Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The instance of image-based abuse that ended in the victim’s suicide, known as the “Iveco case,” had an unprecedented social impact in Spain in 2019. This case provoked a great social reaction and became particularly viral on social networks such as Twitter. The present research investigates how this case has been dealt with through Twitter discourse. In particular, this study aimed to identify the main elements that could explain how people engaged with the problem of nonconsensual sharing of sexually explicit images in general, and with this case in particular. In total, 1,895 tweets with the word “Iveco” written in Spain were selected by streaming API, and their content was analyzed by lexical analysis using Iramuteq software (Reinert method). This software carries out an automatic lexical classification cluster analysis that groups the most significant words and text segments according to their co-occurrence. The results revealed that, on Twitter, it was stressed that the victim was a married woman with children who had practiced sexting. However, in response to this initial description, many voices also emerged that labelled this image-based abuse as gender-based online violence. Criticism was aimed at both the passivity of the company, and the attitude of hundreds of thousands of people who share the sexting video by WhatsApp groups without permission. Consequently, several feminist mobilizations emerged, framing this case within a sexist and patriarchal society and asking for accountability. However, in contrast, countermovements such as the #NotAllMen also emerged.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In recent years, social networks have become an arena where online genderbased violence has proliferated (Dimond et al., 2011;Suzor et al., 2019). Given this, academia has carried out a wide variety of research based on social networks that have highlighted various forms of violence suffered by women, which are rooted in patriarchy and sexism (Douglas et al., 2019;Dragiewicz et al., 2018;Idoiaga et al., 2020;Scott, 2008;Varela, 2008). Most of the researched forms of violence against women in both traditional mass media and social media are related to crimes of femicide (Gillespie et al., 2013;Jeffries, 2013;Mandolini, 2017;Tiscareño-García & Miranda-Villanueva, 2020), sexual assault (Layman, 2020;Schwark, 2017;Wellman et al., 2017), sexual harassment (Easteal et al., 2015;Waterhouse-Watson, 2009), or rape (Belair-Gagnon et al., 2014;Harp et al., 2018;Horvath & Brown, 2009). ...
... From the conception of rape culture and revictimization, authors such as Bohner et al. (2009) andSchwark (2017) have highlighted that in social thinking there are cultural beliefs framed within rape culture that justify sexual crimes. Although this social thinking has been defined as the source of individuals' everyday knowledge (Cerrato & Palmonari, 2007), social psychology states that it is highly influenced by mass communication (Ben-Asher, 2003;Idoiaga et al., 2020). Therefore, to understand such thinking, it is crucial to analyze collective thinking in social networks. ...
... This theory argues that in the digital sphere, the constructs, beliefs, valuations, discourses, and cultural burdens of people's opinions are replicated (Farah, 2011;Höijer, 2011). As the discourse of social networks offers us a naturalistic setting for social thinking (Stubbs-Richardson et al., 2018), such networks have frequently been used for the analysis of Social Representations (SRs) (Idoiaga et al., 2019(Idoiaga et al., , 2020de Rosa et al., 2021;Zamperini et al., 2012). From this research, we conclude that social networks are becoming a field of special interest for analyzing contemporary changes. ...
Article
The digital sphere has become a space in which misogyny-laden discourses are constantly presented. In fact, in Mexico persists a rape culture that justifies violent acts against women and blames the victims of the crimes through social opinions. The present study proposed an approach based on the Theory of Social Representations. In this sense, this study aimed to analyze the discourses that emerge in the digital sphere when users give their opinion on five types of crimes against women: femicide, rape, enforced disappearance, abuse, and sexual harassment. The results revealed that there are four types of discourse (representations) framed within rape culture: disbelief of rape, blaming the victim, revictimization, and disempowering women. It is concluded that Mexican society maintains a representation that stereotypes and devalues the image of women, which allows us to understand the aggressions that women suffer in their daily lives.
... Sexting, when it is voluntary and consensual, can fulfill positive functions, such as increasing the feeling of intimacy with a partner, fostering greater well-being, and the exploration of sexual identity (Döring & Mohseni, 2018;Holmes et al., 2020;Wachs et al., 2021). When the sending of sexual content is unwanted or forced under threats of blackmail, however, it can lead to negative outcomes, such as greater discomfort, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation and attempts (Gassó et al., 2020;Idoiaga Mondragon et al., 2020;Medrano et al., 2018;Morelli et al., 2016;Nilsson et al., 2019). Forced or unwanted situations related to sexting are known as image-based sexual abuse and include the nonconsensual distribution, posting, or threats to distribute or post nude or sexual images (e.g., photographs or videos; Powell et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The aim of this study was to develop a new measure of victimization and perpetration of two frequent forms of image-based sexual abuse, namely, sextortion (i.e., threat of distributing sexual images to pressure the victim into doing something) and nonconsensual sexting (i.e., distributing sexual images of someone without consent of the victim). Additional aims were to analyze the prevalence of these forms of victimization and perpetration, and to examine their temporal stability over a one-year period. Methods. The sample was made up of 1,820 Spanish adolescents (mean age = 13.38, SD = 1.42; 929 girls, 878 boys, 3 nonbinary, and 10 did not indicate gender) who completed self-report instruments on image-based sexual abuse and related variables (e.g. cyberbullying victimization). Results. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a structure composed of the four hypothesized factors: sextortion victimization and perpetration, and nonconsensual sexting victimization and perpetration. Higher sexting, cyberbullying victimization, and symptoms of depression and anxiety had stronger associations with image-based sexual victimization than with perpetration, which showed evidence of concurrent validity. Prevalence was 2.6% and 0.7% for sextortion victimization and perpetration, respectively, and 3.4% and 4.9% for nonconsensual sexting victimization and perpetration, respectively. Temporal stability over 1 year was .26 for sextortion victimization, .19 for nonconsensual sexting victimization, .33 for nonconsensual sexting perpetration (all ps < .001), and nonsignificant for sextortion perpetration. The stability of nonconsensual sexting victimization was significantly higher for girls compared to boys, whereas nonconsensual sexting perpetration was more stable over one year for boys. Conclusions. Future studies must advance the analysis of the predictors and consequences of image-based sexual abuse among adolescents to better prevent this problem. Prevalence of sextortion and nonconsensual sexting is not negligible, and these problems should be particularly addressed in prevention programs.
... Moreover, Iramuteq software eliminates problems of reliability and validity in text analysis (Klein & Licata, 2003), and it makes it easier to account for the specificity of the representations brought to light (Aubert-Lotarski & Capdevielle-Mougnibas, 2002). Using this method, which follows a descending hierarchical analysis format, the analyst obtains a series of classes and statistical cues in the form of specific words and typical text segments (see Idoiaga et al., 2020). Specifically, the software identifies the words and text segments with the highest Chi-square values, that is, those words and text segments that best identify each class or idea that the participants have repeatedly mentioned. ...
Article
This study aims to analyse 1002 children's and adolescent's reasons for going to school alone or accompanied and to explore how parents influence their choice. The findings revealed that children who could go to school alone feel that their parents trust them more. Moreover, children who live close to school are more likely to commute autonomously and those who do so feel their environment is safer. Finally, there are significant gender differences in autonomous travel to school, largely due to parental influence. In conclusion, there is a real need to work with children and families to develop targeted interventions to support the normalisation of children's autonomous walking and to address the fears of parents.
... 14 For these reasons, sharing text, images, or videos on online platforms may have extremely severe consequences -probably even suicide. [15][16][17] In a qualitative study from 2017, "oversharing" on social media was mentioned as a potential problem for individuals with bipolar disorder, 18 but to our knowledge, there have been no studies with a systematic assessment of regretted behavior on social media among individuals with bipolar disorder. Therefore, we conducted a survey to provide more knowledge on this topic. ...
Article
Objectives Individuals with bipolar disorder are prone to risk-taking behavior that is subsequently regretted. Here, we investigated whether this also occurs in relation to use of social media and online dating. Methods A questionnaire-based survey focusing on the use of social media and online dating was conducted among individuals attending an outpatient clinic for bipolar disorder, and among individuals attending two general practices in the same region (controls). The association between bipolar disorder and self-reported regretted behavior on social media/online dating sites was investigated using logistic regression with adjustment for age and sex. Results A total of 124 individuals with bipolar disorder and 196 individuals without affective disorder from the general practices (controls) formed the study sample. Among the individuals with bipolar disorder who used social media, 66% reported regretted behavior as a consequence of this use, whereas only 31% of the controls reported such behavior. The corresponding numbers for individuals who used online dating were 65% for those with bipolar disorder and 31% for the controls. Following adjustment for age and sex, bipolar disorder was associated with elevated risk of regretted behavior in relation to use of both social media (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6, 95%CI: 2.2;5.9) and online dating (adjusted odds ratio: 4.1, 95%CI: 2.1;8.0). Conclusions These findings suggest that risk-taking behavior and subsequent regret among individuals with bipolar disorder extends to social media and online dating. Cautious use of these platforms may be particularly relevant for individuals with bipolar disorder.
... At the methodological level, the use of the Reinert method to analyze the impact of a specific hashtag is new, although it has been used previously to analyze different social movements or cases of abuse (Idoiaga Mondragon et al., 2020a, 2020b. In this regard we believe that it is an interesting tool as it allows analyzing a large amount of data automatically, but at the same time it makes it possible to give space to the narrative of the Tweets. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Incest remains one of the great taboos of contemporary society. Secrecy is also crucial in this type of sexual abuse against children, and many victims do not disclose their testimony. This situation changed, when in France in mid-January 2021, the #MeTooIncest movement emerged, and thousands of victims began to reveal the abuse they had suffered as children. Objective To analyze the discourse on Twitter regarding this hashtag to understand how incest abuse has been dealt with through social media debate. In so doing, we expected to identify the main elements that could explain how people have symbolically constructed and engaged with childhood sexual abuse in general and with incest abuse in particular. Participants and setting In total, 20,556 tweets with the hashtag #MeTooIncest written in French were selected by streaming API from January 14 to February 15, 2021. Methods Their content was analyzed by lexical analysis using Iramuteq software (Reinert method). Results Victims found a space for disclosure in this movement, where they felt believed, protected, and supported. This movement also embraced the victims of celebrity abusers, denouncing them and calling for their exclusion from public life. Likewise, at the societal level, this movement pushed for changes in public policies to protect children and emphasized the importance of breaking the public silence or secrecy about incest abuse. Conclusions This wave of testimonies represents a turning point as it has broken the law of silence and allowed the victims to exist in the media space without being questioned.
Book
Este libro compila una serie de trabajos de investigación realizados por docentes, profesionales y expertos en el ámbito de la inclusión social y educativa, cuyo compromiso en favor de la diversidad y la inclusión es incuestionable. La obra, dividida en tres secciones –inclusión socioeducativa y organización escolar; inclusión educativa con personas con necesidades especiales y estudios realizados sobre el impacto del COVID-19 en los sistemas educativos–, está compuesta por dieciocho trabajos de investigación que abordan la inclusión socioeducativa tanto en las aulas como fuera de ellas. Todas las aportaciones ofrecen una visión refl exiva y práctica sobre los retos a los que se enfrenta la educación en la actualidad, tales como proyectos y experiencias de buenas prácticas en diferentes espacios y etapas educativas, protocolos de actuación para la atención del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE), trabajos sobre inclusión socioeducativa en contextos de inmigración y proyectos de innovación educativa (PID) en la universidad, entre otras. Asimismo, se presentan investigaciones sobre el impacto del COVID-19 en los sistemas educativos. A través de las investigaciones y propuestas metodológicas recogidas, este libro anhela, en defi nitiva, compartir y difundir experiencias de la práctica educativa de las y los profesionales que trabajan a diario desde las instituciones y centros educativos, a fi n de proporcionar nuevas vías de análisis y propuestas de mejora en la intervención socioeducativa que posibiliten y promuevan una inclusión real para todas y todos.
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, nonconsensual porn (NCP), or the sharing of sexually explicit material without a person’s consent, has become a growing problem with potentially far-reaching adverse consequences for victims. The purpose of this article is to propose and consider a framework for advancing the field’s understanding of NCP within the context of intimate relationships including situating NCP relative to other forms of relational abuse. Specifically, we examined the extent to which NCP in intimate partner relationships was perpetrated using tactics from the Power and Control Wheel through a summative content analysis of U.S. news stories on NCP from 2012 to 2017. This analysis established that NCP has been perpetrated using all eight of the abuse metatactics in the Power and Control Wheel, with the three most common being emotional abuse, coercion and threats, and denial/blame/minimization. Treating NCP in relationships as a potential form of partner violence provides a basis on which to understand the etiology, manifestation, motives, and impact of this form of abuse and informs practitioners’ ability to design prevention efforts and engage a trauma-informed response to survivors.
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence, stalking, and technology-based abuse increasingly intersect as online surveillance has become more easily accessible. Despite the ubiquity of information communication technologies across all aspects of social life, definitions and measurement of stalking have not kept pace with this cultural shift. This article describes stalking and technology-based abuse across three samples of intimate partner violence survivors. Over a period of 6 years (2012–2018), data were collected from survivors of intimate partner violence (n = 1137) receiving services from domestic violence programs (including shelter). Three forms of data collection were employed across two studies: pen-and-paper surveys, web-based surveys, and qualitative semi-structured interviews. Data were combined and analyzed to document and compare women’s reports of stalking and technology-based abuse. Across the two quantitative samples, 62–72% of women reported experiencing direct stalking and 60–63% reported experiencing technology-based abuse by an intimate partner. Qualitative data are used to describe and contextualize women’s reports of stalking and technology-based abuse. Stalking and technology-based abuse are contingent upon the context, including frequency, duration, history of abuse, and patterns of behavior. Due to the subjective nature of online interactions, it is challenging to create definitions and measures that capture these forms of abuse. Indeed, survivors themselves may not have a clear understanding of the threshold at which monitoring behaviors become abusive. Researchers should work to better understand definitions, measurement, and consequences of technology-based abuse and stalking while advocates and legislators move toward creating legal protections for survivors.
Article
Full-text available
The use of technology, including smartphones, cameras, Internet-connected devices, computers and platforms such as Facebook, is now an essential part of everyday life. Such technology is used to maintain social networks and carry out daily tasks. However, this technology can also be employed to facilitate domestic and family violence. Drawing on interviews undertaken with 55 domestic and family violence survivors in Brisbane, Australia, this article outlines survivors' experiences of technology-facilitated domestic and family violence. The frequency and nature of abusive behaviours described by the women suggest this is a key form of abuse deserving more signifcant attention.
Article
Full-text available
Revenge pornography is the online, and at times offline, non-consensual distribution, or sharing, of explicit images by ex-partners, partners, others, or hackers seeking revenge or entertainment. In this article, we discursively analyse a selected range of electronic written texts accompanying explicit images posted by self-identified straight/gay/lesbian (male-to-female, female-to-male, male-to-male, female-to-female postings) on a popular revenge pornography website ‘MyEx.com’. Situating our analysis in debates on gender and sexuality, we examine commonalities and differences in the complex and sometimes contradictory ways in which gender and sexuality are invoked in posters’ accounts of their motivations for revenge pornography.
Article
Full-text available
en Gender‐based violence online is rampant, ranging from harassment of women who are public figures on social media to stalking intimate partners using purpose‐built apps. This is not an issue that can be addressed by individual states alone, nor can it be addressed satisfactorily through legal means. The normalization of misogyny and abuse online both reflects and reinforces systemic inequalities. Addressing gender‐based violence online will require the intervention of the technology companies that govern the commercial Internet to prevent and combat abuse across networks and services. We argue that international human rights instruments provide an opportunity to identify with more precision the responsibilities of telecommunications companies and digital media platforms to mitigate harm perpetrated through their networks, and ensure that the systems they create do not reproduce gendered inequality. Finally, we present initial recommendations for platforms to promote human rights and fulfill their responsibilities under the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Abstract zh 摘要 从在社交媒体上骚扰公众女性人物, 到使用专用应用程序跟踪亲密伴侣, 网络性别暴力甚嚣尘上。这既不是个别国家可以独自解决的问题, 也不能通过法律手段满意地解决。网络上厌女和虐待现象的正常化既反映又加剧了系统性的不平等。解决网络性别暴力问题需要管理商业互联网的技术公司进行干预, 从而防止和打击跨越网络和服务的虐待行为。我们认为, 国际人权文书提供了一个契机, 它更准确地明确了电信公司和数字媒体平台在减轻通过其网络所造成的伤害方面的责任, 并确保它们所建立的系统不会再现性别不平等。最后, 我们就这些平台如何促进人权和履行⟪联合国商业与人权指导原则⟫规定的责任提供了初步建议。 Abstract es Resumen La violencia de género en línea está desenfrenada, y va desde el acoso de mujeres que son figuras públicas en las redes sociales hasta acosar a compañeros sexuales usando aplicaciones especialmente diseñadas. Este no es un problema que pueda ser enfrentado por los estados por sí solos y tampoco puede ser enfrentado satisfactoriamente a través de medios legales. La normalización de la misoginia y el abuso en línea refleja y refuerza la desigualdad sistemática. Abordar la violencia de género en línea requerirá la intervención de las compañías de tecnología que gobiernan el Internet comercial para prevenir y combatir el abuso a través de redes y servicios. Argumentamos que los instrumentos internacionales de derechos humanos proporcionan una oportunidad para identificar con más precisión las responsabilidades de las compañías de telecomunicaciones y las plataformas de medios digitales para mitigar el daño causado por sus redes y asegurar que los sistemas que ellos crean no reproduzcan la desigualdad de género. Finalmente, presentamos recomendaciones iniciales para plataformas para promover los derechos humanos y cumplir con sus responsabilidades bajo los Principios Rectores de las Naciones Unidas sobre Empresas y Derechos Humanos.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes domestic violence as a key context of online misogyny, foregrounding the role of digital media in mediating, coordinating, and regulating it; and proposing an agenda for future research. Scholars and anti-violence advocates have documented the ways digital media exacerbate existing patterns of gendered violence and introduce new modes of abuse, a trend highlighted by this special issue. We propose the term "technology facilitated coercive control" (TFCC) to encompass the technological and relational aspects of patterns of abuse against intimate partners. Our definition of TFCC is grounded in the understanding of domestic violence (DV) as coercive, controlling, and profoundly contextualised in relationship dynamics, cultural norms, and structural inequality. We situate TFCC within the multiple affordances and modes of governance of digital media platforms for amplifying and ameliorating abuse. In addition to investigating TFCC, scholars are beginning to document the ways platforms can engender counter-misogynistic discourse, and are powerful actors for positive change via the regulation and governance of online abuse. Accordingly, we propose four key directions for a TFCC research agenda that recognises and asks new questions about the role of digital media platforms as both facilitators of abuse and potential partners in TFCC prevention and intervention.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The non-consensual distribution of intimate images, also known as ‘revenge pornography’ has been increasingly identified as a significant and serious problem, warranting substantial legislative reform and non-legal remedies. Yet little information is available to date on these types of behaviours, or the extent of harms caused to victims. What is clear is that this form of image-based sexual exploitation is occurring globally, and research is needed to assist in the development of: concise laws, training for criminal justice authorities, social workers and victim advocates, and education and prevention campaigns, in order to respond effectively to the victims and perpetrators of these harms.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter analyzes #YesAllWomen, one of the largest, most visible, feminist Twitter events of recent years. Though hashtags and other forms of digital activism are not always taken seriously as politics, in this project we investigate #YesAllWomen and its recirculation through media and public blogs, as an important instance of contemporary feminist discursive activism. Specifically, we argue that the hashtag functioned, first, as a site of collective identity for participants, and we describe some of the ways in which this identity building was achieved, and second, we argue that through its links to and recirculation by other platforms and media, #YesAllWomen also functioned as a public protest or agenda-building event with impact on public discourse beyond Twitter. Our project draws on content and discourse analysis methods to analyze the #YesAllWomen hashtag and to trace its interaction with other discourses such as news and blogs, including an automated content analysis of almost two million tweets and an analysis of a sample of 251 media and blog stories. We note that contemporary feminists are using digital media, in this case a Twitter hashtag, to achieve many of the same discursive goals of knowledge building and critique that have previously been achieved using other communications strategies such as consciousness-raising groups, publishing collectives, media strategies, and zaps.
Article
Full-text available
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies—five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.
Poster
Full-text available
Drastically different samples and definitions of sexting have contributed to a mixed picture of the prevalence of adult sexting and associated individual and relationship characteristics. In this study, we extend work on adult sexting by using a nationally-representative sample of U.S. and Canadian adults, using a more nuanced statistical approach to classify sexting behavior trends (i.e., latent profiles analysis) and comparing these groups on their relationship (e.g., commitment and conflict) and individual (e.g., self-esteem and depression) characteristics.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter shows how masculinist logics play out in contemporary antifeminist, father’s rights and men’s rights backlashes, in alt-right discourse and broader anti diversity and anti-‘political correctness’ in both overt and increasingly subtle ways. These contemporary backlashes naturalise essentialised gender hierarchies and their intersection with other naturalised hierarchies to claim that feminism has gone too far. Additionally, the chapter demonstrates how they invoke a crude libertarian understanding of choice and agency to claim ‘reverse discrimination’ against straight, white men and recuperate liberal equality discourses. This chapter then discusses online abuse or ‘e-bile’ as exemplary of antagonistic ethos that maintains the internet as a masculinised space that subordinates all that is feminised.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this review was to synthesize the current literature regarding revenge pornography and the non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media. A systematic search was made of five databases using relevant search terms. From these searches, 82 articles were retained for inclusion within the systematic review. The literature spanned areas of research including legal, theory, as well as psychology related empirical papers. The findings show that particularly in the U.S., but in other countries as well, there are significant concerns regarding the implementation of revenge pornography legislation, despite this being recognized as an important endeavor. Non-consensual sharing perpetration and victimization rates can vary considerably according to how the behavior is defined and measured, however, these behaviors were evident for a considerable number of individuals across both genders.
Article
Full-text available
Today's adolescents grow up using information and communication technologies as an integral part of their everyday life. This affords them with extensive opportunities, but also exposes them to online risks, such as cybergrooming and cyberbullying victimization. The aims of this study were to investigate correlates of cybergrooming and cyberbullying victimization and examine whether victims of both cybergrooming and cyberbullying (dual-cybervictims) show higher involvement in compulsive Internet use (CIU) and troubled offline behavior (TOB) compared to victims of either cybergrooming or cyberbullying (mono-cybervictims). The sample consisted of 2,042 Dutch, German, Thai, and U.S. adolescents (age = 11-17 years; M = 14.2; SD = 1.4). About every ninth adolescent (10.9 percent) reported either mono- or dual-cybervictimization. Second, both CIU and TOB were associated with all three types of cybervictimization, and finally, both CIU and TOB were more strongly linked to dual-cybervictimization than to both forms of mono-cybervictimization. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the associations between different forms of cybervictimization and psychological health and behavior problems among adolescents.
Article
Full-text available
There has been a lack of research into the motivations for sexting. This study presents a self report instrument, the Sexting Motivations Questionnaire (SMQ), evaluating three sexting motivations: sexual purposes, instrumental/aggravated reasons and body image reinforcement. We also investigated which sexting motivations predict different sexting behaviors, distinguishing between experimental and more harmful sexting. The study involved 509 participants aged from 13 to 35 (Mage = 21.4; SDage = 4.6; 63.7% females) who reported having sent sexts during the last year. Explorative factor analysis revealed three factors: sexual purposes, instrumental/aggravated reasons, and body image reinforcement. The results showed that sexual purposes were the most frequently reported, followed by body image reinforcement, and instrumental/aggravated reasons were reported in low but alarming percentages. Only instrumental/aggravated reasons turned out to predict more harmful sexting behaviors, such as publicly posting own sexts and the socalled ‘not allowed sharing’ of a partner’s sexts. These motivations could lead to aggravated sexting. Our findings confirmed the good reliability and criterion validity of the SMQ, a new instrument for assessing sexting motivations in young people.
Article
Full-text available
Full download: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/IQ9hC766sPiUCKhYKR3C/full The main objective of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships among sexting, cybervictimization, depression, and suicidal ideation. The sample consisted of 303 university students from Mexico (mean age = 19.73, SD = 1.73) who completed a questionnaire about the variables of interest. The relationships among the variables were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results show that sexting was associated with being the victim of cyberbullying, which, in turn, was related to depressive symptoms. In addition, sexting, cybervictimization, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between online risk behaviors, such as sexting, and their possible negative consequences, such as cybervictimization, depression, and suicidal ideation.
Article
Full-text available
In the last few years, many countries have introduced laws combating the phenomenon colloquially known as ‘revenge porn’. While new laws criminalising this practice represent a positive step forwards, the legislative response has been piecemeal and typically focuses only on the practices of vengeful ex-partners. Drawing on Liz Kelly’s (1988) pioneering work, we suggest that ‘revenge porn’ should be understood as just one form of a range of gendered, sexualised forms of abuse which have common characteristics, forming what we are conceptualising as the ‘continuum of image-based sexual abuse’. Further, we argue that image-based sexual abuse is on a continuum with other forms of sexual violence. We suggest that this twin approach may enable a more comprehensive legislative and policy response that, in turn, will better reflect the harms to victim-survivors and leads to more appropriate and effective educative and preventative strategies.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Voluntarily sending sexual content (e.g., photos, videos) among adolescents via the Internet and mobile phones, a phenomenon called sexting , is receiving increasing social and research attention. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the prevalence and trends of sexting among adolescents by gender and age and 2) to examine the personality profile of adolescents that participated in sexting. Method: The sample consisted of 3,223 Spanish adolescents from 12 to 17 years of age (49.9% female; mean age = 14.06, SD = 1.37) who anonymously and voluntarily completed self-report questionnaires on sexting and the big five personality factors. Results: The overall prevalence of sexting was 13.5%. The prevalence was 3.4% at 12 years old and increased to 36.1% at 17 years of age, showing a growing and significant linear trend. Overall, no differences were found between males and females. The personality profile of those involved in sexting was characterized by higher Extraversion and Neuroticism and by lower scores in Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Conclusions: Given its high prevalence, beyond adopting a perspective based on the dangers of sexting, an educational approach that emphasizes responsible and informed use of information and communication technologies is necessary.
Article
Full-text available
Often referred to by journalists, policy makers, and the general public as revenge porn, image-based sexual abuse is starting to garner serious legal and social scientific attention. However, theoretical developments have thus far not kept pace with the growing empirical and legal literature on this electronic variant of woman abuse. Further, this problem cannot adequately be explained by gender-blind theories, as there is a strong relationship between gender and women's risk of being harmed by image-based sexual abuse by current and former intimate male partners. Thus, the main objective of this article is to address this concern by applying male peer support theory.
Article
Full-text available
Domestic violence is currently undergoing a period of heightened visibility in Australia. This article uses social media to analyze public discussions about this violence with respect to a specific theoretical frame, which Adrian Howe has called the "Man " question: where and how are men visible or invisible in narratives about their violence against women? The article presents a qualitative study of the Twitter conversation surrounding a special episode of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television program Q&A, themed around family violence, which aired in February 2015. We found that the place of men in this conversation was contested. Some tweets privileged men's voices and concerns, as did the organization and production of the program. However, feminist voices were also highly visible via presenting facts, legitimating survivor voices, and recuperating antifeminist memes to challenge hegemonic patriarchal discourses on men's violence against women.
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of Twitter appears to be changing information practices. Hence, a great deal of recent research is based on its popularity among communicators, reaching the conclusion that it serves to increase interactivity with readers. But to what degree is it true that it contributes to a type of journalism which is more open to the public? This research aims especially to clarify two main questions: what specific uses do journalists make of Twitter and to what extent does two-way interaction with the public take place through this medium? It is based on the quantitative analysis of a sample comprising almost 5 million tweets posted by 1,504 Spanish media communicators, perhaps the largest sample studied so far. The analysis shows the existence of a two-speed Twitter (with a minority of influential communicators and a majority who have little impact), which has negligible interaction with followers. With few exceptions, the communicators establish endogamous relationships on Twitter. They respond to, mention and retweet colleagues, failing to take advantage of the multidirectional potential offered by the platform. This research expands the empirical basis which can be used to consider and discuss the scope and limits of user participation in information events. Many authors have theorized on this subject, perhaps too enthusiastically and arguably from a somewhat utopian perspective.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study examined how frequently online sexual solicitation of adolescents and children by adults occurs and what characteristics the perpetrators have using a novel methodological approach. Method: In an online survey, we investigated the frequency of online sexual solicitation exhibited by adult Internet users (N = 2,828), including a subgroup recruited on pedophilia-related websites. Perpetrators soliciting adolescents were compared to those soliciting children concerning solicitation outcomes (e.g., cybersex) and demography. Results: In total, 4.5 percent reported soliciting adolescents and 1.0 percent reported soliciting children. Most solicitors of adolescents and children were from pedophilia-related websites (49.1 and 79.2 percent). Solicitation frequently involved sexual outcomes (47.5 percent), which also followed nonsexual interaction. The minors’ age did not affect the odds of sexual outcomes. A substantial proportion of perpetrators were female. Conclusions: This study offers unprecedented data on the number of adults soliciting minors. Although adolescents were more often target of solicitation, the risk of sexual outcomes was equally high in solicitation of children, suggesting younger children to be considered in prevention efforts as well. Nonsexual interactions resulting in sexual outcomes need to be more closely examined to inform appropriate prevention efforts. Moreover, awareness should be raised about females as perpetrators.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore how what we term ‘sext education’ pedagogies intersect with young people's understandings of, and talk about, sexting through a feminist analysis of two cyber-safety campaign films: Tagged from Australia and Exposed from the UK. The films tell alarming stories about the ways in which teenage girls' digital interactions and representations can be misused by their peers. We explore the normative construction of schools as sites for policing sex and gender norms in the films. We then investigate how young people take up, manage and sometimes question these gendered logics in their own digitally networked peer groups through an analysis of data from several school-based qualitative research projects on young people's digital sexual cultures and their responses to sexting in cyber-safety films in London, UK and Victoria, Australia. We critique the naturalisation of digital realms as extensions of the schoolyard in the films and for young people themselves, and suggest that such assumptions need questioning in future forms of sext education.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore a contemporary panic around teen sexting considering why it focuses mostly on girls' bodies and ‘breasts’. Drawing on empirical findings from research with 13- and 15-year olds in two London schools, we ask: How are girls' and boys' mediated bodies and body parts constructed, negotiated and made sense of in the teen peer group? How are images of girls' breasts surveilled and owned by others? In what ways can images of girls' bodies be used to sexually shame them? How do images of ‘boobs’ work differently than those of ‘six-packs’ and ‘pecs’? When and how is digital proof of sexual activity shamed or rewarded? Our analysis explores the affective dimensions of digital affordances and how relative gendered value is generated through social media images and practices. We demonstrate how our qualitative research approach facilitates exploration of the online and offline relational, material embodied performance of negotiating gender and sexuality in teen's digitally mediated peer cultures.
Article
Sextortion, a portmanteau of “sexual” and “extortion,” is the threat to distribute intimate, sexual materials unless a victim complies with certain demands. Cyber sextortion is part of a larger continuum of image-based sexual offending in which images are used for harm. Despite the serious nature of this crime, there exists a dearth of empirical knowledge of sextortion. This article employed a qualitative content analysis of media articles and court documents to explore the crimes of 152 cyber sextortion offenders. Characteristics of offenders, victims, demands, and methodology were identified and synthesized to generate a qualitative understanding of offenders who employed cyber sextortion. The results revealed four different themes of offenders based on crime characteristics: minor-focused cyber sextortion offenders, cybercrime cyber sextortion offenders, intimately violent cyber sextortion offenders, and transnational criminal cyber sextortion offenders. The diverse nature of cyber sextortion has implications for crime control policies. Certain offenders are more likely to be apprehended and prosecuted depending on the crime victim and methodology. In addition, there has been a lack of legislative action targeting cyber sextortion, which limits legal recourse available for victims. We discuss the contribution of this work to the broader literature on cyber sextortion and address some of the challenges that this crime presents to the criminal justice system.
Article
The gang rape known as the “La Manada” case has had an unprecedented social impact in Spain. This research investigates how this case has been dealt with through Twitter by a collective symbolic coping process (Social Representation Theory). Discourse on Twitter was analyzed at two key points in time: the announcement of the judgment and the aggressors’ release from prison. In total 6,592 tweets with the hashtag #lamanada were selected and their content was analyzed by lexical analysis using Iramuteq software. The results reveal both an awareness phase about the issue along with a divergence phase that saw the emergence of various interpretations about this case, which were confronted. In this divergence phase, feminist discourses took on great significance, expressing anger, calling for social mobilizations, criticizing the victim blaming and creating a dialogue against rape culture. However, the anti-feminist and sexist discourses were also present in this space. It is concluded that discourses on Twitter are a symptom of a shift in mentality whilst at the same time serve as an active constructor of this changed knowledge. Thus, the feminist movement should continue to take this into account in order to converge and normalize the discourse against rape culture. FREE REPRINT: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/SXB7M2SKVT4RFKHG95NU/full?target=10.1080/14680777.2019.1643387
Article
Using data from 78 sexting-experienced adolescents from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, we describe sexting frequency, sexting partners, sexual relationships with such partners, and characteristics associated with sexting. Most (59.2%) respondents sexted at most monthly, usually with romantic partners (62.0%). About 41% of sexting-experienced adolescents did not usually have sexual relationships with sexting partners, 36.6% usually sexted after starting a sexual relationship, and 16.8% reported their sexting typically preceded sexual relationships. Younger adolescents sexted more frequently. Those without vaginal sex/anal sex experience, or prior romantic experience, were more likely to have sexted a non-romantic/sexual partner.
Article
This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between sexting and two types of online victimization among minors: sexual solicitations by adults and cyberbullying. The sample consisted of 1497 minors between the ages of 12 and 14 at time 1, who completed measures on sexting, sexual solicitations, and cyberbullying at the beginning of the study and again at the follow-up, one year later. The prevalence during the previous year was 7.6% and 17.5% for sexting at times 1 and 2 (respectively), 7% and 15% at times 1 and 2 for sexual solicitation, and 49.4% and 46.4% at times 1 and 2 for cyberbullying. The results show that minors’ participation in sexting at time 1 predicted a significant increase in both sexual solicitations and cyberbullying during the follow-up; sexual solicitations and cyberbullying were both related to increased participation in sexting behavior one year later. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Article
Under the slogan ‘If we stop, the world stops’, the Spanish feminist movement organized a 24-hour labour, education, care and consumption women’s strike on 8 March 2018 that amazed both international and national public opinion. After all, Spain has traditionally been a Catholic country and its feminist movement is barely institutionalized, lacking both structure and funding. The present profile sets out to account for the 8M strike and points to a long organization process within a broad protest cycle as keys to its success.
Article
During the #MeToo movement, social movement organizations (SMOs) played a crucial role in the online mobilization by utilizing various message frames and appealing hashtags during the social movement. Applying a co-creational approach and using framing as a theoretical framework , the study explored how SMOs use words and hashtags to participate in the #MeToo movement through Twitter. Based on both semantic network analysis and thematic analysis methods, findings of the study enhance literature of social movement organizations and activism as well as provide practical implications for effective social movement campaigns.
Article
Every day, people’s most intimate moments are recorded, uploaded and circulated online without their consent. This gross invasion of privacy – commonly known as ‘revenge pornography’ – has become part of the scenery in cyberspace. But the name ‘revenge pornography’ fails to communicate the scope and severity of this harm. It is a victim blaming term that risks misdirecting government policy and misinforming the public. So, in order to mobilise against ‘revenge porn’, activists have begun renaming it. ‘Non-consensual pornography’, ‘image-based sexual abuse’, and ‘digital rape’ are just a few of their new coinages. This research seeks to understand how ‘revenge pornography’ is being renamed and reframed in different contexts. To do so, it draws on interviews with thirty activists, experts, and scholars from twelve countries and seven professions. The article begins by comparing their alternative terminologies, bringing to light points of similarity and difference. It then looks forward, identifying new developments in activists’ thought and action. Despite their different vocabularies, this research finds among respondents a shared understanding upon which they could build an enduring coalition.
Article
In response to the #MeToo movement, #HowIWillChange was intended to engage men and boys in the ongoing discussion about sexual violence by asking them to evaluate their role in sustaining rape culture. We collected publicly available tweets containing #HowIWillChange from Twitter’s application programming interface on October 26, 2017 via NCapture software, resulting in 3,182 tweets for analysis. Tweets were analyzed qualitatively and coded into three primary groups: (a) users committing to actively engage in dismantling rape culture, (b) users indignantly resistant to social change, and (c) users promoting hostile resistance to social change. Actions suggested by users for dismantling rape culture included the following: examining personal participation in toxic masculinity, teaching the next generation, calling out other men, listening to women’s experiences, and promoting egalitarianism. Users indignantly opposed to social change used the rhetoric of “not all men” and promoted benevolently sexist attitudes to assert that men as a group have been unfairly targeted. Other users were hostile toward the notion of social change and expressed their resistance through attacking perceived weaknesses of men supporting #HowIWillChange, hostile sexist attitudes, statements of antifeminist backlash, and rhetoric of Trump-inspired racism. The identified themes provide valuable information for prevention scientists about what holds men back from participating, and what men are willing to do to help.
Article
Many states have criminalized “revenge porn,” an increasingly common form of online sexual abuse. Yet, we know little regarding attitudes toward these laws. Through an original survey of nearly 500 U.S. residents, we find widespread public support for criminalization, but support varies by respondent’s self-identified gender and revenge porn type. Women favor criminalization more than men, but support falls among women and men when the subject created the media, colloquially known as “selfies” or “noodz.” Results suggest that women expressing their sexuality are deemed less deserving of protection, reinforcing feminist legal critiques of criminal law as insufficient to prevent sexual abuse.
Article
Social media has become an important aspect of contemporary culture and cultural change; it has accordingly become a valuable resource for informing feminist theory. Social media is a digitized social reality that lends itself to analysis and research. This study examines rape culture in the widely used social media platform, Twitter. We collected tweets from four days surrounding the Torrington and Steubenville Rape Trials and the Rehtaeh Parson’s story of rape, victimization, and suicide. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified three themes related to rape culture: (1) the virgin–whore binary and the just world, (2) sharing information on the sexual assault cases as subnews, and (3) rape myth debunking to support victims. Additional analysis indicated that Twitter users who engaged in victim blaming were more likely to be retweeted and have more followers than Twitter users who engaged in tweeting victim support content. The research demonstrates that rape culture is an aspect of social media and that data about rape culture can be readily accessed and studied. It also suggests that in future research, social media can be used to study how individuals and groups who are exhibiting rape culture interact with others who are engaged in victim support.
Article
On Instagram, the accounts Bye Felipe and Tinder Nightmares feature screen-grabbed messages of sexist abuse and harassment women have received from men on dating apps. This paper presents a discursive analysis of 526 posts from these Instagrams. Utilising a psychosocial and feminist poststructuralist perspective, it examines how harassing messages reproduce certain gendered discourses and (hetero)sexual scripts, and analyses how harassers attempt to position themselves and the feminine subject in interaction. The analysis presents two themes, termed the “not hot enough” discourse and the “missing discourse of consent”, which are unpacked to reveal a patriarchal logic in which a woman's constructed “worth” in the online sexual marketplace resides in her beauty and sexual propriety. Occurring in response to women's exercise of choice and to (real or imagined) sexual rejection, it is argued these are disciplinary discourses that attempt to (re)position women and femininity as sexually subordinate to masculinity and men. This paper makes a novel contribution to a growing body of feminist work on online harassment and misogyny. It also considers the implications for feminist theorising on the link between postfeminism and contemporary forms of sexism, and ends with some reflections on strategies of feminist resistance.
Article
Recent advances in mobile technology have allowed individuals to engage in sexting (i.e., sharing sexual words and images via technology). Researchers have examined the prevalence and correlates of sexting, but differences in samples and definitions make it difficult to develop a cohesive picture of adult sexting. This study extends our understanding of sexting behavior by using binationally-representative data from 615 Americans and Canadians in committed heterosexual and same-sex couple relationships from The Couple Well-Being Project. Using latent profile analysis, we explored how individuals' patterns of sending and receiving explicit word and/or picture text messages illustrated distinct profiles of sexting behavior. The analyses revealed 4 distinct groups of sexters: non-sexters (71.5%), word-only sexters (14.5%), frequent sexters (8.5%), and hyper sexters (5.5%). We then compared these groups on various relationship factors, indicators of individual well-being, and technology-related behaviors. Frequent and hyper sexters reported greater sexual satisfaction but were not significantly different from non-sexters or word-only sexters in relationship satisfaction. Further, frequent and hyper sexters scored more poorly on other relationship variables (i.e., attachment security, commitment, ambivalence, and conflict) than non-sexters or word-only sexters and showed greater media and pornography viewing, technoference in face-to-face interactions with their partner, and infidelity-related behaviors on social media.
Article
Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates. Several elements of the definition of sexting were assessed: actions (sending, receiving, and forwarding); media types (text, images, and videos); sexual characteristics; and transmission modes. Nine databases were searched for studies on sexting among youths up to 18 years of age. Eighteen studies published between 2012 and 2015 were included. Prevalence rates of sexting ranged between .9% and 60% partly depending on the definition. Most studies assessed sending, but when sending and receiving were measured, prevalence rates were higher for receiving. Some articles found associations with age, gender, race, sexual behavior, romantic relationships, risky behaviors, online activity, psychological difficulties, and social pressure. Finding a consensus regarding the definition is essential to assess accurately the activity and adapt prevention. Adolescents' interpretations of the activity are important as sexting could be used as a sexual behavior between two consenting persons. Prevention strategies should focus on sexting that goes wrong when it is forwarded to a third party and when it occurs in a context of pressure or harassment.
Article
This book examines how digital communications technologies have transformed modern societies, with profound effects both for everyday life, and for everyday crimes. Sexual violence, which is recognized globally as a significant human rights problem, has likewise changed in the digital age. Through an investigation into our increasingly and ever-normalised digital lives, this study analyses the rise of technology-facilitated sexual assault, ‘revenge pornography’, online sexual harassment and gender-based hate speech. Drawing on ground-breaking research into the nature and extent of technology-facilitated forms of sexual violence and harassment, the authors explore the reach of these harms, the experiences of victims, the views of service providers and law enforcement bodies, as well as the implications for law, justice and resistance. Sexual Violence in a Digital Age is compelling reading for scholars, activists, and policymakers who seek to understand how technology is implicated in sexual violence, and what needs to be done to address sexual violence in a digital age.
Chapter
Women, members of underrepresented racial and ethnic groups, and those of lower socioeconomic status tend to contribute to online conversations at lower levels. Such unequal participation then results in the underrepresentation of certain perspectives on the many user-generated content platforms that hundreds of millions of people peruse on a daily basis. Also, as more and more studies rely on automatically generated log data, or so-called “big data,” from such sites to study social behavior, the perspectives of people not participating on sites are also less likely to show up in an increasing number of scientific studies that may then form the basis of policy interventions.
Article
This study examines the emotional and mental health effects revenge porn has on female survivors. To date, no other academic studies have exclusively focused on mental health effects in revenge porn cases. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015 with 18 female revenge porn survivors, and inductive analysis revealed participants’ experiences of trust issues, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and several other mental health effects. These findings reveal the seriousness of revenge porn, the devastating impacts it has on survivors’ mental health, and similarities between revenge porn and sexual assault.
Article
We focus on an emerging trend in the context of domestic violence—the use of technology to facilitate stalking and other forms of abuse. Surveys with 152 domestic violence advocates and 46 victims show that technology—including phones, tablets, computers, and social networking websites—is commonly used in intimate partner stalking. Technology was used to create a sense of the perpetrator’s omnipresence, and to isolate, punish, and humiliate domestic violence victims. Perpetrators also threatened to share sexualized content online to humiliate victims. Technology-facilitated stalking needs to be treated as a serious offense, and effective practice, policy, and legal responses must be developed.
Article
The first research conducted on violence against women in the university context in Spain reveals that 62% of the students know of or have experienced situations of this kind within the university institutions, but only 13% identify these situations in the first place. Two main interrelated aspects arise from the data analysis: not identifying and acknowledging violent situations, and the lack of reporting them. Policies and actions developed by Spanish universities need to be grounded in two goals: intransigence toward any kind of violence against women, and bystander intervention, support, and solidarity with the victims and with the people supporting the victims.
Book
American monetary policy is formulated by the Federal Reserve and overseen by Congress. Both policy making and oversight are deliberative processes, although the effect of this deliberation has been difficult to quantify. In this book, Cheryl Schonhardt-Bailey provides a systematic examination of deliberation on monetary policy from 1976 to 2008 by the Federal Reserve’s Open Market Committee (FOMC) and House and Senate banking committees. Her innovative account employs automated textual analysis software to study the verbatim transcripts of FOMC meetings and congressional hearings; these empirical data are supplemented and supported by in-depth interviews with participants in these deliberations. The automated textual analysis measures the characteristic words, phrases, and arguments of committee members; the interviews offer a way to gauge the extent to which the empirical findings accord with the participants’ personal experiences. Analyzing why and under what conditions deliberation matters for monetary policy, the author identifies several strategies of persuasion used by FOMC members, including Paul Volcker’s emphasis on policy credibility and efforts to influence economic expectations. Members of Congress, however, constrained by political considerations, show a relative passivity on the details of monetary policy. .
Book
Sexting Panic illustrates that anxieties about technology and teen girls sexuality distract from critical questions about how to adapt norms of privacy and consent for new media. Though mobile phones can be used to cause harm, Amy Adele Hasinoff notes that the criminalization and abstinence policies meant to curb sexting often fail to account for distinctions between consensual sharing and malicious distribution. Challenging the idea that sexting inevitably victimizes young women, Hasinoff argues for recognizing young people’s capacity for choice and encourages rethinking the assumption that everything digital is public. Timely and engaging, Sexting Panic analyzes the debates about sexting while recommending realistic and nuanced responses.
Article
In this article, we analyze the structure and content of the political conversations that took place through the microblogging platform Twitter in the context of the 2011 Spanish legislative elections and the 2012 U.S. presidential elections. Using a unique database of nearly 70 million tweets collected during both election campaigns, we find that Twitter replicates most of the existing inequalities in public political exchanges. Twitter users who write about politics tend to be male, to live in urban areas, and to have extreme ideological preferences. Our results have important implications for future research on the relationship between social media and politics, since they highlight the need to correct for potential biases derived from these sources of inequality.
Article
This article delivers a snapshot of what digital feminisms can mean today. It argues that a commonality of current digital feminisms is a stance against digital dualism and that it is digital–material assemblages that shape certain forms of digital feminisms. In particular, two relatively recent examples of digital feminist activisms are analyzed, and I suggest ways of understanding the interplay of materialities within them: Germany’s Twitter campaign #aufschrei and the German anti-trolling website hatr.org. Finally, I suggest a typology of digital feminisms with varying degrees of digital–material entanglements.