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Cave microclimate data retrieval and volumetric mapping, 2009 Atacama Desert Expedition, Chile, Earth Mars Cave Detection Project

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!!Cave!Microclimate!Data!Retrieval!and!Volumetric!Mapping,!!
2009!Atacama!Desert!Expedition,!Chile,!Earth?Mars!Cave!Detection!Project:!
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Explorers!Club!Flag!Report!(Flag!#!52)!
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Submitted)27)O ctober)2009)
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<$23'8^!jut.wynne@nau.edu!
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1.0!Introduction!
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W<$720(:-!&0(D!3'7+&-!<(%!V'7C<(0C!V+(2&#!!
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2.0!!Background!
Terrestrial, Cave, Detection:! G0(D+8! T,JF@X! ?8'V0%+%! <! H<&+70(+! W'8! %+2+C20(:! C<V+&! 0(! 23+! 23+81<7!
0(W8<8+%-! <(%!&$::+&2+%!C<V+&!C'$7%! H+! %+2+C2+%! H*!0%+(20W*0(:!23+! 23+81<7! &0:(<7!<&&'C0<2+%!P023!23+!
1<&&!'W!<08!<2!23+!+(28<(C+!C'(28<&2+%!<:<0(&2!23+!&$88'$(%0(:!:8'$(%!&$8W<C+#!)307+!<08!2+1?+8<2$8+&!
0(! C<V+! +(28<(C+&! <8+! +_?+C2+%! 2'! H+! %0WW+8+(2! W8'1! <1H0+(2! 2+1?+8<2$8+&-! )*((+! +2! <7#! T.bbI<-!
.bbIHX!&$::+&2!23+! H<&0&!W'8! C<V+! %+2+C20'(! P077! H+!23+! 2+1?+8<2$8+!C'(28<&2!H+2P++(!23+! 8'CD! P<77&!
P0230(!23+!C<V+!+(28<(C+!<(%!+_2+8(<7!&$8W<C+!8'CD#!!
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)*((+! +2! <7#! T.bbJX! 3<V+! &3'P(! 02! 0&! ?'&&0H7+! 2'! %0WW+8+(20<2+! C<V+&! W8'1! C<V+]70D+! <('1<70+&! H*!
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2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
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Importance,of,Martian,Caves^!TQX!9<V+&!1<*!H+!01?'82<(2!0(!23+!&+<8C3!W'8!+V0%+(C+!'W!+_28<2+88+&280<7!
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c7+0(! ,JJIR! 9<H8'7! +2! <7#!.bbJX#!T\X! Q! 1<((+%! 10&&0'(! 2'! N<8&! P077! 8+a$08+! <CC+&&! 2'! &0:(0W0C<(2! B.`!
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?8'V0%+! 23+! H+&2! <CC+&&! 2'! 23+&+! 8+&'$8C+&! T\<D+8! +2! <7#! .bb5X#! T9X! Y$2$8+! 3$1<(! +_?7'8<20'(! <(%!
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+(V08'(1+(2!P3+8+!23+&+!&3+72+8&!1<*!H+!H$072!T\'&2'(!+2!<7#!.bb5X#!!
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Figure' 1.' Pisgah' l ava' beds,' Mojave' Desert,' CA.' [A ]' Color' visible' image' containin g' cave' entrance' (red' circle)' and ' anomaly' (blue'
circle).' [B]' IR' image' acquired'at'0510' hr' overlaid' on' the' visible'image.' Cave' entrance'appears' as' a' warmer' feature.'[C]'Results' of'
Principle'Components'Analysis'show'output'can'be'used'to'differentiate'between'the'cave'(red),'non‐cave'anomaly'(blue),'and'high'
thermal'inertia'basalt'(green).'Scatter'plot'of'the' 2nd'and'3rd' principle'components.'[D]'Visible'image'with' 3rd'principle' component'
output'overlaid;'colors'match'those'used'in'C.''From'Wynne'et'al.'(2009).'
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Cave, Detection,on, Mars^! Q21'&?3+80C! <(%! &$8W<C+! C'(%020'(&! '(! N<8&! W7$C2$<2+! 1'8+! %8<1<20C<77*! <&!
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2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
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3.0!!Goals,!Accomplishments!and!Objectives!
Goals^! /3+! 'V+8<77! :'<7! 'W! 230&! ?8'j+C2! 0&! 2'! %+W0(+! 10&&0'(! <(%! 0(&28$1+(2<20'(! 8+a$08+1+(2&! W'8!
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Figure' 2:' HiRISE' [A ,B,C]' and' THEMIS' IR' [D,E]' ima gery' of' a' pair' of' pit'
craters'north'of'Arsia'Mons,'Mars.'Based'on'interpretations'of'features'
in'panels'B' and' C,'both'appear'to'have'an' overhanging'rock' rim.' From'
Cushing'et'al.'2008.''
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Accomplishments,(2008, Expedition):! )+! T,X! %+?7'*+%!
2+1?+8<2$8+! <(%! H<8'1+280C! ?8+&&$8+! %<2<! 7'::+8&! <2!
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<%j<C+(2! 2'! <77! &2$%*! &02+&! 0(! 23+! Q2<C<1<! ;+&+82-!
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<(%! '(+! C<V+]70D+! <('1<7*! $&0(:! 28<%020'(<7!
C<82':8<?30C! T8+W+8! 2'! ;<&3+8! ,JJ>X! <(%! (+P7*!
%+V+7'?+%!V'7$1+280C!1<??0(:!2+C3(0a$+&#!!
!
Objectives, (2009, Expedition)^! `$8! 'Hj+C20V+&! P+8+! 2'^!
T<X! 8+280+V+! %<2<! W8'1! <77! %+?7'*+%! 2+1?+8<2$8+! <(%!
H<8'1+280C! ?8+&&$8+! %<2<! 7'::+8&R! THX! 8+7<$(C3! <(%!
8+%+?7'*!%<2<!7'::+8&!TP30C3!0(C7$%+%! H<22+8*!8+1'V<7!
<(%! 8+?7<C+1+(2-! <&! P+77! <&! 8+7<$(C30(:! <(%!
8+%+?7'*0(:! <77! 0(&28$1+(2&! <2! 23+08! '80:0(<7! &<1?70(:!
&2<20'(XR! T CX! C'(%$C2! (+<8! 8+< 7]201+! <(<7*&0&! T0#+#-! +<C3!
<W2+8(''(! <(%k! '8! +V+(0(:X! 2'! %+2+810(+! 0W! %<2<! 7'::+8! ?7<C+1+(2! P<&! <%+a$<2+! W'8! C3<8<C2+80=0(:!
C<V+! 23+81<7! H+3<V0'8! <(%! 1'%+70(:! 2+1?+8<2$8+! 28+(%&R! <(%!T%X! %8<W2! &D+2C3! 1<?&! <(%!%+80V+! C<V+!
V'7$1+!W'8!<77!C<V+&!<(%!C<V+]70D+!<('1<70+&#!!!
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4.0!!Methods!
Study,Area:,)+!&+7+C2+%!C<V+&!0(!23+!Q2<C<1<!;+&+82!'W!('823+8(!9307+!%$+!2'!23+!8+:0'(i&!3*?+8<80%02*-!
P30C3!1<D+&!230&!<8+<!<(!0%+<7!<(<7':!W'8!23+!N<8&#!G+C+(2!&2$%0+&!&$::+&2!23+!C701<2+!1<*!3<V+!H++(!
<80%!W'8!Jb!N<!T+#:#-!B<827+*!<(%!93'(:!.bb.R!B<827+*!+2!<7#!.bb@X!<(%!&?+C0W0C!8+:0'(&!3<V+!H++(!3*?+8]
<80%!W'8!,b],@!N<!TL80CD&+(!,JI5R!\+8:+8!<(%!9''D+!,JJFR!B'$&2'(!<(%!B<827+*!.bb5X#!G<0(W<77!0(!23+!
Q2<C<1<f &! 3*?+8]<80%! C'8+! 0 &! V082$<77*! 0(%0&20( :$0&3<H7+! W8'1! =+ 8'#! B'P+V+8-! 23+! Q 2<C<1<! 1<*! 3<V+!
H++(! <! 1$C3! P+22+8! ?7<C+! ]! 1$C3! 70D+! N<8&! T+#:#-! 93'(:! ,JI>-! ,JIIR! 4<V<88']6'(=<7+=! +2! <7#! .bb5R!
l$0((!+2!<7#!.bb@X#!!
O+:+2<20'(! C'V+8! 0(! '$8! &2$%*! <8+<! 0&! 7'P! 2'! ('(]+_0&2+(2#! /30&! P<&! 01?'82<(2! W'8! &2$%*! <8+<!
C'(&0%+8<20'(! H+C<$&+! V+:+2<20'(!C'V+8! P077! C'(W'$(%!'$8! <H0702*! 2'! +WW+C20V+7*! 1+<&$8+!2+1?+8<2$8+!
%0WW+8+(C+&!H+2P++(!C<V+!+(28<(C+!<(%!&$8W<C+#!!
K$8W<C+! 1<2+80<7! (+<8! 23+! C<V+! +(28<(C+&! P+8+! 1'%+8<2+]2']7''&+7*! C'(&'70%<2+%! <77$V0$1-!
C'1?80&+ %! 'W! &072*! 7'<1! <(% ! C7<*&! P023! 0(W8+a$ +(27*! 0(2+8&?+8&+ %!: 8<V+7! 2'! H'$7%+8! & 0=+%! &<(%&2'(+-!
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2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
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23+81<7! 0(+820<! 2'! H+! 7'PR! 8+&$720(:! 0(! 8<?0%! P<810(:! %$80(:! 23+! %<*! <(%! 8<?0%! C''70(:! W'77'P0(:!
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<??8'_01<2+7*!,b!1'(23&!TQ$:$&2!.bbI!m!"$(+!.bbJX#!!
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1'V+1+(2!1<*!0(W7$+(C+!23+!P<77&!'W!23+!C<V+!+(28<(C+!<(%!23$&!%+2+C2<H0702*#!!!
,
Data, Logger, Deployment^! M(! "$7*]Q$:$&2! .bbI-! P+! %+?7'*+%! 2+1?+8<2$8+! <(%! H<8'1+280C! ?8+&&$8+!
&+(&'8&!0(!+0:32!C<V+&!<(%!W'$8!C<V+]70D+!<('1<70+&#!9<V+!m!)+!%+?7'*+%!2P'!2'!238++!%<2<!7'::+8&!?+8!
+(28<(C+! <(%! <2! <77! &D*70:32&! P0230(! +<C3! C<V+R! '(+! %<2<! 7'::+8! P<&! ?7<C+%! <2! C<V+! 10%?'0(2&! T0#+-!
10%P<*!H+2P++(!+(28<(C+!<(%!2+810($&!'W!C<V+X-!<2!+<C3!H0W$8C<20'(!?'0(2!T0#+#-!P3+8+!?<&&<:+!%0V0%+&!
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C<V+&!P023!1$720?7+! ?<&&<:+&-!<!%<2<! 7'::+8!P<&! ?7<C+%!<2!23+!2+810($&!'W!+<C3! ?<&&<:+P<*#!K$8W<C+!m!
)+!%+?7'*+%!<2! 7+<&2!2P'!2+1?+8<2$8+!<(%!H<8'1+280C!?8+&&$8+!%<2<! 7'::+8&!'(!23+!&$8W<C+!P0230(!.b!
1+2+8&! 'W ! +<C3! +(28<(C+k! &D *70:32#! Y'8! +(28<( C+&k! &D*70:32&! 7'C <2+%! P0230(! C<(*' (&-! '(+! %<2<! 7'::+ 8!
P<&!?7<C+%!P0230(!23+!C<(*'(!<(%!<!&+C'(%!'(!23+!C<(*'(!801#!!
!
Cave, Mapping, and, Deriving, Volume^! Y0+7%! /+C3(0a$+&! TN<??0(:X^! )3+(! <V<07<H7+-! P+! $&+%! +_0&20(:!
C<V+! 1<?&! ?8'V0%+%!H*! Y8*+8! T.bb@X! <(%!"'+7! ;+&?<0(! T4SKX#! /3+&+! 1<?&! P+8+! <CC$8<C*! C3+CD+%! 0(!
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<8'$(%! <! ? 8'28<C2'8! P3++7! W '8! 23+! 2'2<7! 7+(:23! 'W ! +<C3! W+<2$8+#! ;<2< ! S8'C+&&0(:^! A0(+! ? 7'2! <(%! '23+8!
1+<&$8+1+(2&!P+8+!+(2+8+%!0(2'!23+!C<V+!1<??0(:!?8':8<1!9'1?<&&!TO+8&0'(!@#bI#,,#E#,@FX#!!
)307+!9'1?<&&!3<&!<!C<V+!V'7$1+!C<7C$7<2'8-!230&!W$(C20'(!:+(+8<2+&!<!C<V+!V'7$1+!+&201<2+!$&0(:!
W'$8!?'0(2&!<8'$(%!23+! ?8'28<C2'8! P3++7!T$?-!%'P(-!7+W2!<(%!80:32!?+8!+<C3!1<??0(:!&2<20'(X#!\+C<$&+!
P+! 8+a$08+%! 30:3+8! <CC$8<C*! V'7$1+! +&201<2+&-! P+! %+V+7'?+%! <! N0C8'&'W2! L_C+7! &?8+<%&3++2!
<??70C<20'(!2'! C<7C$7<2+! V'7$1+! $&0(:! +0:32! %<2<!?'0(2&! <8'$(%! 23+! ?8'28<C2'8! P3++7! 8<23+8! 23<(!W'$8!
%<2<!?'0(2&#!!
Q!W$77!%+&C80?20'(!'W!23+&+!2+C3(0a$+&!<(%!23+08!<??70C<H0702*!2'!%+80V0(:!C<V+!V'7$1+!+&201<2+&!<8+!
H+0(:!?8+?<8+%!0(!<!?<?+8!2'!H+!&$H1022+%!W'8!?$H70C<20'(!T8+W+8!2'!G$H*!+2!<7#!In,prep#X#!!
!
5.0!Results!
Figure' 3.' 3‐D' Map' of'
Cueva' Chulacao, ' Atacama'
Desert,' Chile' (drafted'
using' Compass).' '' Using'
our' spreadsheet'
application,'Chulacao' is'
approximately' 20,005' m3'
(Ruby'et'al.'In#Prep).'
Y0+7%! '?+8<20'(&!
P+8+! C'(%$C2+%!
W8'1! b@! m! .b! "$(+!
.bbJ#! ;$80(:! 230&!
?+80'%-! P+! T,X!
2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
5
8+280+V+%! %<2<! W8'1! %<2<! 7'::+8&! 7'C<2+%! <2! <77! &2$%*! &02+&R! T.X! 8+7<$(C3+%! <(%! 8+%+?7'*+%! <77! %<2<!
7'::+8&!23<2!P+8+!8+C'V+8+%R!T5X!<(<7*=+%!%<2<!<(%!%+2+810(+%!P3+23+8!&+(&'8!?7<C+1+(2!P<&!C'88+C2!
W'8! <77! &2$%*! &02+&! <(%! &$WW0C0+(2! 2'! 1'%+7! 2+1?+8<2$8+! 28+(%&R! P+! <7&'! T>X! 1<??+%! <(%! C'77+C2+%!
V'7$1+280C!%<2<!<2!&0_!C<V+&!<(%!2P'!('(]C<V+!<('1<70+&!T8+W+8!2'!Table!1X#!!
;$80(:!W0+7%!'?+8<20'(&-!'(+!'W!'$8!%<2<!&3$227+&!C8<&3+%#!/30&!8+&$72+%!0(!23+!7'&&!'W!,b!1'(23&!'W!
%<2<! W8'1! 2P'! C<V+&! <(%! '(+! ('(]C<V+! <('1<7*! 0(! 23+! 93$7<C<'! C'1?7+_#! /3+&+! %<2<! C'$7%! ('2! H+!
8+C'V+8+%#!
!
Table'1.'Cave'and'noncave'study'sites,'
Atacama' Desert,' Chile.' Total' cave'
length' was' derived' using' standard'
cave' cartographi c' techniques' (refer' to'
Dasher' 1994).' Volume' was' estimated'
using' new' volumetric' mapping'
techniques' (Ruby ' et' al.' In# Prep.).' Data'
collected' during' [1]' 2008' and' [2]' 2009'
expeditions.''
Q%%020'(<77*-! 238++! 'W! '$8!
%<2<! 7'::+8&! P+8+! ('2!
8+C'V+8+%#!!
!
!
!
6.0!Discussion!
/30&!+_?+%020'(!P<&!7<8:+7*!&$CC+&&W$7#!)+!C'77+C2+%!V'7$1+280C!%<2<!<(%!C'1?7+2+%!1<?&!'W!<77!'W!'$8!
&2$%*! &02+&!]]!0(! 2'2<7!,.!&2$%*!&02+&! T+0:32!C<V+&!<(%! W'$8!C<V+]70D+!<('1<70+&X!W'8! H'23!23+! .bbI!<(%!
.bbJ!+_?+%020'(&#!)+!P+8+!<H7+!2'!8+280+V+!%<2<!W8'1!'(7*!&0_!C<V+&!<(%!238++!('(]C<V+!<('1<70+&#!)+!
7'&2! ,b! 1'(23&! 'W! %<2<!W8'1!2P'! C<V+&!<(%! '(+! ('(]C<V+! <('1<7*#! `(+! 'W! '$8! %<2<! &3$227+&! C8<&3+%!
<(%!23+!%<2<!C'$7%!('2!H+!8+C'V+8+%!m!%+&?02+!23+!+WW'82&!'W!23+!+(:0(++8&!<2!`(&+2!9'1?$2+8!9'8?#!!
Q7&'-! P+! P +8+! $(<H7+! 2'! 8+7 'C<2+! 238++! 'W! '$8 ! %<2<! 7'::+8&#! )+ ! H+70+V+! 2P'! 7':: +8&! P+8+! &2'7+(R !
23+&+! 0(&2 8$1+(2&! P+8+! %+?7 '*+%! 0(! 23+! +(28<(C+&! 'W! 2P'! C< V+&! W8+a$+(2+%! H*! 2 '$80&2&#! ;+&?02+! '$ 8!
H+&2! +WW'82&! 2'! C'(C+<7! '$8! 0(&28$1+(2&-! 23+*! P+8+! W'$(%! <(%! 8+1'V+%#! /3+! 2308%! %<2<! 7'::+8! P<&!
%+?7'*+%!0(!23+!+(28<(C+!'W!<!8+1'2+!C<V+#! )307+!P+!3<%! H'23!C'?0'$&!('2+&!<(%! ?3'2':8<?3&!'(!23+!
7'C<20'(!'W!230&!0(&28$1+(2-!P+!P+8+!$(<H7+!2'!8+7'C<2+!02#!
;<2<! C'77+ C2+%! %$80(:! 23+! .bb J! +_?+%020'(! P077! H +! $&+%! 2'^! T<X! 1'%+7 ! 2+1?+8<2$8+! 28+(% &! 'W! 23+!
+(28<(C+-!0(2+8(<7! C<V+-!<(%! &$8W<C+!W'8! <77! C<V+&! <(%!('(]C<V+! <('1<70+&R!THX! +_<10(+!<(%! +7$C0%<2+!
2+1?+8<2$8+! %0WW+8+(C+&! H+2P++(! C<V+&! <(%!('(]C<V+! <('1<70+&R!<(%! TCX! 0%+(20W*! 23+! H+&2! <(%!P'8&2!
%+2+C20'(!201+&!2'!C'(%$C2!10&&0'(&!2'!C'77+C2!<08C8<W2]H'8(+!23+81<7!01<:+8*#!!
)307+!'V+8W70:32!201+&!W'8!<77!&2$%*!&02+&!3<V+!('2!H++(!%+2+810(+%-!P+!?8+&+(2!<(!+_<1?7+!'W!3'P!
230&! 0&! +&20 1<2+%! T8+W+8! 2'! F igure! 4X#! Y'8! K38+ %%+8! 9<V+-! 2P'! ' ?201<7! 'V+8W70:3 2! 201+&! +_0&2! m! P 0(2+8!
T"$(+! m! Q$:$&2X! H+2P++(! bEbb! <(%! bIbb38! <(%! &$11+8! T4'V+1H+8! m! "<($<8*X! H+2P++(! ,.bb! <(%!
,>bb38#!/3+!P'8&2!'V+8W70:32!201+!T0#+#-!23+!201+!P3+(!23+8+!0&!10(01<7!C'(28<&2!H+2P++(!+(28<(C+!<(%!
&$8W<C+X! < 8+! 23+81<7! C8'&& ]'V+8! ?+80'%&! <( %! 'CC$8! %$80(:! 1 '&2! 'W! 23+! *+<8! TQ $:$&2! m! N<*X! H+2 P++(!
,Ibb!<(%!..bb38#!
)+!C'(%$C2+%!?8+7010(<8*!<(<7*&0&!'(!23+!Q2<C<1<!%<2<!2'!0(V+&20:<2+!2+1?+8<2$8+!28+(%&!'W!C<V+&!
<(%!C<V+]70D+!<('1<70+&-!<(%!+_<10(+!%0WW+8+(C+&!H+2P++(!C<V+&!<(%!('(]C<V+!<('1<70+&#!/+(2<20V+7*-!
'$8! 8+&$72&! 7<8:+7*! C'(C$8! P023! 23+! 8+&$72&! ?8+&+(2+%! H*! )*((+! +2! <7#! T.bbJX#! /3+&+! 8+&$72&! P077! H+!
?$H70&3+%!0(!<!?++8]8+V0+P+%!j'$8(<7#!!
!
Names!
Type!
Length!(m)!
,93$7<C<'!
9<V+!
I@J!
,/+7'C'2+!
9<V+!
E,.!
.K<7'(!
9<V+!
.I@!
,6$0<!
9<V+!
>b!
.A$(<!*!N+%0<!
9<V+!
.bb!
.l$02'8!
9<V+!
,bE!
.A'&!6<2'&!
9<V+!
F,!
.K38+%%+8!
9<V+!
,I@!
.B$+&'&!
9<V+]70D+!<('1<7*!
.@!
.9<&C<%<!S+a$+n<!
9<V+]70D+!<('1<7*!
.>!
.9<82<?+!
9<V+]70D+!<('1<7*!
.,!
,N0(<!S+a$+n<!
9<V+]70D+!<('1<7*!
>!
2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
6
Figure'4:'Comparison'of'
surface' and' entrance'
temperature' data' for'
the' upper' entrance' of'
Shredder'Cave.'This'is'a'
screen' shot' of' a'
software' package'
developed' during' this'
project' and' used' to'
analyze' cave'
temperature.' The' left'
panel' shows' the'
surface' (white)' and'
entrance' (blue)'
temperatures' observed'
over' 10' months.' The'
right' panel' shows' the'
time‐of‐day' and'
seasonal' comparison'where'warm' colors' (green‐yellow‐red)' show' the' greatest'thermal' contrast'and'the'cool'colors' (purple‐blue)'
show'the'least'thermal'contrast.'''
`(C+!H+&2!<(%!P'8&2!'V+8W70:32&!201+&!W'8!23+!C<V+&!<(%!C<V+]70D+!<('1<70+&!<8+!%+80V+%!TW'8!23'&+!
&02+&! 23<2!P+!3<V+!%<2<X-! P+!P077! $&+! 23+&+! %<2<!2'!&C3+%$7+!'$8! 'V+8W70:32&#!/3+&+! 8+&$72&-!<7'(:!P023!
23+! 23+81<7! 01<:+8*! <(<7*&0&! <(%! 0(2+8?8+2<20'(-! P077! H+! 0(C'8?'8<2+%! 0(2'! <! ?<?+8! <(%! P077! H+!
?$H70&3+%!0(!<!?++8]8+V0+P+%! j'$8(<7#!MW!H+&2! <(%!P'8&2! 'V+8W70:32!201+&!W'8!'23+8! C<V+&!<(%!('(]C<V+!
W+<2$8+&! <8+! &0107<8!2'! 201+&!W'8! K38+%%+8!9<V+-! P+!1<*! H+!<H7+! 2'!C'(%$C2!H'23! 10&&0'(&! %$80(:! 23+!
&<1+!+_?+%020'(#!'
Table'2:'2009'Atacama'Desert'Cave'Expedition'Team'
/+<1!N+1H+8!
QWW070<20'(!
G'7+!
"$2!)*((+-!Y4fbE!
KL/M]9K9-!4QU!
L_?+%020'(!7+<%R!;<2<!8+280+V<7!7+<%!
/01!/02$&!
UK6K!
;+?$2*!+_?+%020'(!7+<%R!K+(&'8!%<2<!
<(<7*&2!
;<(!G$H*-!N4fbJ!
Y7+0&C31<((! S7<(+2<80$1-! U(0V#!
4+V<%<-!G+('!
4$1H+8!5R!N<??0(:!2+<1!7+<%R!A+<%!
C<82':8<?3+8!
6$077+81'!93'(:!
U94!
6+'7':0&2R!A':0&20C&!
9380&20(<!9'7?022&!
G+&+<8C3!K$??'82!68'$?!
K<W+2*! 'WW0C+8R! 9<82':8<?3*!
2+C3(0C0<(!
A*((! B0CD&-! N;-!
N4fbJ!
67*((! M11+%0<2+! 9<8+-! K'$23+<&2!
6+'8:0<!B+<723!K*&2+1!
L_?+%020'(! ;'C2'8R! K+(&'8!
?7<C+1+(2R!9<82':8<?3*!2+C3(0C0<(!
;+(0&+!B077!
NQGK!
LN/R!9<82':8<?3*!2+C3(0C0<(!
980&20<(!/<1H7+*!
9<1?'!Q72'!
A':0&20C&!C30+W!
!
Expected, Results, (upon, project, completion):, /38'$:3! '$8! +WW'82&-! P+! P077^,T,X! 0%+(20W*! 201+&! P3+(!
%0WW+8+(C+&! H+2P++(! C<V+! +(28<(C+&! <(%! &$8W<C+! C'(28'7! &2<20'(&! <8+! '?201<7! <(%! &C3+%$7+! 23+81<7!
%<2<! C'77+C20'(! 'V+8W70:32&! <CC'8%0(:7*R! T.X! C'1?<8+! 23+! 23+81<7! H+3<V0'8! 'W! C<V+&! 2'! ('(]C<V+!
<('1<70+&R!<(%-!T5X!?'?$7<2+!&01$7<20'(!1'%+7&!'W!23+!23+81<7!%*(<10C&!'W!N<820<(!C<V+&!<(%!&$8W<C+#!
Q%%020'(<77*-!230&!?8'j+C2!P077!8+&$72!0(!23+^!TiX!%+V+7'?1+(2!'W!<!&*&2+1<20C!<??8'<C3!W'8!2+88+&280<7!<(%!
+_28<2+88+&280<7! C<V+!%+2+C20'(R!TiiX!+&2<H70&31+(2!'W!<! 23+81<7!&0:(<2$8+!70H8<8*! 'W!2+88+&280<7!C<V+&!'W!
V<80'$&! &28$C2$8+! 2*?+&R! TiiiX! %+&0:(<20'(! 'W! '?201<7! 201+&! W'8! %+2+C20'(! 'W! C<V+&! '(! <! ?+8! &28$C2$8+!
H<&0&! W'8! L<823! <(%! N<8&R! <(%! TivX! 0%+(20W0C<20'(! 'W! 0(&28$1+(2<20'(! <(%! 10&&0'(! 8+a$08+1+(2&! W'8!
%+2+C20(:!N<820<(!C<V+&#!
7.0!!Acknowledgements!
)+! +_2+(%! '$8! :8<202$%+! <(%! 23<(D&! 2'! N8#! L%P<8%! G'%8g:$+=! <(%! N8#! /'1<&! 6+8o! N+82+(&! P023!
2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
7
9`4QY]Q(2'W<:<&2<-! <(%! N8#! G'H+82'! 98$=! 98$=! P023! 9`4QY]9<7<1<! <(%! N8#! N<($+7! 9'82+&! N'8<!
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W0+7%P'8D ! <(%! 30&! C'(20($+%! & $??'82-! N8#! ;'(! Y+70_! 9'7a$+-! N 8&#! ;'(<! N<80<! 9' 7a$+! <(%! N8#! 9<87'& !
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/08020770!<(%!23+!M770('0&!C<V+!&+<8C3!<(%!8+&C$+!2+<1!W'8!23+08!P0770(:(+&&!2'!8+1<0(!'(!&2<(%]H*!%$80(:!
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7+<%0(:!2'!23+!01?8'V+1+(2!'W!23+!+_?+%020'(!&<W+2*!?7<(-!N8#!N<22!Q8C'V0'!<(%!67'H<7!G+&C$+!W'8!23+08!
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!
8.0!!Literature!Cited!
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Earth,Surf.,Process.,Landforms!..^!@I,]Ebb#!
\'&2'(-!S#"#!T.bbbX-!A0W+!H+7'P!<(%!70W+!i'$2!23+8+i#!Geotimes!!>@^,>],F#!
\'&2'(-!S#"#!!T.bb5X-!L_28<2+88+&280<7!9<V+&#!Encyclopedia,of,Cave,and,Karst,Science-!Y02=8'*];+<8H'8(!S$H70&3+8&-!A2%#-!A'(%'(-!
Uc#!
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N<8&-!Icarus!J@^!5bb]5bI#!!
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10C8'H0'2<#!!6+'7':0C<7!K'C0+2*!'W!Q1+80C<!QH&28<C2&!P023!S8':8<1&-!5,-!Q5b5#!
\'&2'(-!S#"#-!Y8+%+80CD-!G#;#-!)+7C3-!K#N#-!)+8D+8-!"#-!N+*+8-!/#G#-!K?8$(:1<(-!\#-!B07%8+23])+8D+8-! O#-!/3'1?&'(-! K#A#-! N$8?3*-!
;#A#!T.bb5X-!B$1<(!$2070=<20'(!'W!&$H&$8W<C+!+_28<2+88+&280<7!+(V08'(1+(2&-!Grav.,&!Space,Biol.,Bull.!,E^!,.,],5,#!
9<H8'7-!4#Q#-!L#Q#!680(-!<(%!"#"#!)*((+!T.bbJX-!;+2+C20'(!'W!9<V+&!<(%!9<V+]H+<80(:!6+'7':*!'(!N<8&-!QH&28<C2!q,b>b-!ASK9!rA-!
B'$&2'(-!/r#!
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\8+02D8+$=-!<(%!S#!60+&+!TL%&#X^!/3+!K'$23+8(!9+(28<7!Q(%+&#!Lect.,Notes,Earth,Sci.!,F-!,5F],@,#!
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;+&+82-!('823+8(!9307+-!J.,Geol.,Soc.-,162^!>.,]>.>#!
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3*?+8]<80%02*!0(!23+!Q2<C<1<!;+&+82-!Intl.,J.,Climatology!.5^!,>@5],>E>#!
2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
8
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Atmos.,Sci.!>F^!E,.mE.I#!
2009 Atacama Desert Expedition (05-20 June 2009) – Explorers Club Flag Report
9
!
Appendix!I!
TL_<1?7+!'W!;<2<!A'::+8!;+?7'*1+(2X!
!
Cueva' Salon,' Atacama' Desert,' Chile.' Boxes' (red)' represent' the' locations' of' where' data' loggers' are' deployed.''
Numbers'(blue)'represent'the'number'of'each'data'logger.'Map'modified'from'Fryer'(2005).'
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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The Atacama Desert forms one of the major hyperarid deserts of the world. Previous studies suggest that desertification commenced at 14 Ma during global climate desiccation. Sedimentologic data from middle Miocene to upper Pliocene successions in the modern Atacama Desert indicate that a semiarid climate persisted from 8 to 3 Ma, punctuated by a phase of increased aridity at ca. 6 Ma. As such, hyperaridity did not commence until the late Pliocene. Implications are (1) that the rain shadow generated by the Andean Cordillera has had a minor influence on climate change, and (2) that the upwelling, north- flowing, cold Humboldt Current, although important in establishing the generally arid climate of western South America, did not control the shift to hyperaridity. The formation of the hyperarid Atacama Desert in the late Pliocene accompanied the development of the current phase of aridification in the Sahara and Namib Deserts and is attributed to a phase of global climate cooling.
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The structures of mean flow and turbulence in the atmospheric surface boundary layer have been extensively studied on Earth, and to a far less extent on Mars, where only the Viking missions and the Pathfinder mission have delivered in-situ data. Largely the behaviour of surface-layer turbulence and mean flow on Mars is found to obey the same scaling laws as on Earth. The largest micrometeorological differences between the two atmospheres are associated with the low air density of the Martian atmosphere. Together with the virtual absence of water vapour, it reduces the importance of the atmospheric heat flux in the surface energy budget. This increases the temperature variation of the surface forcing the near-surface temperature gradient and thereby the diabatic heat flux to higher values than are typical on the Earth, resulting in turn in a deeper daytime boundary layer. As wind speed is much like that of the Earth, this larger diabatic heat flux is carried mostly by larger maximal values of T*, the surface scale temperature. The higher kinematic viscosity yields a Kolmogorov scale of the order of ten times larger than on Earth, influencing the transition between rough and smooth flow for the same surface features.The scaling laws have been validated analysing the Martian surface-layer data for the relations between the power spectra of wind and temperature turbulence and the corresponding mean values of wind speed and temperature. Usual spectral formulations were used based on the scaling laws ruling the Earth atmospheric surface layer, whereby the Earth's atmosphere is used as a standard for the Martian atmosphere.
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Airborne infrared thermal scanners can be used to detect crevasses and cave openings, but only under certain conditions. First, the temperature inside the void must be significantly different from external conditions; and second, some mechanism must exist to bring this thermal difference to the surface where it can be detected by a scanner. It must be determined if other events influence this mechanism. In the case of crevasses, conduction and convection both play a role in altering the surface temperature of the snow bridge over a crevasse. For caves, convection is the mechanism that brings about the temperature alteration. Convection is linked to the breathing cycle which, in turn, is caused by changes in atmospheric pressure. From ground measurements of internal temperature, external temperature, and atmospheric pressure a flight time can be picked that will provide the most favorable circumstances. Results are given for a crevasse field in Greenland and for a cave system in Puerto Rico.
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CONAF-SanPedroforassistancewith fieldwork and his continued support, Mr. Don Felix Colque, Mrs. Dona Maria Colque and Mr. Carlos ColquewithColqueTours-SanPedroforcontinueduseofourfieldstation
  • Mr. Roberto Cruz Conaf-Antofagasta
  • Cruz
  • Mr. Manuel Cortes Mora Conaf-Calama
  • Asociaciónindígenavalledelalunaforfacilitatingandissuingourresearchpermits
  • Wethankmr
  • Joseluisjara
CONAF-Antofagasta, and Mr. Roberto Cruz Cruz with CONAF-Calama and Mr. Manuel Cortes Mora AsociaciónIndígenaValledelaLunaforfacilitatingandissuingourresearchpermits,andprovidingus withcontinuedsupportinthefield.WethankMr.JoseLuisJara,CONAF-SanPedroforassistancewith fieldwork and his continued support, Mr. Don Felix Colque, Mrs. Dona Maria Colque and Mr. Carlos ColquewithColqueTours-SanPedroforcontinueduseofourfieldstation("RanchoTonka"),Mr.Marc TiritilliandtheIllinoiscavesearchandrescueteamfortheirwillingnesstoremainonstand-byduring thisexpedition,Dr.RandyBertholdandtheNASA-ARCEERRBSafetyReviewPanelfortheirdirection leadingtotheimprovementoftheexpeditionsafetyplan,Mr.MattArcovioandGlobalRescuefortheir stand-byextricationsupport,Mr.ScottElliswithONSETComputerCorp.fordonatingthedatashuttles andforhiscontinuedsupport,andMr.JoelDeSpainandMr.ShaneFryerwiththeU.S.NationalPark ServiceforaccesstoanduseofAtacamaDesertcavemaps.SpecialthankstoTheExplorersClub(Ms.
  • P J Boston
Boston,P.J.(2003),ExtraterrestrialCaves.EncyclopediaofCaveandKarstScience,Fitzroy-DearbornPublishers,Ltd.,London, UK.
It's alive! Models of Martian biomarkers derived from terrestrial cave microbiota
  • P J Boston
  • M N Spilde
  • D E Northup
Boston, P.J., M.N. Spilde, and D. E. Northup, (1999), It's alive! Models of Martian biomarkers derived from terrestrial cave microbiota.GeologicalSocietyofAmericaAbstractswithPrograms,31,A303.
  • P J Boston
  • R D Frederick
  • S M Welch
  • J Werker
  • T R Meyer
  • B Sprungman
  • V Hildreth-Werker
  • S L Thompson
  • D L Murphy
Boston,P.J.,Frederick,R.D.,Welch,S.M.,Werker,J.,Meyer,T.R.,Sprungman,B.,Hildreth-Werker,V.,Thompson,S.L.,Murphy, D.L.(2003),Humanutilizationofsubsurfaceextraterrestrialenvironments,Grav.&SpaceBiol.Bull.16:121-131.