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Transformation of the Educational Ecosystem in the Singularity Environment


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This study was aimed at creating an effective model of the educational ecosystem in a singularity environment. The study is based on a system of general scientific methods of scientific knowledge, in particular, the method of expert assessment, the method of analogy and comparative analysis. The experts, with the support of facilitators, visualized the possible future of education as a symbiosis of individual and collective learning paths that connect learners with many learning spaces and educational opportunities. To ensure the operability of such a model of the educational ecosystem, it is necessary to create tools and processes that support personal and collective learning and development throughout life, including: processes and tools that help determine the goals of learners; educational processes integrated into the educational trajectory and developing various aspects of personal and collective existence through holistic educational experiences, including play and co-creation; processes and tools that measure 78 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. learning outcomes; educational spaces and technologies that help to combine personal and collective educational trajectories, coordinating individual educational needs with the evolving needs of communities. These processes can be integrated into "ecosystem" systems of educational process management (in which personal and collective learning paths can be combined, and which connect learners with many learning spaces and educational opportunities).
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 9, pp. 77-98, September 2020
Transformation of the Educational Ecosystem in
the Singularity Environment
Kateryna Andriushchenko
Kyiv National Economic University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Vita Kovtun
Kyiv National Economic University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Oleksandra Cherniaieva
Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, Kyiv, Ukraine
Nadiia Datsii
Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Zhytomyr, Ukraine
Olena Aleinikova
University of Educational Management, Kyiv, Ukraine
Anatolii Mykolaiets
Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, Kyiv, Ukraine
Abstract. This study was aimed at creating an effective model of the
educational ecosystem in a singularity environment. The study is based
on a system of general scientific methods of scientific knowledge, in
particular, the method of expert assessment, the method of analogy and
comparative analysis. The experts, with the support of facilitators,
visualized the possible future of education as a symbiosis of individual
and collective learning paths that connect learners with many learning
spaces and educational opportunities. To ensure the operability of such
a model of the educational ecosystem, it is necessary to create tools and
processes that support personal and collective learning and
development throughout life, including: processes and tools that help
determine the goals of learners; educational processes integrated into
the educational trajectory and developing various aspects of personal
and collective existence through holistic educational experiences,
including play and co-creation; processes and tools that measure
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
learning outcomes; educational spaces and technologies that help to
combine personal and collective educational trajectories, coordinating
individual educational needs with the evolving needs of communities.
These processes can be integrated into "ecosystem" systems of
educational process management (in which personal and collective
learning paths can be combined, and which connect learners with many
learning spaces and educational opportunities).
Keywords: Singularity; Educational ecosystem; Competencies; Self-
guided education
1. Introduction
The rapid development of material and digital technologies and new
management tools in the 21st century gives mankind unprecedented
opportunities to create a desired future on a global scale. At the beginning of the
20th century a new hypothesis related to technological evolution (Armstrong,
2017) appeared, namely the concept of technological singularity (TC), which is
closely connected, first of all, with the rapid development and introduction of
innovations. In 1996, when the three main factors of the economy (labor force,
nature, capital) were related to information (information and communication
technologies of ICT), a new theory - the digital economy arose (Tapscott, 1997).
According to scientists, in 2045 artificial intelligence will exceed human
intelligence (Mead & Kurzweil, 2006). Some scientists call technical evolution a
singularity. With all the positive aspects, it is necessary to take into account that
technical evolution also brings big threats and changes for the education system.
At the recent Global Education Forum in Dubai, Harry Patrinos (World Bank
Education Manager), said about how workplace automation will affect the
quality of learning and the skills that learners need to be competitive with
regard to the speed of technical singularity (Psacharopoulos & Patrinos, 2018).
While industry is entering the fourth industrial revolution, education has stalled
in its development, and what we attribute to transformations is not enough. In
addition, it is necessary to recognize the fact that a large part of the education
system is not ready for technical singularity. The industry is rapidly developing,
the pace of technical singularity is surprising, while the education system is
slowly lagging behind. Approximately 80% of the time teachers spend on
administration and transfer of knowledge and only about 20% on emotional
development (UNESCO, 2020). Technological singularity, which leads to the use
of artificial intelligence in the educational process, contributes in the future to
more effectively assess learners and focus on building relationships and the
formation of emotional development in learners.
Masayoshi Son (he is the richest Japanese tycoon and the largest sponsor of
technological singularity) predicts that in 30 years the number of smart robots on
earth will be 10 billion and exceed the number of people (Kovtun et al., 2020). He
argues that any industry created by humanity will be redefined: the medical
industry, the automotive industry, the information industry, in general all the
industries that have ever been created by humanity, even agriculture. Because
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the tools that we created in the past were inferior to the human brain. Now tools
are becoming smarter than themselves.
Education systems, built on the patterns of the century before last, are no longer
meeting the requirements of the times. Given the development of exponential
technologies in the information sphere, the production of new materials, biology
and genetics, the future "comes" to us faster than we manage to react to what is
happening. Adaptive and conservative models of education are not just
ineffective - they pose a tremendous danger to our future, making us
unprepared and blind to the coming changes. First of all, education needs to
stop reproducing outdated models of thinking and activity. The time has come
to carry out the required transformations, and we need a qualitatively new
educational paradigm that meets the challenges of the complex world of the 21st
century (Global Education Futures, 2020).
According to UNESCO (UNESCO. 2020), there are 750 million illiterate people
on the planet who live mainly in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin
America - and one of the main goals of the UN sustainable development is the
complete elimination of illiteracy by 2030. The global demand for higher
education continues to grow: by 2025. the number of learners in the world
should increase by 95 million, and in order to satisfy this demand, it is required
to open three new universities every week over the next 10 years (Jacobs, 2014).
According to the Hays Global Skills Index (Hays Global Skills Index, 2018), the
growing mismatch of employee competencies with employers' requirements
remains one of the key market problems labor for all major economies of the
world. That is - even without major changes, education can remain one of the
most sought-after areas of society. From this point of view, the main tasks of
education in the coming decades will be to increase the capacity of educational
institutions, develop curricula that are more consistent with the requirements of
the labor market, as well as reduce the cost of learning with the help of new
educational technologies.
The transformation of the education sector in accordance with modern
challenges is inevitable, and the technologies that have already become the
driver of large-scale socio-economic changes have great potential for use in
schools. Already today, the use of big data processing technologies, artificial
intelligence, personalization in learning is no longer the subject of academic
discussion and is becoming the content of real projects, educational services and
platforms. To be able to respond to global challenges, participants in the
educational ecosystem must very well understand the main trends in its
development. This is especially important for our country, for historical reasons
it has for many decades been exposed to "raw material dependence" and the
accompanying significant centralization of public administration in everything,
including education. Today, when natural wealth ceases to be the basis and
guarantee of success of individual countries in global competition, it is necessary
to focus all our attention on the development of the only truly inexhaustible
resource for creating a better future for everyone and everyone - human
potential - in all its manifestations.
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The aim of this paper is to form an effective model of the educational ecosystem
in a singularity environment as a symbiosis of individual and collective learning
paths that connect students with many learning spaces and educational
2. Literature review and problem statement
Currently, a paradigm shift in the development of mankind is taking place. A
fundamental transformation of all forms of life activity is underway throughout
the world. Today's world needs innovations, since the resource base of nature
has been largely exhausted and only the innovative potential of man can lead
the world forward. At the same time, the modern innovation process can be both
manageable and spontaneous and unfocused. It is a clear understanding of the
content and structure of modern innovative technological transformations such
as information technology, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, nanotechnology,
communications, etc. allowed Ray Kurzweil to formulate the law of acceleration
of returns in 1999 (Kurzweil, 1999).
The research steps undertaken in this area by Eden, A. in 2012 in his essay
“Singularity Hypotheses” indicate, on the one hand, insufficient theoretical
elaboration of the problem, and on the other, the lack of effective mechanisms
for implementing the planned social transformations (Eden et al., 2012).
Researchers drew attention to the fact that, since technological progress,
determines how we live, is constantly accelerating, there must come a moment
when people can’t keep up with technology - that is, it will come what
mathematicians call a singularity (Neumann, 1993). But this time it will not be a
feature in a certain physical system, but a feature in the history of mankind.
Ulam S. systematized the idea of a singularity, which was considered as the
evolution of cybernetic systems (that is, control systems), both biological (mainly
the nervous system as a natural cybernetic system) and cultural (Ulam, 1958).
The evolution of these systems consists of a sequence of metasystem transitions,
each of which consists in the emergence of a next-level control system that
selects between different states or instances of already existing lower-level
control systems.
The ultimate limit of physical and social conditions is the point of singularity. In
a mathematical sense, a singularity is a phenomenon in which the number of
crises becomes infinite, and the gaps between them tend to zero (Vinge, 2008).
Singularity is the point at which our old models will have to be discarded, where
a new reality will reign. This is a world whose outlines will become clearer,
approaching modern humanity, until this new reality obscures surrounding
reality, becoming commonplace (Vinge, 2008). The scientist stated that society
simply went to the limit of both physical reality, studied by natural and
mathematical disciplines, and the social limit, studied by philosophy and social
sciences (Vinge, 2008). The appearance in the social and philosophical sciences of
the physical and mathematical concept of “singularity” is not accidental.
According to American researchers, the singularity point will come in 2020
(Tsirel,2020) or in 2027 (Panov, 2020).
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The concept of the singularity was widely popularized by Raymond Kurzweil,
who argues that the moment at which the mind of machines exceeds the human
- let's call it the Turing point - is not only inevitable, but also awaits us over the
next several decades (Kurzweil, 2008) In support of this idea, Kurzweil talks
about the merging of people and machines, after which there will be many
niches in which equivalent human autonomy will be claimed: embedded
systems in self-governing devices, autonomous robots of lower functionality in
larger intelligent creatures (Kurzweil, 2008). Later, Kurzweil developed the idea
that technological singularity is a futuristic concept, where the intellectual
capital of people in a constant “connect” with artificial intelligence is integrated
into artificial intelligence (superhuman intelligence). In other words, people will
become elements of information technology systems, and their manifestations
will be limited by their functionality in these systems (Kurzweil, 2016).
Scientists in their study presented the idea of considering technological
singularity as a predicted convergence of people and machines (Solez et al.,
2013). Researchers are talking about combining the strengths of a person and a
computer, where a person uses intuition, associations, and his understanding of
processes, and the computer's function is to carry out cumbersome accurate
calculations and expand the volume of operational and long-term human
memory. The main message in the paper is the interaction of man and computer
when the core value is formed (Solez et al., 2013).
In a study (Good, 1990) Irving John Good in the context of technological
singularity defined the superintelligent machine as a machine that can
significantly surpass all the intellectual actions of any person, no matter how
smart he is. Since the ability to develop such a machine is also one of these
intellectual activities, the superintelligent machine can build even more
advanced machines. This will undoubtedly be followed by an “intellectual
explosion”, and the human mind will lag far behind the artificial. Thus, the first
superintelligent machine will be the last invention that will fall on a person’s lot,
provided that the machine is humble enough and tells us how to keep it under
control. And the likelihood that in the twentieth century the superintelligent
machine will be built and become the last invention that a person will make is
higher than the likelihood that this will not happen (Good, 1990).
In the idea of a technological singularity, human intelligence is replaced in many
areas of activity. People gradually and steadily refuse to participate in the
production process (Mole, 2011). In a study (Calum, 2018), the author suggests
identifying several types of singularity: - technological, associated with the
creation of artificial intelligence superior to human intelligence; - economic, in
which acts of production and consumption reach absolute agreement and are
combined; - political, when political governance as such becomes meaningless; -
cultural, the main feature of which is the transition from the total priority of
successive artistic styles to the parallel, simultaneous existence of all the possible
diversity of cultural forms, to the freedom of individual creativity and
individual consumption of the products of this creativity. From the point of view
of technological development, a researcher (Calum, 2018) connects technological
progress with the economic crisis; avalanche-like innovation generates crisis
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phenomena in the social, cultural and economic life of people and is a
mechanism for overcoming crisis situations. according to cyclical theories,
destruction and creation in the development of matter are repeated forever.
Approximately 50 years ago, the American sociologist Alvin Toffler wrote in the
book "Shock of the Future" that the continuous and accelerating process of
change is the main trend of industrial civilization (Toffler, 1970). The impact of
technological acceleration is especially pronounced in the mutually reinforcing
spheres of "exponential" technologies: digital, biotechnological, and
nanotechnological (Kurzweil, 2005).
Likewise, changes in social norms have also been under the influence of an
accelerating trend over the past hundred years, albeit to a lesser extent.
Accelerating change (Heylighen, 2015) is an integral qualitative characteristic of
an industrial society, which was the result of three key events (Johannessen &
Sætersdal, 2020):
the emergence of “social machines” for knowledge creation and innovation
(from research universities and corporate research and development
departments to regional and national innovation systems), which provide a
steady flow of new technologies (Coser & Mumford, 1972);
the emergence of network technologies (from telegraph and television to the
Internet and social networks), which are becoming a vehicle for the rapid spread
of new technologies and norms (Bilan et al., 2017; Nitsenko et al., 2019;
Andriushchenko et al., 2020).
• the emergence of institutions supporting the processes of globalization, which
are gradually developing from agreements on free trade to systems of global
technology standards, professional requirements and educational processes.
The concept of "ecosystem" began to figure in discussions about the future of
education in the early 2000s, but there is still no single definition of it. Some
define the ecosystem through a balance of different stakeholders (stakeholders)
in the education process, including teachers and learners (Pearce & McCoy, 2007;
Hannon, 2017); others emphasize the role of the ecosystem as an alternative to
the traditional education system (Knowledge Works, 2012). Increasingly, the
concept of an ecosystem is used to refer to the collection of educational
technology solutions (eg social media and educational platforms) that are
available to individual learners and educational institutions.
In this study, the educational ecosystem can be defined as a dynamically
evolving and interconnected network of educational spaces made up of
individual and institutional providers of education who offer a variety of
educational resources and experiences to individual and collective learners
throughout their life cycle.
Studies in evolutionary biology, from where the concept of “ecosystem” is taken,
offer a more precise definition: an ecosystem is a community of living organisms
in connection with a natural inanimate environment (air, water, soil, etc.): for
example. forest, coral reef, or lake (Chapin et al., 2002). Given this definition, we
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can point out some features of the educational ecosystem that may be inherent in
them by analogy with biological ecosystems, in particular:
diversity: different providers of education that play many different roles and
ensure the structural stability of the ecosystem;
• maximum productivity and closed circulation of resources in the ecosystem:
• education providers enter into mutually beneficial relationships in which they
create and reallocate resources among themselves, including interested learners,
knowledge, quality assurance and funding (as opposed to earlier “hierarchical”
educational organizations that tried to control the educational trajectory and
future fate of learners , increasing competition within the system);
• the ecosystem creates the “maximum benefit” for society (for example, a
developed ecosystem should provide skills learning on a scale comparable to
secondary vocational education, with greater quality and lower costs);
• quick adaptability: ecosystems are able to adapt and respond to learner
requests and changes in the institutional environment (this is a critical hallmark
of ecosystems in relation to the earlier and more rigorous approaches of
centralized educational systems);
• scalability: ecosystems can operate at different scales, from groups of learners
or individual schools to the scale of the entire planet.
Accordingly, a fully developed educational ecosystem is an open and growing
community of different education providers that serve the different needs of
learners in a specific context or territory. A territory or region becomes the
minimum unit of the educational ecosystem - while a separate educational
institution (school, university, etc.) can never be a full-fledged ecosystem on
their own, although they can have “ecosystem” properties and can become a
central structural element of the ecosystem (like a large tree, in the crown of
which a wide variety of organisms can live, from moss to birds). A full-fledged
ecosystem requires not only providers of educational experiences, but also
various integrators (“connectors”) that create trajectories for learners through
the system, help to record and record their achievements, find and connect
public resources, etc. In this way, the educational ecosystem is always localized,
it meets local needs and brings learners together in this context.
3. Research
The modern world is facing a huge number of threats, including climate change,
declining biodiversity, growing risks of personal and collective security on a
global scale, threats to global wealth and growing global inequality. All these
threats are direct consequences of the dominant organization model of industrial
civilization (Hansson, 1990) - and their mutual influence reinforces each other,
creates the cumulative effect of growing global turbulence, and calls into
question the ability of mankind to survive the next century. Amid these growing
threats, management systems (including not only formal structures, but also
cultural patterns and a dominant way of thinking) simply stop coping with the
growing complexity. The reason for this is the mass education of the industrial
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
era: it does not prepare for life in a complex world, does not develop thinking,
reduces creative potential and innate ability to cooperate, deprives people of
sensitivity and compassion.
Today, education is mainly aimed at maintaining the status quo and
reproducing the values inherent in industrial society. Although in recent
decades developed countries have been trying to change the current situation
through the formation of a “knowledge economy”, the seeming changes in fact
largely continue the previous model and preserve all the old contradictions,
including the imbalance between humanity and nature.
Any deliberate change in education systems in the 21st century should be
inextricably linked with the solution of problems of economic, environmental
and political injustice, and should create the possibility of free access and
dissemination of human wisdom and welfare. It is necessary to develop a new
model of society based on collective wisdom or “the fundamental pragmatism of
life” (Baltes & Staudinger, 2000), which plays a key role in decision making and
human development. Figure 1 shows the process of transformation of society,
which includes three stages: industrial society; knowledge economy; a society
based on wisdom.
Figure 1: The emergence of a wisdom-based society
Transformation of educational systems on a global scale is facilitated by three
main factors.
1. The growing complexity of socio-technical systems (such as transport, energy,
telecom, mass production, etc.), socio-economic, political and cultural
environments, which are increasingly acquiring the features of VUCA.
2. The growing inefficiency of the modern education system due to insufficient
possibilities for its transformation, along with continued investment in industrial
models of education and the reproduction of outdated “ways of cognition”
(epistemology) that do not prepare society for answers to the challenges of the
21st century.
3. Active development of information and communication technologies,
mathematics, cognitive sciences, biopharmaceuticals and other related sciences,
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providing incredible mobility, the ability to process "big data", automation of a
number of cognitive processes in artificial intelligence systems, as well as new
ways of personal and collective learning and development based on these tools.
This creates ideal conditions for the emergence of open personal (network)
education based on relevant and advanced content, involving many new
educational providers, cooperation between learners and teachers, creating
motivating interactive educational environments and spaces. All this will allow
educational systems to become more flexible, varied and personalized - and at
the same time more and more global.
Numerous global challenges not only pose a threat to our existence - but also
open up opportunities for updating ways of thinking, creativity, decision-
making and activities. There is an unprecedented basis for cooperation,
creativity and innovation on a global scale. Education becomes both a response
to emerging challenges, and the main point of influence for the emergence of a
complex society and the self-realization of every person on Earth. If “evolution is
the way of learning the Universe, and learning is the way of man’s evolution”
(Laszlo, 2018), then the human community expects a focused development of the
ability to learn and lead in such a way that together create a prosperous and
desirable future on Earth and, possibly, beyond.
Global changes in attitude towards work and lifestyle mean a growing demand
for new individual and collective competencies. In a complex society, universal
knowledge and methods of action disappear, and much more important than
specific competencies (that is, the ability to act effectively in a given context) are
meta-competencies - such as creative abilities, the ability to negotiate and
collaborate, empathy, etc. Similar “soft” skills are becoming increasingly
important for getting a job, building a successful career, professional self-
realization, improving the quality of life and implementing an active citizenship.
Professional and social life is radically changing: more and more people are
involved in creative activities in horizontal, globally distributed organizations
and communities supported by information technology. Work in such
organizations does not contradict the achievement of personal and more global
social goals, and continuous development in them becomes a requirement and
an integral part of life. These changes are reinforced by the accelerating
transformation of global markets and supply chains, the massive disappearance
of traditional areas of employment and the emergence of new areas of work -
caused by the flow of technological and social innovations, the spread of new
global technological, financial and environmental standards. In these conditions,
organizations, communities, regions and economies seek to strengthen their
competitive advantages - and this leads to massive demand for “competencies of
the future”, allowing people to successfully operate in the context of the
expected socio-economic and technological changes. A common understanding
of future competencies includes (SES, 2012; PwC, 2013; OECD, 2019; Skidelsky,
1. various professional (“hard”) competencies and knowledge associated with
changes in technology and organization of work;
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2. “soft” professional competencies and universal knowledge that can be applied
in all professions, social and personal situations (including those associated with
the wave of technological transformation), such as (Regine,2020; Singh &
Sharma, 2020):
competencies and knowledge that help to cope with the fundamental
variability, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of the future - including
competencies of cooperation, creativity, entrepreneurship, etc., as well as
competencies related to strengthening personal “sustainability” (for example,
acquisition healthy habits and the ability to cope with stress) and the ability to
understand the future (understand and / or implement various scenarios of the
future and develop appropriate strategies for individual and collective actions);
competencies and knowledge that help to cope with the growing complexity
of civilization - including systemic thinking, the ability to solve problems and
find new opportunities (as well as artistic, poetic and other thinking), etc.
• knowledge and competencies that help to live in the world of information and
communication technologies - including basic programming skills, information
retrieval, processing and analysis skills (for example, “knowledge mapping”,
mind - mapping), information hygiene / media literacy, etc. One of the most
important skills is the ability to manage your attention, the basic ability to direct
and hold attention in the face of information overload (which can be trained
through many contemplative practices);
knowledge and competencies related to what “machines cannot do” -
including empathy / emotional or interpersonal intelligence, bodily - kinesthetic
intelligence and naturalistic intelligence, as well as strengthening the ability to
create and sincerely serve others;
• knowledge and skills related to focused multidisciplinarity, the desire to
achieve mastery in various fields of work and life.
In addition, the ability to succeed in the expected future depends on the
fundamental aspects of the human personality that determine how she lives and
acts - what is often called “character” (OECD, 2019). Character traits are usually
considered congenital or emerging at an early age. Nevertheless, modern
approaches to psychotherapy and human development methods show that even
fundamental character traits (eg. optimism) (Rashid & Seligman, 2018) or
“developmental orientation” (Diener & Dweck, 1980) can be acquired and
adjusted in any age. Therefore, such “life strategies” can be considered
competencies of a special type, which we designate as “existential
competencies”. These competencies include the ability to set goals and achieve
them (willpower), the ability to self-awareness / introspection (awareness), the
ability to learn something / unlearn / relearn (self-development) and others.
Probably, the classification of “soft” skills is also worth clarifying, since many of
them (for example, cooperation skills) are much more complex, based on more
basic and universal competencies (for example, communication skills or
emotional intelligence).
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Table 1: Life сycle of types of knowledge and skills
Relevance increases over time
Highly specialized
knowledge and
competencies (for example,
knowledge of anatomy and
surgical techniques for the
surgeon), special physical
skills (for example, cycling)
or special social skills (for
example, video blogging)
Knowledge and
competencies that can be
applied in more areas of
socio-economic and
individual activity, for
example, reading, writing,
time management,
cooperation, etc.
Ways to operate objects in
consciousness or in physical
reality. First of all, various
methods of cognition and
creativity, including logical
and cognitive, emotional,
physical and other intellects
The fundamental
competencies that determine
the essence of a person’s
behavior in life, his
perception of situations and
his character, including
competencies that determine
willpower, health, emotional
self-regulation, self-
knowledge and introspection
abilities, self-development
skills, etc.
To take into account the diversity of competencies, we propose the use of the
following four-level competency model, presented in Table 1, where four types
of competencies are presented: competencies associated with a specific context;
cross - contextual competencies; meta-competencies (primarily, types of
thinking); existential competencies.
It takes different amounts of time to master the competencies of different levels.
Context competencies can be mastered or adjusted in a short learning period,
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but they can also quickly become obsolete due to a constantly changing situation
(for example, the competencies of working with word processing programs or a
machine for mechanical processing, as they may become unnecessary due to
changes in technology.). Cross-contextual competencies retain their relevance
longer (over years or even decades), but they take more time to master. Meta-
competencies, especially existential ones, remain relevant for the longest time.
They usually develop early in a person's formation and rarely change during
life. However, those who are capable of intentionally improving their
“existential competencies” can also change many aspects of their lives.
The question arises, what part of these skills should be studied and at what level
(secondary education, higher education). In the 2020 GRALE report (Global
Report on Adult Learning and Education), rethinking the concept of literacy
begins with the conclusion that “literacy” is usually perceived as the ability to
read and write. In addition, the report increasingly mentions language skills,
since most people live in a multilingual society or have a migrant background,
using oral and written communication in different languages (Walters,2020).
This scheme determines that many future skills will be based on technical
competencies, using ICTs and the Internet. The skills of the 21st century (Bourn,
2018) are the integration of skills in technological singularity. It is the formation
of such skills that will be the main component of the curriculum in higher
education institutions for adaptation in the business environment.
Thus, according to the report “The Future of Education” (Cedefop, 2010),
Cedefop predicts an increase in demand in Europe for higher and secondary
education. The report provides an analysis of how to change the demand in
different professions in the future. The demand for highly qualified specialists is
increasing: legislators, top managers, technical support professionals, and
salespeople. The demand for clerks, artisans, workers in agriculture and fisheries
is decreasing.Visualization of future learning outcomes is shown in Figure 2.
Today, few doubt that the future of any company directly depends on its ability
to manage knowledge. The development of procedures for the detection,
transmission, replenishment and exchange of knowledge becomes one of the
main areas of activity of leading companies. A good tool for this is knowledge
management, which is defined as the interaction between People, Places, and
Things in a meaningful context. In the conditions of an innovative economy, in
the process of knowledge management, one must also take into account a
number of factors, the priority of which is: human, technological, individual,
organizational, global, factor of time.
The “competencies of the future” (or “competences of the 21st century”) are
aimed at satisfying the need to change economic and social systems. By
mastering the “competencies of the future”, we can become more complex
people and communities that are able to live in a new complex society.
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Figure 2: Visualization of future learning outcomes
Moreover, the development of society and the economy in the direction of
greater complexity will occur faster and will be all the more sustainable as the
larger percentage of the population in large numbers can master these
competencies of the future. However, today there is a gap between traditional
Communication in the
mother tongue
Communication in
foreign languages
competence and basic
competences in science
and technology
digital competence
confident and critical
learning to learn
pursue and organize
one’s own learning
sense of initiative &
turn ideas into action
involves creatively,
innovation, risk-taking
social and civic
engage in active and
cultural awareness &
expression of ideas,
experiences and
emotions different
Communication skills
Reading skills for all
High level of mathematics for all
Media literacy; Finding, selecting and
processing information quickly; using ICT
effectively; Creating digital information;
Being online 24/7; Web 2.0; Management of
digital identities
Innovation; Creativity; Entrepreneurship
Mobile learning; Learning to learn; Self-
learning; Making investigation in
Internet; Learning by doing
Active participation in society;
Collaboration skills; Co-operation;
Conflict resolution skills; Networking
Understanding diversity; Intercultural
dialogue; Cultural identity
Environment; Nature
Analysing; Criticizing;
Keep things short and
Identity; Self-confidence;
Self-esteem; Keep
Flexibility to change;
Openness to change;
adapting to change; Stress
The Present and the Future
European Commission:
Key Competences (2006)
Twinning workshop participants: Key Competences for the future
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
education systems and the learning process that is required to master the "skills
of the future."
4. Results
Accelerating social and cultural change places additional demands on the
continuous updating of skills and knowledge. As a result, the processes of the
“new” education should have greater flexibility and greater diversity compared
with existing educational systems. In contrast to the “hard” educational
practices of institutions of the industrial era, educational ecosystems allow the
most comprehensive way to integrate the diversity of educational opportunities
available in a particular territory. Educational ecosystems can include both real
and virtual spaces, provide opportunities for individual and collective
development in a wide range of human activities. They can also take into
account the needs of learners that appear and change throughout their lives,
including the processes of transition through life stages, social roles and skill
levels - the processes of “initiation” education, which should again revive in our
Princeton University and University College London conducted a study aimed
at determining how the use of artificial intelligence could affect the education of
students (Driscole,2018). Princeton University commissioned a research
company McKinsey & Company research, the essence of which was that during
the course of the semester, an MRI scan of students is carried out to study
artificial intelligence and understand how the learning process affects changes in
the brain. Namely, it analyzes how many times a student looks at lectures, how
quickly he understands the essence, which parts of the learning he is given the
hardest. The research results help to create a more personalized learning product
that promotes learning even faster.
China is actively using robots in classrooms as teachers and learners assistants.
The State Council of China announced the use of artificial intelligence in primary
and secondary education. In 2018, the first textbook on artificial intelligence for
high schools was created in China. Japan also began using robots to teach
English in their private schools (Andriushchenko, Kovtun et al., 2019).
According to the constant technological singularity, algorithms of machine
learning are developing rapidly. And the software, approaches and models on
which they learn are enormous. That is why, in the era of digitalisation, the
competence to use information and communication technologies are the
necessary and crucial condition for survival and the search for good work. The
gap between those who can freely use ICTs and those who cannot even afford
access to ICT will eventually scale (Hubanova et al., 2020).
In 2009, the Joint Research Center of the European Commission, the Institute for
Prospective Technological Studies in Seville, began a large-scale research to
study “Future Education”. The purpose of this research, which is shown in
Figure 3, is strategy formulation in the field of the education system that would
adequately prepare learners for life in the future society. As well as what
competences they will need for self-realization and development of society in
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
the period 2020-2030. This research is based on the “Learning Spaces in the
Future” (Badia, 2006; Redecker & Punie,2013; Anastasiades, 2016).
Figure 3: Conceptual map of the future of learning
Labour Market
Education &
New skills
New ways of
Initiative, resilience
Risk-taking, creativity
Team, networking
Empathy, compassion
Managing, organising
Meta-cognitive skills
Falling forward
Tailormade & targeted
Active & constructive
Motivating &
Sharing &
In communities
Anywhere, anytime
Blending virtual &
Labour market trends & demands
ICT Trends
Augmented Reality
Data mining
Learning analytics
Electronic tutors
3D virtual works
Social networks
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
To ensure the health of the educational ecosystem, it is necessary to create tools
and processes that support personal and collective learning and development
throughout life, including:
• processes and tools that help define the goals (individual or collective) of
learners, analyze their motivation to learn and preferred learning formats (for
example, learning in a competitive environment, in collaboration or through
individual research; reward based on internal or external rewards, etc.);
• educational processes that are integrated into the (individual or collective)
educational trajectory and develop various aspects of personal and collective
existence (cognitive, social, emotional, physical) through holistic educational
experiences, including play and co-creation;
processes and tools that measure learning outcomes (such as new acquired
competencies, artifacts created as a result of creative learning, reputation gained
through participation in educational experience, etc.), as well as indicators of the
quality of the educational process (level of interaction, level of joy, etc.);
educational technologies that support personal and collective education
processes, including virtual personal assistants and various educational
• educational spaces and technologies that help connect personal and collective
educational trajectories, aligning individual educational needs with evolving
community needs.
These processes can be integrated into "ecosystem" systems of educational
process management (in which personal and collective learning paths can be
combined, and which connect learners with many learning spaces and
educational opportunities). In the logic of such a model, the educational
institutions that we are familiar with (schools and universities) may exist as
some of the sites offering educational opportunities - or, they may become
centers of educational ecosystems, where educational processes are supported
by a number of educational technologies, including:
1. Solutions that enhance the individual educational process (due to applications
using "big data" and artificial intelligence), including: virtual tutors, personal
virtual assistants ,; personalized interactive learning materials and applications;
personal wearable devices for monitoring the psychophysical state, etc.
2. Solutions that enhance collective educational processes, including: collective
virtual assistants (facilitators, moderators) that support the productive work of
the group; collective self-regulation tools, etc.
3. Solutions combining individual and collective educational processes,
knowledge repositories (online libraries of books, articles, simulations, online
encyclopedias), as well as educational online platforms (with curated content);
• educational spaces for cross-learning (peer - to - peer) training and mentoring
support, including social networks and online gaming universes (including
virtual and augmented reality);
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
“markets of opportunities”, connecting individual learners with educational
opportunities existing in organizations and communities, including requests for
participation in a project / task / game (such “markets” can be imagined as
online platforms for job search with significantly wider functionality.
Figure 4: Visualization of the learning process of the future
Since learners can participate in one or several educational communities, and
any community will involve many simultaneously studying people at different
stages of development, it is necessary to create synergies between educational
Ontology and community practices,
collective intelligence and ability to solve
complex problems
The quality of connections, the level
of trust, the ability to collaborate in
and between communities
Collective management
of community energy
and resources
Warehouses /
Social networks
mentor networks)
and gaming
universes with
virtual /
Project / task /
markets of
Shared virtual
Biofeedback Tools for
Collective Self-
Collectively Defined
Goals (Formation of
Following the
example /
implementation of a
The goals of external
stakeholders: cities,
governments, etc.
Competency Profile
Reputation Capital.
Body development, control of
emotions and state of mind and
development goals
Role models and / or
goals defined by
mentors or with their
stakeholders: family,
government, etc.
Social / managerial / entrepreneurial
skills and knowledge
Creativity (including artistic / right-
brain abilities)
Worldview, languages, models of
Learner motivation
analysis / learning
Quality indicators of
an individual /
collective process
(level of interaction,
pleasure, state of
“flow”, etc.)
competency profile
Creative portfolio
(including gaming
Individual reputation:
assessment of
mentors, partners,
Virtual personal
assistants / tutors
Individual portable
biofeedback devices
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
experiences through their dynamic interaction. In the course of collective
learning, learners are offered certain roles and specific tasks, and their
individual educational experiences “collect” collective educational experience.
At the same time, collective learning possesses the properties of synergetic
phenomena and cannot be reduced to the “sum of its parts” - in the process of
such learning, collective competencies arise that are unique to each educational
community. Visualization of the learning process of the future is presented in
Figure 4.
Thus, education becomes an integral part of human life: part of work, creativity,
family, play, love and any other human affairs. In VUCA - the world,
responsibility for one’s own life and development cannot be shifted solely to
external forces (school, teachers, parents), and development cannot be ensured
through a system of rewards and punishments (Liezina et al. 2020). At present,
schools and universities often perform a disciplinary function and force people
to study and engage in self-development. But as the world becomes more
complex and less predictable, the only way to strengthen the sustainability of
society in the long run is to assign to everyone its responsibility for their own
education. Moreover, all the main educational innovations that have been
discussed over the past 20 years - personalization and individual trajectories,
online platforms and learners studying from each other, etc., require the
transformation of a critical mass of society from passive consumers of
knowledge into active “self-guided” learner. The architecture of the educational
ecosystem of the future is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Model of the educational ecosystem of the future
From the leaner's perspective, this multidimensional space can be described
through at least two semantic axes:
Local / global formats: some educational opportunities are built around local
content and direct physical contact (for example, group projects at school or
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
learning in an urban environment), while others are based on global content and
remote interaction (for example, learning on global online - platforms);
• Human-to-human / human-to-technology contact: some educational processes
take place in the form of mentoring or peer education, while others are created
by technology, online resources, video games and wearable devices.
In addition to schools and universities, which will remain a significant part of
ecosystems, but will gradually turn into “pillars” of educational network spaces
as ecosystems develop, at least three other spaces will become increasingly
• global educational online platforms will become the ultimate providers of
global knowledge and educational content;
urban education formats will continue to evolve in response to the growing
needs of “self- guided” learners of all ages;
• spaces of continuing education will be built around high-tech personalized
educational experiences, as well as collective experiences of human interaction
and co-creation.
A “self-guided” learner is able to set the goals of his learning, determine the
pace and other parameters of the learning process, use and create the necessary
educational resources, and immerse himself in various educational experiences
(including experiences whose results cannot always be predicted) that ensure
holistic development throughout all life. Moreover, it is “self-guided” learners
that create a request for new personalized educational formats using new
technologies, including online courses, educational applications, training
through practice, etc. So, the learning process should be diverse (limited in time,
personalized, comprehensive). Learners should be at the center of this process,
and this is important in order to acquire the competencies of the 21st century.
5. Conclusion
The increase in the percentage of self-guided learners to the level of “critical
mass” (according to recent studies (Global Education Futures. 2020), about 10%)
is the main prerequisite for the start of a “revolution in education ". Therefore,
we believe that in the next decade, educational innovations should be aimed
primarily at developing formats that ensure the transition to a new state: first of
all, at pedagogy and andragogy, which can significantly increase the level of
independence and self-government. Educational institutions interested in
joining this process and wishing to become part of the “new” educational
environment need to strengthen the component related to the formation of
relevant competencies, including the formation of motivation for learning and
development, setting personal goals, choosing educational technologies and
practices, selecting / creating leading content. If we move to mass self-guided
education throughout life, it is obvious that it is necessary to move away from
the usual concept of “continuing education” as professional development in
adulthood (and often in the workplace) - on the contrary, it is necessary to
develop and maintain various aspects of the human personality, and not just
those associated with a dominant social role. Genuine continuing education will
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
not only mean preparing for overcoming the challenges of certain periods of life
(for example, socialization or the beginning of professional activity), but also
will deal with thresholds and transitions between these periods - that is,
accompany the change of a person's social roles. In a world of high uncertainty,
education cannot have a predetermined ultimate goal - it is an individual and
joint journey in which we not only learn to learn but help each other move along
the development path.
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... It is up to teachers and school management to boost this skill because without reflection, it is limited to using virtual platforms as document repositories, workshops and exams, strategies that make reflection unfeasible [5]. Studies, such as those developed by [8][9][10] and [11], show that this phenomenon is repeated in several scenarios and evidence gaps in students' development. ...
... The health emergency of Covid-19 caused a rapid introduction of technology in the educational process. This implies centralizing interest in the substantive coordinates and methodologies of digital education, which changed face-to-face teaching to synchronous videoconferences or recording of asynchronous lectures or podcasts [32], in addition to efforts for new approaches in teaching [11]. However, according to [16], universities must rethink and replan their educational strategy to face technological transformation. ...
... Regarding critical thinking, professors state that developing this skill at graduation is a challenge, as it conflicts with problems related to students, professors and culture [11,32]. An aspect that compromises this ability, according to [11], is that teachers focus on the product or result and not on the process. ...
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Critical thinking is a necessary skill for teachers working at different levels of education, as it integrates accreditation standards. Despite recognizing critical ways of thinking about theory and reality, it is complex to identify the development of thinking in the virtual landscape. The general objective of this study was to reflect on didactic strategies used by teachers to develop critical thinking in asynchronous text-based discussions. In the process, aspects that favor or restrict the development of this skill in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) were identified. The study analyzes the relationship between the digital mural textual genre and the development of critical thinking. The methodology includes a postmodern and phenomenological approach. It was identified that eventual asynchronous interactions favored critical thinking. Asynchronous text-based discussions were exchanged between second and third-year teachers, and students were researched in a public school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The results showed improvisations and contingencies carried out by the study collaborators during the teaching-learning process on the REDU platform, initially not designed to develop critical thinking. It is concluded that teachers combine different strategies to develop critical thinking and expand the fundamental capabilities of the human being.
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... 1 Kujansivu et al. [4] Based on a statistical analysis of financial statements, indicates a strong relationship between the amount of intellectual capital and the performance of Finnish companies, not only in hightech industries and in the service sector of the economy, but also in the gas industry, in electric power companies. 2 Peng et al. [5] The author explores the nature of the relationship between the elements of intellectual capital in the process of transforming business models in the healthcare sector, showing that intellectual capital indirectly affects the efficiency of companies. 3 ...
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... El sustento teórico de este estudio se encuentra anclado en el trabajo seminal de Wenham (1987) titulado "Singular Problems in Science and Science Education". Para lograr este cometido, se plantea un modelo de análisis que se orienta hacia la identificación, organización y clasificación de la singularidad educativa, y se apoya en las investigaciones previas de Wenham (1987) y Andriushchenko et al. (2020). El objetivo final de esta indagación es proporcionar a las instituciones universitarias un conjunto de herramientas innovadoras que les faculten para enfrentar y adaptarse a los desafíos del cambio. ...
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This research presents an analytical model designed to detect, organize, and classify singularity in higher education based on futures studies. To achieve this, evidence is gatheredto identify distinctive features in the educational field, empowering universities to make strategic decisions in complex environments worldwide. The study is grounded in analytical techniques supported by future research, aiming to identify trends and innovative organizations in various global educational contexts. These singularities are categorized and organized using a mixed methodological approach that combines confirmatory research with the collection of qualitative and quantitative data. The study'sfindings offer insights into 55 higher education organizations with unique characteristics, emphasizing critical aspects of each. Furthermore, the utility of the developed instrument is validated as a pivotal tool enabling universities to continually review and adapt their educational practices, keeping them current and responsive to social and technological advancements in our ever-changing world. Additionally, the research seeks to stimulate a discussion about the future role of universities as influential entities in a dynamic, complex, and uncertain society. This underscores the vital importance of universities being well-prepared to confront challenges and seize opportunities emerging in this evolving context, ultimately contributing to their sustainedrelevance and effectiveness in the continuously changing educational landscape.
... The transformation of the learning ecosystem has thrown open many doors to 21st-century learners' needs such as forming learner-centered education and cultivating selfguided learners who can practice learning on a global scale. The emerged opportunities and capabilities in this direction not only have then broadened the landscape of learning but also promised to facilitate learning practices anytime, anywhere [1]. Collaborative Learning Community (CLC), as an example of a novel opportunity for learning, builds a social and inclusive place where a group of interested and committed learners with diverse backgrounds gather together to practice collective learning. ...
... Note that experts in the field of corporate training highlight some shortcomings of this model. Among them are: the gradation of assessment is not justified; you can measure the end result of training without assessing all intermediate indicators at different levels and the lack of an actual correlation between the complexity of the assessment and its usefulness [29]. Despite these shortcomings, the Kirkpatrick model is one of the most widely used in practice by domestic and foreign corporate universities. ...
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Corporate training is currently more flexible and acts as an accelerator in the field of training. The object of the current research is the system of education in corporate universities. The purpose of the work is to analyze the possibilities and experience of evaluating the effectiveness of training at a corporate university in order to identify tools that can be used to evaluate various performance indicators and to determine which of them can be transferred to other educational organizations. Possible shortcomings of the implementation of corporate training in the format of a corporate university as a separate legal entity are shown. To achieve this goal, we have identified suitable tools for evaluating the effectiveness of corporate training and evaluating its applicability in practice. As a result, the authors determined that the assessment of the effectiveness of corporate training in terms of indicators of the 1st and 2nd levels of the Kirkpatrick methodology can be easily carried out using various tools. Corporate universities usually use the necessary surveys during and after training for this purpose. The authors proposed to apply various methods of post-program support using appropriate educational technologies and mandatory assessment of participants sometime after training.
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The main purpose of this paper is devoted to studying economic factors within industrial production and development in the framework of concept Industry 4.0., all in the context features of the management process of ambidextrous companies. The economic factors regarding the development of enterprises under the conditions of digitization are systematized. Such factors as the need to develop a new type of intellectual value chain, production of individual and customized goods with reasonable prices and the use of learning factories have specific meaning in the framework of this problem. The results obtained can be used by business entities while implementing the decoded platform.
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The paper considers clustering as one of the most effective approaches to managing regional development. The analysis of conceptual approaches to the formation of clusters in the agricultural sector of the regions is presented. The authors propose an algorithm for creating and developing a regional agro-based cluster, which includes three stages: analysis and forecasting; organization of events; creating a system for monitoring the effectiveness of the cluster. The result of such analytical procedures and organizational measures is the formation of a management mechanism that ensures effective interaction between cluster members and the achievement of cluster development goals.
Initially, this chapter was motivated by questions raised in the SETI project (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). If intelligent life is a normal phenomenon in the Galaxy, and if its rate of technological evolution is at least as advanced as on Earth, then the Galaxy must be full of highly developed technological civilizations, and we should be able to see them in all directions or they should even be here. So why do we not see them? This question is well known and referred to as the “Fermi paradox” or the “astrosociological paradox” (ASP). Panov’s focus is on the following form of that question: “Taking intelligent life to be a usual phenomenon in the Galaxy, then what would their technological civilizations look like, such that they are ‘invisible’ to us now?” This question has great practical importance. If we would like to find extraterrestrial civilizations, then we should try to understand what we are looking for. The method should depend on the aims. And we need to understand civilizations’ potential for technological evolution. It is a difficult problem, but not impossible. The idea is to look at technological development in light of the general laws of evolution. The question then turns out to have significance for our own possible future as a “post-singular” civilization and could assist us in overcoming the challenges of a transitional singularity crisis, which our societies on Earth are just now entering.
This chapter focuses on challenges to liberal democracies and welfare states while building a society with different social structures. It examines problems, such as inequality and insufficient employment, of transitioning to a post-singular society. A scenario is constructed where a new society with growing automation, artificial intelligence, but reduced employment will not have time to fully form by the time the second stage of the transition begins. This second stage includes genetic engineering and the possible division of humanity into various non-intersecting and unequal beings. The later cyborgization of people might be necessary for the survival of humanity.
Thinking about a different and desirable future and finding paths to achieve that future are one of the most remarkable human capacities. Hope and optimism are inherent in this capacity. In Session Nine, clients learn to see the best possible, realistic outcomes. They learn that challenges are temporary and how to develop a sense of hope. The central positive psychotherapy practice covered in this session is One Door Closes, Another Door Opens . The chapter provides a list of readings, videos, and websites that relate to hope and optimism and offers a worksheet to practice the concepts learned in the chapter. The chapter also includes a real-life case study that illustrates how to practice hope and optimism.