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Elektronik einer neuen Dimension - Potenziale dehnbarer Foliensysteme bei der Entwicklung interaktiver Mikroimplantate

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Flexible and Stretchable PCBs for Smart Electronics. The TWINflex Concept. From Visions To Products - MID and Beyond -Talk/Presentation- Stuttgart
Article
In this paper we review the mechanical properties and reliability results of stretchable interconnections used for electronic applications. These interconnections were produced by a Moulded Interconnect Device (MID) technology in which a specially designed metal interconnection if fully embedded with an elastic material such as polyurethane or silicone. In order to get a first impression of the expected damage in the interconnections, this research employs Finite Element Modelling (FEM) to analyse the physical behaviour of stretchable interconnects under different loading conditions. Moreover, the fatigue life of a copper interconnect embedded into a silicone matrix has been evaluated using the Coffin-Manson relation and FEM.
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It is postulated that (A) the material is isotropic, (B) the volume change and hysteresis are negligible, and (C) the shear is proportional to the traction in simple shear in a plane previously deformed, if at all, only by uniform dilatation or contraction. It is deduced that the general strain-energy function, W, has the form W= G 4 3 ∑ i=1 λ<sub>i</sub>- 1 λ<sub>i</sub> <sup>2</sup>+ H 4 3 ∑ t=1 λ<sub>i</sub><sup arrange="stagger">2</sup>- 1 λ<sub>i</sub><sup arrange="stagger">2</sup> , where the λ<sub>i</sub>'s are the principal stretches (1+principal extension), G is the modulus of rigidity, and H is a new elastic constant not found in previous theories. The differences between the principal stresses are σ<sub>i</sub>[minus]σ<sub>i</sub>=λ<sub>i</sub>∂ W/∂λ<sub>i</sub>[minus]λ<sub>i</sub>∂ W/∂λ<sub>i</sub>. Calculated forces agree closely with experimental data on soft rubber from 400 percent elongation to 50 percent compression.
Conference Paper
Assembly of electronic components on rigid and/or flexible printed circuit boards is today the customary way to fabricate electronic systems in stationary, mobile and automotive applications. On the other hand, many of the demands from emerging application fields like wearable and textile electronics cannot be met if with standard technologies. These fields have therefore become mayor drivers for the development of novel technologies. Among these dasiastretchable electronicspsila have attracted much attention recently. Especially for textile applications the potential of the electronic system to comply with the body shape and movement will considerably improve the user comfort. In this paper we will present a cost effective technology for the realization of stretchable systems by common printed circuit board techniques like lamination, lithography, etching and micro via technology with polyurethane as a stretchable matrix/substrate material. Mastering of the adhesion between materials and the transitions region from stretchable to non-stretchable parts of the system are crucial for the mechanical performance and robustness. Technical approaches and the obtained results to tackle these issues will be presented. After a complete embedding of the components/interconnections the systems can be firmly attached to textile or non-woven cloth, which can be subsequently integrated into garments. The described process technology bears the potential for large scale roll to roll processing. Reliability aspects for stretchable electronic systems are so far not standardized and will be discussed briefly. Electrical and mechanical functionality of test vehicles subjected to multiple stretch and mild washing cycles will be presented. A functional electronic demonstrator with embedded passives, a micro controller, and LEDs which was realized with this technology will be shown.
Article
The trend of microelectronic products in the textile or medical field is toward higher functionality, miniaturization, application of new materials and a necessity for deformable electronic circuits for improving the comfort control. In this work, the design of flexible and stretchable interconnections is presented. These interconnections are done by embedding sinuous electroplated metallic wires in a stretchable substrate material. A silicone material was chosen as substrate because of its low stiffness and high elongation before break. Common metal conductors used in the electronic industry have very limited elastic ranges; therefore a metallization design is crucial to allow stretchability of the conductors going up to 100%.Different configurations were simulated and compared among them and based on these results, a horseshoe like shape was suggested. This design allows a large deformation with the minimum stress concentration. Moreover, the damage in the metal is significantly reduced by applying narrow metallization schemes. In this way, each conductor track has been split in four parallel lines of 15 μm and 15 μm space in order to improve the mechanical performance without limiting the electrical characteristics.
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Hoffmann, K.-P. et al.: Technical, Medical and Ethical Challenges in Networks of Smart Active Implants. 41st Annual Intern. Conference IEEE EMBC (2019), S. 1484-1487
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