with the fenugreek in diet was examined. Due to the supplementation of the
fenugreek with HCD, increases the ﬂow rate of bile, and cholesterol nucleation time, and decreases the
cholesterol saturation index in bile, cholesterol, total as well as glycoprotein and lipid peroxides. It also
has the increasing eﬀect on total bile acid and biliary phospholipid, representing that useful anti
lithogenic consequence of fenugreek in diet is because of control cholesterol crystallization which
lowered the cholesterol amount of bile and inﬂection of the nucleating and anti-nucleating proteins.
As the seed of fenugreek is famous for its eﬀect against the high cholesterol, its supplementation has
a very positive role in the prevention and cure of cholesterol gallstone (CGS). In mice when for the 10
weeks the lithogenic diet having 0.5% cholesterol was given along with the seed powder of fenugreek, it
decreases the occurrence of cholesterol gallstone.
The anti lithogenic eﬀect of Trigonella foenum is
accredited to its lowering eﬀect against the high cholesterol outcome as it considerably reduced the
cholesterol in liver and serum when the animals were given the diet having high cholesterol.
work of many researchers on the antiulcer and anti-cholesterol gallstone inﬂuence of fenugreek in the
recent years, it is proved that active compounds like ﬂavonoids in aqueous extract, gel and seed of
fenugreek have positive eﬀect in these diseases.
Fenugreek against neurological disorders
Neurological disorders such as neuropathic pain are one of the most prevalent conditions and
empirical evidence suggests that inﬂammatory cytokines and microglialcells are critical factors con-
tributing in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.
Researchers have demonstrated the potential
applications of medicinal plants for the treatment of neurological disorders using the animal
In this regard, fenugreek has also been explored as an eﬀective medicinal plant for the
treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
The bioactive compounds present in the fenugreek extracts have also shown the potential to reduce
the risk of several neurological disorders. Several studies support the eﬀectiveness of fenugreek
compounds against various neurological diseases such as depression, Alzheimer disease and
Parkinson disease etc. as illustrated in Figure 2 .
For example, Khalil and his coworkers applied
fenugreek saponins (0.05–2.0%) through diet on rats for 45 days and found that dietary administration
of fenugreek saponins resulted in the inhibition of apoptosis and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity
thus induced neuroprotective eﬀects.
Similarly, Bin-Hafeez and his group induced dietary admin-
istration of 5% fenugreek seed powder for 4 weeks to analyze the neuroprotective eﬀects against
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1783
aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity using mice model and reported signiﬁcant neuroprotective
eﬀect of fenugreek seed powder.
In another study, Garcia-Miralles and coworkers reported that ethanolic extract of fenugreek at
various doses (100–500 mg/kg) were useful in attenuating the depression through inhibiting the
activity of MAO (monoamine oxidase) A and B inhibitor clorgyline resulting in improved
Likewise, it has also been reported that Trigonella (100 mg/kg) plays an
important role in reducing the incidence of Parkinson disease by preventing the rotational behaviour
and by restoring SNC (substantia nigra compact) neuron and MDA (malondialdehyde) levels.
Wang and his colleagues explored the mechanisms of fenugreek ﬂavonoids as antidepressant agents
through animal modelling. The ﬁndings concluded that fenugreek ﬂavonoids signiﬁcantly reduced the
behavioural abnormalities by altering the pathways and expressions of proteins and enzymes in
a positive way. Additionally, the activities of diﬀerent neurotransmitters have also been inﬂuenced
in a positive way such as decreased MAO activity.
These studies support the evidence that
fenugreek compounds possess momentous neuroprotective eﬀect.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of Trigonella
The role of fenugreek against the bacteria and fungi is newly exposed. Haouala and his group described
the activity of diﬀerent parts of plant fenugreek as the antifungal, such as the seeds (ground and non-
Figure 2. Fenugreek activity against neurological disorders.
1784 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
ground), leaves, stems and roots by making their aqueous extracts in methanol, petroleum ether, ethyl
acetate then by using these extracts against the strains of fungus as Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium
graminearum, Alternaria sp., Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani. Antifungal potential
was shown by all the extracts made by diﬀerent parts of plant and the speciﬁc fungal species and
speciﬁc part of plant decided the degree to which it is eﬀective. Moreover, the researchers recognized
the main antifungal activity was due to the methanol fraction, that is completely repressed the R. solani
and Alternaria species growth. From this study, this conclusion can be drawn that Trigonella foenum
can be proved as useful source of dynamic biological compound for improved and new drugs against
fungus as antifungal.
Recently, Sudan and his colleagues explored the antifungal activity of
fenugreek seed extracts against Microsporum gypseum. The reported results depicted that the ethanolic
extract of fenugreek seeds at 100 μmL concentration developed highest inhibitory zone (16.5 mm)
exhibiting 38.4% inhibition.
Many researchers worked on the eﬃciency of the extract of fenugreek in contradiction of
Helicobacter pylori .
In a research, Trigonella shows the maximum pollens in honey samples
which have the highest action against these bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and Staphylococcus
Peptides rich in cysteine shows the maximum activity against the fungus majorly Defensins. Olli
et al. (2006) have eﬃcaciously copied complementary DNA derived from fenugreek of 225bp defensing
rich in cysteine known as Tfgd1. E. coli shows antifungal activity due to the recombinant protein present
The fraction of fenugreek extract soluble in methanol exposed as nematicide and shows the
possibility to use it against nematodes because it causes the death of 92% larvae of Meloidogyne
It is one of the most important characteristics of fenugreek. It can use in many food
products against microbes and fungus as well as it has positive eﬀect in body against harmful bacteria.
Eect of Trigonella against pulmonary brosis
Pulmonary ﬁbrosis is one of the primary lungs disease in which stiﬀening and damaging of lungs tissues
take place Asththat ultimately results in improper breathing. The study was designed to clarify the
oxidation reduction balance and mechanism of inﬂammation relationship in pulmonic ﬁbrosis. The
pulmonic structure is predominantly susceptible to reactive oxygen species prompted damage due to its
constant contact to poisonous contaminants. Rats were treated with BLM ﬁrstly to make a tentative
experimental unit of pulmonic ﬁbrosis, then the aqueous acetonic extract and powder supplementation of
the seeds of fenugreek to check its potential as anti-inﬂammatory and antioxidant. The main outcome
that was observed is fenugreek has useful properties by constraining inﬂammatory reaction and perox-
idation of lipid in ﬁbrosis pulmonic. Nonetheless additional studies on the seeds of fenugreek are needed
to be prepared to clarify its molecular mechanism. Therefore, the diﬀerent treatments that contain
antioxidants could add to forthcoming real remedies of pulmonic ﬁbrosis.
It is the need of time to
add the fenugreek in our daily diet, for its high nutritional proﬁle as well as it can help in avoidance of
pulmonic ﬁbrosis, even if it is of unidentiﬁed aetiology.
Fenugreek against obesity
Several investigations report that hydroxyl isoleucine ameliorates insulin resistance caused by obesity.
Researchers proposed that hydroxyl isoleucine down-regulated a tumour necrotic factor-transforming
catalyst which causes the change of mTNF to sTNF. The studies also provide the information about
the pathway of signal transduction and upgraded the insulin confrontation, which is induced by
obesity in adipocytes (3T3-L1).
Alike ﬁndings have been described in Zucker rats, which were obese
given the seeds of fenugreek. Researcher experiments the livers of the rats which were obese, the
decrease in tumour necrosis factor intensities, important rise in receptors of membrane and TNF
receptor 2. In additional research, it was demonstrated that ﬁbre present in fenugreek ominously
suppresses the hunger and ampliﬁedin obese experimental units. Dietary supplementation of fenu-
greek is proved to have signiﬁcant eﬀect on loss of weight for short period of time.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1785
fenugreek powder was given to obese rats for 14 weeks, they noticed the change in nutritional values,
body measurements and decrease in the body weight was detected. Galacto-mannan that is present in
the seeds of fenugreek capture and excrete the sugars from body before it moves in the blood, this
causes the loss of weight.
When aqueous fenugreek extracts were given to high-fat-fed rats, they reported noteworthy
decrease in the weight of body, as well as in body mass index and drop in serum lipid proﬁle and
cardiac hazard elements. Leptin levels in the adipose tissue are reduced by the fenugreek to control the
Similar interpretations were prepared in rats that were obese due to monosodium
In mice, the activity of furanostolic saponins (FenfuroTM) obtained from fenugreek
on the insulin resistance was assessed. The results concluded that administration of FenfuroTM
reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B stimulated by insulin. FenfuroTM also dropped
the assembly of fat and better insulin sensitivity and glucose acceptance.
It can be proved very
useful in weight loss without any major side eﬀect.
Fenugreek in asthma treatment
Asthma is one of the most prevailing lungs disorder in which the bronchial tubes or airways become
inﬂammed and tightened the pathway for inhalation and exhalation of air. To treat the mild asthma,
the study was conducted to check the safety and eﬃciency of the extract of the seeds of when used as
supplement. TPM formula was used by adding the syrup of fenugreek in honey solution. In compar-
ison with the placebo and honey syrup, the aqueous extract of the seeds of fenugreek amended the
Quality of Life and the tests of lung functioning in patients having mild asthma. Extract of the seed of
fenugreek when used, it headed to a ten percent (10%) rise in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in
one second) and FEV1/FVC heights, in calculation of an imperative decline in serum cytokine IL-4
heights. By the ﬁndings of study, it can be suggested that in the treatment of mild asthma, use of the
aqueous extract of fenugreek can prove beneﬁcial just with the few side eﬀects. Fenugreek was
nominated amongst TPM treatments. During the study, once picking simple grouping to perceive
fenugreek special eﬀects or side eﬀects more closely, agreeing to TPM, fenugreek works to better
functioning of lung as helps the lung secretions and as a lung tonic.
In the fenugreek, the polyphenols having low molecular weight known as ﬂavonoids are the major
part, which are active during the treatment of asthma and play the role against asthma to some extent.
In diﬀerent studies, due to the presence of ﬂavonoids in fenugreek, it shows the antioxidant eﬀects by
constraining the lipid peroxidation and guard the airways from the stress of oxidation.
mast cells and basophils are also interrupted by the ﬂavonoids.
Fenugreek has antioxidant inﬂuence
along with the presence of a ﬂavonoid named as quercetin, which can stop the formation of crystals of
Charcot-Leyden, and eosinophil cationic proteins that cause the pathogenesis in asthma. Fenugreek
likewise has the capacity to decrease the injury triggered by oxidative mediators.
Diﬀerent stages such
as the formation of micro capillary tubule and cell migration in the angiogenesis can be prevented by the
As exposed in prior researches, in asthma pathogenesis the changes in vascular plays
a signiﬁcant role .
It has been conﬁrmed that the seeds of fenugreek have the distinct eﬀect as an anti-
Recovered asthmatic cough and comfort in the secretions of lungs are achieved
because of the presence of 28% mucilage component of fenugreek seeds, this is the additional
conceivable mechanism of act of fenugreek.
In atrophy and asthma problem, the both IL4 was
chosen as Th2 proﬁle to check the position of the association between the imbalance of cytokine (Th1/
The eﬃcacy of the fenugreek was much better than honey, when both fenugreek and honey
was used in the process of treatment to reduce the IL4 levels. Swelling of airway and synthesis of Ig-E
could be happened when IL4 separated after T lymphocytes and mast cells.
Other studies resolute the
consequence of interleukin4 antibodies, interleukin5 antibodies, interleukin13 antibodies in asthma
pathogenesis therefore production balances among TH1 and TH2 cytokines could be supportive in
management of asthma.
Trigonella foenum graecum has an extensive range of dosage. 25 g of
powdered seed of fenugreek was ﬁnely endured and no side eﬀect was seen, in a human study.
1786 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
Acute injuriousness values (LD50) recognized for fenugreek are 5 gram/kg in rats when given orally and
2 gram/kg in rabbit use as dermal from extract of alcoholic seed. The following important subject of the
study was the part of honey. Decrease level of IL4, improved lung function, increase the Quality of Life,
in the outcomes showed when honey syrup was used for the patients of asthma. When the fenugreek
and honey syrups are used in combination, it accelerated the eﬃcacy of formula but when used
separately, the result of fenugreek syrup was better than that of honey syrup. Honey is used in many
treatments of TPM as a protective agent, but in lung diseases, it also plays more beneﬁcial role.
At the end, in the primary study when the honey-based syrup of aqueous extract of Trigonella
foenum graceum (Fenugreek) was used as supplement in the treatment of mild asthma, it exhibited the
satisfactory results. In the treatment of mild asthma, fenugreek syrup therapy can be recommended as
adjuvant therapy, due to upright consequences and sound forbearance of the syrup of fenugreek.
From the diﬀerent studies, it can be concluded that the daily use of fenugreek can help to avoid the
symptoms of asthma. It also helps in improving the function of lungs and respiratory tract as it acts as
tonic. In spite of the eﬃciency of the seeds of fenugreek established through the study, the main
mechanism involved behind its eﬀectiveness is still mysterious, and more researches and studies based
on the multiple samples are required.
Safe use and adverse eects of fenugreek
Clinically noteworthy harmful adverse eﬀects of fenugreek are not reported in the review of the
literature on fenugreek. Even though fenugreek is conventionally considered harmless and ﬁne
stomached, but certain side eﬀects are linked with its usage. Those patients who are allergic to
fenugreek or allergic to chickpeas must be cautioned in using fenugreek as the possible cross-
reactivity can occur. Curry powder containing fenugreek act as allergen in the patient diagnosed
with severe bronchospasm, wheezing and diarrhea. Transient diarrhea, dizziness and ﬂatulence are
other side eﬀects caused by fenugreek. After supplementation, blood glucose level must be monitored
as hypoglycemia is the eﬀect of fenugreek. T3 (triiodothyronine) production decreases after consump-
tion of fenugreek and it causes the weight reduction. Fenugreek preparations can have coumarin
derivatives, causes the increased risk of bleeding due to increased prothrombin time and the interna-
tional normalized ratio (INR). Fenugreek use must be avoid during pregnancy as it has the potential to
stimulate the uterine contractions, observed in animal studies.
The use of fenugreek must be in
moderation or in speciﬁc dose when used as therapeutic agent. Overdose can have adverse eﬀects on
health. Individuals must be conscious about any sign of allergy or any sudden decrease in blood
glucose and must visit the physician timely.
Interaction of fenugreek with drugs
The structural properties of fenugreek ﬁbre can cause hindrance in the intestinal absorption of oral
medication. Therefore, fenugreek and its products should be taken with the time gap from prescribed
medication. Blood glucose levels must be monitored when fenugreek is taken with hypoglycemic
agents, because fenugreek can lower the serum glucose levels more than expected. It was observed 14%
reduction in potassium levels of small group of healthy subjects when an aqueous extract of fenugreek
were given. Thus, fenugreek may precipitous low levels of potassium in blood when used in mishmash
with some water pills, purgatives, mineralocorticoids, or other K-lowering agents in blood.
Fenugreek is also supposed to have an estrogenic constituent. When fenugreek was given the
decreased levels of serum triiodothyronine and in the triiodthyronine/thyroxine ratio, and also an
escalation in the serum level of T4, have been noticed.
The hypokalemic, hypoglycemic and
estrogenic increased eﬀect has been seen, when taken with their respective drugs. It can also have
interaction with other drugs. One must be careful with timing and frequency, when taken with some
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1787
In the present review, attempt has been made to elaborate on the reported nutritional and pharmacolo-
gical uses of fenugreek. Due to its chemical constituents and active compounds like alkaloids, amino acids,
ﬂavonoids, it acts as good antioxidant as well as anti-inﬂammatory agent. Additionally, the clinical
applications of fenugreek are also attributed to its diverse chemical composition, which make this plant
a strong to alleviate the dependence on various synthetic drugs for curing the diseases. However, further
research is needed to explore the modern isolation techniques for bioactive components for the devel-
opment of novel functional foods and drugs. Moreover, economically feasible molecular farming
approaches based on microbial bioreactors should also be studied to synthesize the recombinant
pharmaceutical proteins by using the in vitro cultured plant cells. Likewise, proper investigations con-
sisting of well-planned clinical studies are direly needed to produce prosperous results for the mankind.
We wish to conﬁrm that there are no known conﬂicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no
signiﬁcant ﬁnancial support for this work that could have inﬂuenced its outcome. The authors declare no conﬂict of
Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5503-6340
Niaz Muhammad http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8974-6797
 Thorat, R. M.; Gaikwad, D. D. Pharmacognostical and Phytophysicochemical Investigations of Trigonella
Foenum-graecum Linn. J. Drug Deliv. And Ther. 2019, 9 (3-s), 138-145.
 Olaiya, C. O.; Soetan, K. O. 2014. A Review of the Health Beneﬁts of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.):
Nutritional, Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Perspectives. Am. J. Soc. Issues Humanit. AJSIH | 3–12.
 Aasim, M.; Baloch, F. S.; Nadeem, M. A.; Bakhsh, A.; Sameeullah, M.; Day, S. Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-
graecum L.): An Underutilized Edible Plant of Modern World. In Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops;
Ozturk, M., Hakeem, K., Ashraf, M., Ahmad, M., Eds.; Springer: Cham, 2018, 381–408.
 Zandi, P.; Basu, S. K.; Cetzal-Ix, W.; Kordrostami, M.; Chalaras, S. K.; Khatibai, L. B. Fenugreek (Trigonella
Foenum-graecum L.): An Important Medicinal and Aromatic Crop. In Active Ingredients from Aromatic and
Medicinal Plants, Edited By Hany A El-Shemy. London UK: IntechOpen. 2017; pp 207–224.
 Park, H. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, E. K.; Park, N. C. Eﬃcacy and Safety of A Mixed Extract of Trigonella Foenum-graecum
Seed and Lespedeza Cuneate in the Treatment of Testosterone Deﬁciency Syndrome: A Randomized,
Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. J. Urol. 2019, 201. DOI: 10.1097/01.JU.0000555756.74398.32.
 Srivastava, A.; Singh, Z.; Verma, V.; Choedon, T. 2020. Potential Health Beneﬁts of Fenugreek with Multiple
Pharmacological Properties. In Ethnopharmacological Investigation of Indian Spices, Mishra, N., Ed., 137–153.
IGI Global, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. doi:http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-2524-1.ch011.
 Reddy, R. L. R.; Gowda, A. N. S.; Srinivasan, K. Antilithogenic and Hypocholesterolemic Eﬀect of Dietary
Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella Foenum-graecum) in Experimental Mice. Medicinal Plants. Int. J. Phytomed. Related
Ind. 2019, 11, 145–154.
 Wani, S. A.; Kumar, P. Fenugreek: A Review on Its Nutraceutical Properties and Utilization in Various Food
Products. J. Saudi Society Agri. Sci. 2018, 17, 97–106.
 Al-Jasass, F. M.; Al-Jasser, M. S. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under
Saudi Arabia Conditions. Sci. World J. 2012, 2012, 1–5.
 Feyzi, S.; Varidi, M.; Zare, F.; Varidi, M. J. Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) Seed Protein Isolate:
Extraction Optimization, Amino Acid Composition, Thermo and Functional Properties. J. Sci. Food Agric.
2015, 95, 3165–3176.
 Nagulapalli, V. K. C.; Swaroop, A.; Bagchi, D.; Bishayee, A. A Small Plant with Big Beneﬁts: Fenugreek (Trigonella
Foenum-graecum Linn.) For Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Mol. Nutri. Food Res. 2017, 61, 1600950.
 Petropoulos, G. A.;. Fenugreek: The Genus Trigonella; Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 2002.
 Rayyan, S.; Fossen, T.; Andersen, Ø. M. Flavone C-glycosides from Seeds of Fenugreek, Trigonella
Foenum-graecum L. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 7211–7217.
1788 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
 Kandhare, A. D.; Bodhankar, S. L.; Mohan, V.; Thakurdesai, P. A. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and
Excretion Study of a Furostanol Glycoside-based Standardized Fenugreek Seed Extract in Rats. Renal Failure.
2015, 37, 1208–1218.
 Kandhare, A. D.; Bodhankar, S. L.; Mohan, V.; Thakurdesai, P. A. Development and Validation of HPLC Method
for Vicenin-1 Isolated from Fenugreek Seeds in Rat Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic, Tissue Distribution
and Excretion Studies. Pharm. Boil. 2016, 54, 2575–2583.
 Buqui, G. A.; Sy, S. K.; Merino-Sanjuán, M.; Gouvea, D. R.; Nixdorf, S. L.; Kimura, E.; Derendorf, H.; Lopes, N. P.;
Diniz, A. Characterization of Intestinal Absorption of C-glycoside Flavonoid Vicenin-2 from Lychnophora
Ericoides Leafs in Rats by Nonlinear Mixed Eﬀects Modeling. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2015, 25, 212–218.
 Sindhu, G.; Shyni, G. L.; Pushpan, C. K.; Nambisan, B.; Helen, A. Evaluation of Anti-arthritic Potential of
Trigonella Foenum Graecum L. (Fenugreek) Mucilage against Rheumatoid Arthritis. Prostaglandins Other Llipid
Mediat. 2018, 138, 48–53.
 Khound, R.; Shen, J.; Song, Y.; Santra, D.; Su, Q. Phytoceuticals in Fenugreek Ameliorate VLDL Overproduction
and Insulin Resistance via the Insig Signaling Pathway. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2018, 62, 1700541.
 Mohammadinejad, R.; Shavandi, A.; Raie, D. S.; Sangeetha, J.; Soleimani, M.; Hajibehzad, S. S.; Thangadurai, D.;
Hospet, R.; Popoola, J. O.; Arzani, A.; et al. Plant Molecular Farming: Production of Metallic Nanoparticles and
Therapeutic Proteins Using Green Factories. Green Chem. 2019. DOI: 10.1039/C9GC00335E.
 Tohidi, B.; Rahimmalek, M.; Arzani, A. Essential Oil Composition, Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Contents, and
Antioxidant Activity of Thymus Species Collected from Diﬀerent Regions of Iran. Food Chem. 2017, 220,
 Yadav, U. C.; Baquer, N. Z. Pharmacological Eﬀects of Trigonella Foenum-graecum L. In Health and Disease.
Pharm. Biol. 2014, 52, 243–254.
 Hibasami, H.; Moteki, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Katsuzaki, H.; Imai, K.; Yoshioka, K.; Ishii, Y.; Komiya, T. Protodioscin
Isolated from Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenumgraecum L.) Induces Cell Death and Morphological Change
Indicative of Apoptosis in Leukemic Cell Line H-60, but Not in Gastric Cancer Cell Line KATO III. Int.
J. Mol. Med. 2003, 11, 23–26.
 Verma, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Mathur, A. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Calotropis Procera and Trigonella
Foenum-graecum against Human Cancer Cell Lines. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2010, 2, 165–861.
 Sebastian, K. S.; Thampan, R. V. Diﬀerential Eﬀects of Soybean and Fenugreek Extracts on the Growth of MCF-7
Cells. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2007, 170, 135–143.
 Shabbeer, S.; Sobolewski, M.; Anchoori, R. K.; Kachhap, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Jimeno, A.; Davidson, N. E.;
Carducci, M.; Khan, S. R. Fenugreek: A Naturally Occurring Edible Spice as an Anticancer Agent. Cancer Boil.
Ther. 2009, 8, 272–278.
 Sur, P.; Das, M.; Gomes, A.; Vedasiromoni, J. R.; Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Sharma, R. M.; Ganguly, D. K.
Trigonella Foenum Graecum (Fenugreek) Seed Extract as an Antineoplastic Agent. Phytother. Res. 2001, 15,
 Devasena, T.; Menon, P. V. Fenugreek Seeds Modulate 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress
during Colon Carcinogenesis. Ital. J. Biochem. 2007, 56, 28–29.
 Pandian, R. S.; Anuradha, C. V.; Viswanathan, P. Gastroprotective Eﬀect of Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella Foenum
Graecum) on Experimental Gastric Ulcer in Rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002, 81, 393–397.
 Reddy, R. L. R.; Srinivasan, K. Fenugreek Seeds Reduce Atherogenic Diet-induced Cholesterol Gallstone
Formation in Experimental Mice. Can. J. Physiol. Pharm. 2009, 87, 933–943.
 Reddy, R. R.; Srinivasan, K. Dietary Fenugreek and Onion Attenuate Cholesterol Gallstone Formation in
Lithogenic Diet–fed Mice. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 2011, 92, 308–319.
 Reddy, R. R.; Srinivasan, K. Eﬀect of Dietary Fenugreek Seeds on Biliary Proteins that Inﬂuence Nucleation of
Cholesterol Crystals in Bile. Steroids. 2011, 76, 455–463.
 Soleimani, M.; Sheikholeslami, M. A.; Ghafghazi, S.; Pouriran, R.; Parvardeh, S. Analgesic Eﬀect of α-terpineol on
Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury in Rat Sciatic Nerve: Involvement of Spinal Microglial
Cells and Inﬂammatory Cytokines. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci. 2019, 22(12), 1445–1451.
 Park, H. J.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Jeon, J. P.; Park, C.; Moon, D. E. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Attenuates
Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Vincristine-induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Anesth. Analg. 2012, 115,
1228–1233. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e318262e170.
 Zameer, S.; Najmi, A. K.; Vohora, D.; Akhtar, M. A Review on Therapeutic Potentials of Trigonella Foenum
Graecum (Fenugreek) and Its Chemical Constituents in Neurological Disorders: Complementary Roles to Its
Hypolipidemic, Hypoglycemic, and Antioxidant Potential. Nutri. Neurosci. 2018, 21, 539–545.
 Khalil, W. K. B.; Roshdy, H. M.; Kassem, S. M. The Potential Therapeutic Role of Fenugreek Saponin against
Alzheimer’s Disease: Evaluation of Apoptotic and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities. J. App. Pharm. Sci.
2016, 6(9), 166–173.
 Bin-Hafeez, B.; Haque, R.; Parvez, S.; Pandey, S.; Sayeed, I.; Raisuddin, S. Immunomodulatory Eﬀects of
Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.) Extract in Mice. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2003, 3, 257–265.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1789
 Garcia-Miralles, M.; Ooi, J.; Bardile, C. F.; Tan, L. J.; George, M.; Drum, C. L.; Lin, R. Y.; Hayden, M. R.;
Pouladi, M. A. Treatment with the MAO-A Inhibitor Clorgyline Elevates Monoamine Neurotransmitter
Levels and Improves Aﬀective Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of Huntington Disease. Exper. Neurol. 2016,
 Foltynie, T.; Kahan, J. Parkinson’s Disease: An Update on Pathogenesis and Treatment. J. Neurol. 2013, 260(5),
 Wang, J.; Cheng, C.; Xin, C.; Wang, Z. The Antidepressant-like Eﬀect of Flavonoids from Trigonella
Foenum-Graecum Seeds in Chronic Restraint Stress Mice via Modulation of Monoamine Regulatory Pathways.
Molecules. 2019, 24, 1105.
 Haouala, R.; Hawala, S.; El-Ayeb, A.; Khanﬁr, R.; Boughanmi, N. Aqueous and Organic Extracts of Trigonella
Foenum-graecum L. Inhibit the Mycelia Growth of Fungi. J. Environ. Sci. 2008, 20, 1453–1457.
 Sudan, P.; Goswami, M.; Singh, J. Antifungal Potential of Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella Foenum-graecum) Crude
Extracts against Microsporum Gypseum. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020, 11(1), 646–649.
 Randhir, R.; Lin, Y. T.; Shetty, K.; Lin, Y. T. Phenolics, Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity in Dark
Germinated Fenugreek Sprouts in Response to Peptide and Phytochemical Elicitors. Asia Paciﬁc J. Clin. Nutr.
2004, 13, 294–307.
 Randhir, R.; Shetty, K. Improved α-amylase and Helicobacter Pylori Inhibition by Fenugreek Extracts
Derived via Solid-state Bioconversion Using Rhizopus Oligosporus. Asia Paciﬁc J.Clin. Nutr. 2007, 16,
 Mercan, N.; Guvensen, A.; Celik, A.; Katircioglu, H. Antimicrobial Activity and Pollen Composition of Honey
Samples Collected from Diﬀerent Provinces in Turkey. Nat. Prod. Res. 2007, 21, 187–195.
 Olli, S.; Kirti, P. B. Cloning, Characterization and Antifungal Activity of Defensin Tfgd1 from Trigonella
Foenum-graecum L. BMB Rep. 2006, 39, 278–283.
 Zia, T.; Hasnain, S. N.; Hasan, S. K. Evaluation of the Oral Hypoglycaemic Eﬀect of Trigonella Foenum-graecum
L. (Methi) in Normal Mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001, 75, 191–195.
 Yacoubi, L.; Rabaoui, L.; Hamdaoui, M. H.; Fattouch, S.; Serairi, R. B.; Kourda, N.; Khamsa, S. B. Anti-oxidative
and Anti-inﬂammatory Eﬀects of Trigonella Foenum-graecum Linnaeus, 1753 (Fenugreek) Seed Extract in
Experimental Pulmonary Fibrosis. J. Med. Plants Res. 2011, 5, 2325–4315.
 Gao, F.; Du, W.; Zafar, M. I.; Shafqat, R. A.; Jian, L.; Cai, Q.; Lu, F. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine Ameliorates an Insulin
Resistant-like State in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Regulating TACE/TIMP3 Expression. Drug Des. Devel. Ther. 2015,
 Raju, J.; Bird, R. P. Alleviation of Hepatic Steatosis Accompanied by Modulation of Plasma and Liver TNF-α
Levels by Trigonella Foenum Graecum (Fenugreek) Seeds in Zucker Obese (Fa/fa) Rats. Int. J. Obes. 2006, 30,
 Mathern, J. R.; Raatz, S. K.; Thomas, W.; Slavin, J. L. Eﬀect of Fenugreek Fiber on Satiety, Blood Glucose and
Insulin Response and Energy Intake in Obese Subjects. Phytother. Res. 2009, 23, 1543–1548.
 Kumar, P.; Bhandari, U.; Jamadagni, S. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates
Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-induced Obese Rats. BioMed Res. Int. 2014, 2014, 1–11.
 Kumar, P.; Bhandari, U. Fenugreek Seed Extract Prevents Fat Deposition in Monosodium Glutamate
(Msg)-obese Rats. Drug Res. 2016, 66, 174–180.
 Hua, Y.; Ren, S. Y.; Guo, R.; Rogers, O.; Nair, R. P.; Bagchi, D.; Swaroop, A.; Nair, S. Furostanolic Saponins from
Trigonella Foenum-graecum Alleviate Diet-induced Glucose Intolerance and Hepatic Fat Accumulation. Mol.
Nutr. Food Res. 2015, 59, 2094–2100.
 Razi, M.;. Al-Havi (The Large Comprehensive); Dare Ehia Attorath Al Arabi: Beirut, 2001.
 Schroeter, H.; Boyd, C.; Spencer, J. P.; Williams, R. J.; Cadenas, E.; Rice-Evans, C. MAPK Signaling in
Neurodegeneration: Inﬂuences of Flavonoids and of Nitric Oxide. Neurobiol. Aging. 2002, 23, 861–880.
 Naidu, M. M.; Shyamala, B. N.; Naik, J. P.; Sulochanamma, G.; Srinivas, P. Chemical Composition and
Antioxidant Activity of the Husk and Endosperm of Fenugreek Seeds. LWT-Food Sci. Tech. 2011, 44,
 Mahabady, M. K.; Gholami, M. R.; Varzi, H. N.; Zendedel, A.; Doostizadeh, M. 2016. Protective Eﬀect of
Quercetin on Skeletal and Neural Tube Teratogenicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Rat Fetuses.
Veterinary Research Forum, 7(2), 133-138
 Boots, A. W.; Haenen, G. R.; Bast, A. Health Eﬀects of Quercetin: From Antioxidant to Nutraceutical. Eur.
J. Pharm. 2008, 585, 325–337.
 Park, H. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. R.; Lee, Y. C. Targeting Abnormal Airway Vascularity as a Therapeutical Strategy
in Asthma. Respirology. 2010, 15, 459–471.
 Shariﬁfar, F.; Khazaeli, P.; Alli, N. In Vivo Evaluation of Anti-inﬂammatory Activity of Topical
Preparations from Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.) Seeds in a Cream Base. Iran. J. Pharm.
Sci. 2009, 5, 157–162.
1790 Q. A. SYED ET AL.
 Emtiazy, M.; Oveidzadeh, L.; Habibi, M.; Molaeipour, L.; Talei, D.; Parvin, M.; Kamalinejad, M. Investigating the
Eﬀectiveness of the Trigonella Foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) Seeds in Mild Asthma: A Randomized Controlled
Trial. Allergy Asthma Clin. Immunol. 2018, 14, 19–20.
 Vijayakumar, M. V.; Bhat, M. K. Hypoglycemic Eﬀect of a Novel Dialysed Fenugreek Seeds Extract Is Sustainable
and Is Mediated, in Part, by the Activation of Hepatic Enzymes. Phytother. Res. 2008, 22, 500–505.
 Busse, W. W.; Rosenwasser, L. J. Mechanisms of Asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2003, 111, 799–804.
 Smith, M.;. Therapeutic Applications of Fenugreek. Altern. Med. Rev. 2003, 8, 20–27.
 Abdel-Barry, J. A.;. Hypoglycaemic Eﬀect of Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Trigonella Foenum-graecum in
Healthy Volunteers. East. Mediterr. Health. J. 2000, 6, 83–88.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD PROPERTIES 1791