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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA L

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Leaves of Euphorbia hirta, traditionally practiced in the treatments of boils, dysentery, enteritis and various skin conditions, were extracted by soxhlet extraction in various extraction mediums. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (Standard strains and clinical isolates). Antibacterial sensitivity test indicated that the methanolic extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis to varying extents while K. pneumonia was the most resistive strain to these extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of the extract against E. coli, S aureus, and S. entertidis were in the range of 0.1mg/ml. Phytochemical analysis indicates presence of terpenes, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids which might be accountable for its antimicrobial properties, and these results validate the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of various diseases. Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay et al. Pharmacognostical and Antibacterial Studies of Leaf Extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. J Phytol 2/6 (2010) 55-60 *Corresponding Author,
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Journal of Phytology 2010, 2(6): 55–60 ISSN: 2075-6240
Pharmacology Available Online: www.journal-phytology.com
REGULAR ARTICLE
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF
DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA L.
Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay*, K.P. Singh and Ashwani Kumar
Biotechnology Laboratory, P.G. School of Biotechnology and Department of Botany,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
SUMMARY
Leaves of Euphorbia hirta, traditionally practiced in the treatments of boils, dysentery,
enteritis and various skin conditions, were extracted by soxhlet extraction in various
extraction mediums. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial
activity against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (Standard strains and
clinical isolates). Antibacterial sensitivity test indicated that the methanolic extract
inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis to varying extents while K.
pneumonia was the most resistive strain to these extracts. Minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC), of the extract against E. coli, S aureus, and S. entertidis were in the
range of 0.1mg/ml. Phytochemical analysis indicates presence of terpenes, tannins,
alkaloids and flavonoids which might be accountable for its antimicrobial properties, and
these results validate the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of various diseases.
Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay et al. Pharmacognostical and Antibacterial Studies of Leaf Extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. J Phytol 2/6 (2010) 55-60
*Corresponding Author, Email: bhuvan.com@gmail.com
1. Introduction
The value of ethnomedicine and
traditional pharmacology is these days
achieving great appreciation in modern
medicine, as the search for new potential
medicinal plants is frequently based on an
ethnomedicinal basis (Muthu et al., 2006;
Parveen et al., 2007; Upadhyay et al., 2010).
Ethnobotanical studies of different areas of
Rajasthan state has been carried out by many
workers in this field (Singh and Pandey, 1998;
Mishra and Kumar, 2000, 2001; Katewa et al.,
2004; Parveen et al., 2007; Upadhyay et al.,
2010).
E. hirta is an Annual plant growing to
0.3m by 0.25m. The plant prefers light (sandy)
and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-
drained soil. According to survey, different
parts of E. hirta are used for curing various
ailments. The aerial parts of the plant are
harvested when in flower during the
summer and dried for later use. The stem is
used as a treatment for asthma, bronchitis
and various other lung complaints. The
whole plant is decocted and used in the
treatment of athlete's foot, dysentery,
enteritis, and skin conditions (Upadhyay et
al., 2010). It has been used in the treatment of
syphilis. The sap is applied to warts in order
to destroy them, and treatment needs to be
repeated 2 - 3 times a day over a period of
several weeks to be fully effective.
Along with common secondary
metabolites like; alkaloid, flavonoids,
coumarins and terpenes, a number of
substances, as; tannins, gallic acid, quercetin,
phenols, phyto-sterols, alcohols, etc. have
been reported in the plant (Kerharo and
Adam, 1974; Burkill, 1985). Blanc et al., (1972)
reported ellagic, Gallic, chlorogenic and
caffeic acids, kaempferol, quercitol,
quercitrin, and a number of amino acids. The
alcoholic extract of the whole plant had an
anticancer action in mice (Hartwell, 1967;
Sharma and Kumar, 2000). The plant has also
been shown to have anti-helminthic activity
(Ayensu, 1979; Sofowora, 1993; Adedapo et
al., 2005).
Interaction with some traditional medical
practitioners revealed that the plant is very
popular amongst them, thus there is need to
determine its antibacterial potentials. This
work was therefore undertaken to
Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay et al./J Phytol 2/6 (2010) 55-60
substantiate the antibacterial potentials of E.
hirta.
2. Material and methods
Extraction of the plants
The leaves of E.hirta were collected from
many regional areas of Jaipur city, during
post monsoon period and were authenticated
by botanists at Deptt. of Botany, University
of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India and a specimen
sample is kept in our institution (herbarium
voucher numbers RUBL 20280). Shade dried
coarsely powdered leaves (44 g) of E.hirta
were subjected to successive extraction with
various extraction solvents (54-55.5°C) for 24-
36 hr using a soxhlet extractor. These crude
extracts were concentrated using vacuum
evaporator. The dried filtrate was
reconstituted with 100% dimethylsulfoxide
(DMSO).
Paper disks (diameter 6mm) were then
impregnated with 100µl of the final extract,
which is equivalent of 10mg/ml of dried
plant material. Once the DMSO had
evaporated, the disks were placed in a
refrigerator and stored in darkness for the
duration of the assays. 0.01ml of one of the 24
h broth cultures culture were spread on
sterilized nutrient agar media and
impregnated discs were placed on it and
incubated for 24 h at 37°C.
Preparation of micro-organism culture
In vitro antimicrobial activity of the
different extracts of E. hirta was studied by
disc diffusion method using different
concentrations on different microbial strains
such as Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and
Clinical isolate), Proteus vulgaris (ATCC
13315), Salmonella enteritidis (clinical isolate),
Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus
aureus (ATCC 6538P and clinical isolate),
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and
clinical isolate), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC
13883). The bacterial cultures were obtained
from, SMS Hospital, Jaipur.
All the bacteria were incubated at 30 ±
0.1°C for 24 hours by inoculation into
Nutrient Broth (Sigma). Sterilized Petri
dishes (9 cm diameter) were inoculated with
0.01 ml of one of the above culture media
(~105 bacteria per ml). Muller-Hinton agar
(Sigma), sterilized in a flask and cooled to
45–50°C, was distributed by pipette (15 ml)
into each inoculated Petri dish and swirled to
distribute the medium homogeneously. Discs
injected with extracts were applied on the
solid agar medium by pressing slightly. The
treated Petri dishes were placed at 4°C for 2
hours and then incubated at 35 ± 0.1°C for 24
hours.
At the end of the period, inhibition zones
formed on the medium were measured with
a transparent ruler in millimeters and
compared with the standard drugs prepared
by using standard antibiotics as Ampicilin
(10µg/ml), Streptomycin (10µg/ml), and
Tetracyclin (30µg/ml) in sterile distill water.
The experiment was performed in triplicate,
and average diameter of zone of inhibition
was obtained.
Phytochemical investigation by TLC
The detection of active principles in
medicinal plants plays a strategic role in the
both; qualitative and quantitative
phytochemical investigation of crude plant
extracts (Pascual et al., 2002). TLC is a rapid
and economical procedure for the
determination of the main active principles
of medicinal plants e.g., alkaloids, cardiac
glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins,
tannins, etc. TLC is also used for
fractionation of the extract obtained by
extraction procedure by using different
solvent compositions.
The extent of the surface of the spot is a
measure for the quantity of the material
present (Pascual et al., 2002). The volume of
the spots applied on the chromatographic
plates was 5µl, corresponding to
approximately 300µg for each dry extract.
Chromatography was performed in the
following solvent systems: Nonpolar solvent:
toluene-acetone (8:2); semi-polar solvent:
toluene-chloroform-acetone (40:25:35); polar
solvent: n-butanol-glacial acetic acid-water
(50:10:40). The chromatograms were
observed first without chemical treatment,
under UV 254 nm and UV 365 nm light, and
then using the spray reagents.
Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay et al./J Phytol 2/6 (2010) 55-60
Determination of Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration
For determination of Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), the method
of Cheesbrough (2000) was used. Stock
solutions were prepared by dissolving the
extracts in DMSO. Two-fold serial dilutions
were employed to determine MIC values.
Each microorganism was incubated with an
extract in duplicate tubes containing a total
volume of 10 mL.
The final concentration of extract was in
the range 0.1 to 1.5 mg/mL. Control tubes
without extract were constituted similarly.
Antibiotics were included as positive control
in different tubes. The MIC was the lowest
concentration of extract with no visible
bacterial growth or no turbidity.
3. Result and Discussion
Table 1.Ethnopharmacological studies of E. hirta
Table 2.Antibacterial screening of the different extract of Euphorbia hirta
*Ace.=Acetone, Eth.= Ethanol, Aq.=Aqueous extract, Chl.=Chloroform, Met.=Methanol
** Strepto= Streptomycin, Amp= Ampicilin, Tetra= Tetracycline
E
. hirta
Whole
plant
Amoebic
dysentery
Decoction of whole plant is taken internally with
milk for 5 days
athlete's foot Whole plant is decocted and taken internally and
paste is also applied on affected area. in the
treatment of athlete's foot
Skin
problems
Crushed whole plant is applied on the affected
area in skin conditions
Leaf
Asthma and
bronchitis
The drug is administered in the form of aqueous
extract with Grindelia or senega in the treatment
Leucorrhoea
About 20 leaves are crushed and the extract is
given orally with honey once a day in the
morning.
syphilis Decoction of leaves is taken internally with milk to
treat syphilis
Fresh
latex
Warts The fresh latex is applied to warts and The
treatment needs to be repeated 2 - 3 times a day.
Micro-organisms E. hirta Plant leaf extracts*
(10 mg/ml)
Standard Antibiotics**
Ace. Eth. Aq. Chl. Met. Strepto.
10 µg
Amp.
10µg
Tetra.
30µg
B. subtilis
(ATCC 6633)
6.5 11.3 9.4 7.6 12.3 19 15 25
E. coli
(ATCC 25922)
12.3 10.2 - 6.9 9.6 19.4 15 -
E. coli
(clinical isolate)
12.8 - 11.0 11.3 11.7 20.6 - 27
P. vulgaris
(ATCC 13315)
9.3 6.5 8.9 9.4 9.4 18.3 18 25
P. aeruginosa
(ATCC 9027)
8.1 7.1 8.9 - 11.2 22.5 - 20
P. aeruginosa
(clinical isolate)
8.0 6.5 8.6 - 9.6 20.0 14 12
S. aureus
(ATCC 6538P)
13.0 12.0 11.2 11.4 10.6 17.9 15 -
S. aureus
(clinical isolate)
12.5 11.6 - - 13.2 19.5 16 -
S. enteritidis
(clinical isolate)
11.3 5.6 10.3 - 8.9 18.6 - 24
K. pneumoniae
(ATCC 13883)
- - 6.5 - - 20.4 17 26
S.typhae
(clinical isolate)
11.0 12.1 9.8 - 8.6 18 19 24
Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay et al./J Phytol 2/6 (2010) 55-60
Table 3.Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta against test isolates
S.No. Microorganism E. hirta
1. B. subtilis (ATCC 6633) 0.2
2. E. coli (ATCC 25922) 0.1
3. E. coli(clinical isolate) 0.1
4. P. vulgaris (ATCC 13315) >0.5
5. P. aeruginosa(ATCC 9027) NA
6. P. aeruginosa(clinical isolate) NA
7. S. aureus(ATCC 6538P) 0.1
8. S. aureus(clinical isolate) 0.1
9. S. enteritidis(clinical isolate) 0.1
10. K. pneumonia(ATCC 13883) 1.0
11. S.typhae(clinical isolate) 0.2
Table 4.Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta
-= (negative result), += (small amount), ++ = (average), +++ = (high), nt= not tested
Plant extracts are generally rich in
antimicrobial agents after the flowering
(sexual) stage of their growth is complete,
and plants taken from stressful environments
were particularly active. Antibacterial
extracts from plants can be anticipated to be
S. No. Phytochemical E. hirta
1. Alkaloid ++
2. Flavonoids +
3. Saponin -
4. Coumarins +
5. Ployphenols ++
6. Cardiac glycosides +
7. Triterpenes +++
8. Cyanogenic glycosides -
Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay et al./J Phytol 2/6 (2010) 55-60
useful in eliminating infectious diseases. The
infecting microorganisms are usually the
same as those infecting higher animals and
there is therefore compelling reason to
suppose that anti-infective agents could be
active against human or veterinary
pathogens. It is soothing to find, that the
spectrum of activity of these plant extracts is
broad enough to include human pathogens,
as was suggested by folkloric and historical
accounts.
During experiment this is noted that leaf
extract is more potent than any other extract.
Acetone extract was the second more potent
extract after methanolic extract. These results
are also according to the previous studies of
selection of extraction media (Eloff, 1998). As
evident by Table 2, the inhibition zone of S.
aureusby Methanolic extract of leaves of E.
hirta was 13.2mm, which is highest inhibition
zone, received. With observation of results
(table 2) it is clear that E. coli, S. aureus and B.
subtilis were the most susceptible bacteria to
almost all E. hirta extracts. On the contrary, K.
pneumoneae was the most resistant
microorganism, and very less number of the
extracts was active against K. pneumoneae.
Minimum inhibitory concentration of E.hirta
extracts were also recorded as 0.1 mg/ml in
case of B. cereus, S.aureus, and B. subtilis.
In this study, the results obtained
indicated that the Methanolic extract of the E.
hirta inhibited the growth of the test isolates
except K. pneumoniae. This, therefore, shows
that the extract contains substance(s) that can
inhibit the growth of some microorganisms.
Other workers have also shown that extracts
of some plants inhibited the growth of
various microorganisms at different
concentrations (Akujobi et al., 2004; Nweze et
al., 2004; Osadebe and Ukwueze, 2004). The
observed antibacterial effects on the isolates
is believed to be due to the presence of
alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids which have
been shown to posses antibacterial
properties(Cowan, 1999; Draughon, 2004).
Some workers have also attributed their
observed antimicrobial effects of plant
extracts to the presence of the sesecondary
metabolites (Nweze et al., 2004) and also
identified tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids
in the extracts of some medicinal plant
(Yoshida et al., 1990; Abo, 1990; Baslas and
Agarwal, 1980). The observed antibacterial
properties corroborate its use in traditional
medicine.
Traditionally, extracts of the plant are
used in sore and wound healing, as ear drop
for boils in the ear and treatment of boils.
They are also used in the control of diarrhea
and dysentery. The large zones of inhibition
exhibited by the extract against S. aureus and
P. aeruginosa justified their use by traditional
medical practitioners in the treatment of
sores, bores and open wounds. S. aureus and
P. aeruginosa have been implicated in cases
of boils, sores and wounds (Braude,1982).
Also the moderate growth inhibition against
E. coli justifiesits use in the control of
diarrhea and dysentery (Table 1). E. coli is the
common cause of traveler’s diarrhoea and
other diarrhea-genic infections in humans.
The low MIC exhibited by the extract against
S. aureus is of great significance in the health
care delivery system, since it could be used
as an alternative to orthodox antibiotics in
the treatment of infections caused by these
microbes, especially as they frequently
develop resistance to known antibiotics
(Singleton, 1999) (Table 3). Their use also will
reduce the cost of obtaining health care. The
relatively high zone of inhibition exhibited
by the extract against E. coli is also of
significance, since E. coli is a common cause
of diarrhea in developing countries.
On the basis of the results obtained, it
can be concluded that the crude extracts of E.
hirta exhibit significant antibacterial activity
and properties that support folkloric use in
the treatment of some diseases as broad-
spectrum antimicrobial agents. This probably
explains the use of extracts from these
species by the indigenous people of South
Africa against a number of infections for
generations. However, more work needs to
be carried out to determine the chemistry of
the particular active principle.
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The present book entitled “Current Research and Innovations in Life Sciences” gathers the recent and latest trends in innovative research achieved. The book is the most wide-ranging and convincing account available to analyze the multidisciplinary and multifaceted nature of innovations in the field of advances in Life Sciences. Each and every chapters contains comprehensive explanation on the projected topics with well explained appropriate tables and photo plates. This book composing of 13 highly selective chapters from 24 authors will present their many facets innovations in the context of historic, nature, development, managements and conservations in biology. The breadth of this work will allow the readers to gain the complete and panoramic view and can be used as reference source for various topics in biology.
Thesis
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Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia are plants of traditional beninese medicine generally used in the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate some biological activities of the extracts of these plants. The qualitative phytochemistry was carried out by a differential method of coloring or precipitation. Polyphenols and flavonoids were determined by molecular absorption spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH and FRAP methods. Antibacterial and antifungal effects were evaluated by the diffusion method in solid medium. Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated by the colorimetric method. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties were evaluated in vivo with wistar rats. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Artemia salina larvae while the acute toxicity was assessed with Wistar rats by the oral route. Heavy metal contents were determined using a spectrophotometer. The qualitative screening has revealed in the plants the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins etc. The extracts showed varying contents of polyphenols and flavonoids. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts have antioxidant properties with IC50s ranging from 23.7 to 55.36 µg/ml (DPPH) and 0.43 to 1.96 mg/ml (FRAP). Both types of extracts inhibited the microbial growth of 10 enteropathogenic strains and 5 fungal strains in various ways. These extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg per os prevent significantly (p<0.05) edema in rats and inhibition percentages range from 23.67% to 86.76% for of the three plants extracts. Analgesic activity assessment shows that these extracts very significantly (p<0.001) inhibit pain induced by acetic acid. As well, these extracts significantly reduce (p<0.05) the pain induced by hot water at 50°C. The extracts of these plants showed antipyretic activity and the highest percentages of pyrexia inhibition are 80.61% for Euphorbia hirta, 74.87% for Citrus aurantifolia and 70.89% for Heterotis rotundifolia. Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity tests showed no toxic effects at the doses tested and the heavy metals sought are all below the tolerable limit. These results justify certain therapeutic indications of these plants. They could therefore be used for the development of improved phyto-drugs. Key words: Pharmacopoeia, treatment, Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia, Heterotis rotundifolia, Benin.
Article
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Euphorbia hirta is native to India but is a pan tropical weed. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of boils, wounds and control of diarrhoea and dysentery. Therefore the Crude from different parts (leaf, and stem) of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae) were extracted by different solvents and screened the antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay against five bacteria and 2 Fungi (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi , Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pnemoniae & Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus flavus). The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of stem and leaves extracts against each sensitive has also been evaluated. The maximum effect has shown in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7mm in leaf and 6 mm in stem). The leaf is having higher effect than stem. The basic photochemical analysis showed the presence of biologically active compounds in stem and leaf of E.hirta. The minimum effect of extract observed by soxhlet extraction Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5mm in leaf and 3 mm in stem). The Alkaloids extracted by standard method and its activity also measured Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.5mm in leaf and 0.6 mm in stem) , Then the crude, alkaloid & pure component of the plant parts (leaf, and stem) is compared. The crude, pure and alkaloids of leaves has higher inhibition than stem. The alkaloid is lower inhibition than crude and pure. In the two part of inhibiting activity Pseudomonas aeruginosa has the maximum effect. In alkaloid inhibiting activity Salmonella typhi has the maximum effect. DNA extracted from the leaf of the plant. Keywords: Euphorbia hirta, MBC, DNA extraction, Alkaloid
Article
In this work, the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract of Euphorbia peplus L. collected in Central Italy, was reported. This specimen had never been studied before and the analysis was accomplished by means of Column Chromatography for the separation procedure and by means of NMR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry for the identification step. In particular, fourteen compounds were evidenced belonging to five different classes of natural compounds i.e. triterpenoids (pentacyclic and saponin), peculiar diterpenoids (jatrophanes and pepluanes), flavonoids (flavonols), caffeoyl-quinic acids and rare disaccharides. In addition to this, a semi-quantitative analysis on the diterpenoid fraction, by means of NMR Spectroscopy, was also performed in order to provide the real quantities of these compounds in the same fraction and in the total extract. Due to the pronounced chemo variability observed in Euphorbia spp., the availability of a reliable and quick analytical technique, such as that reported in the present study, could be a useful tool in the standardization of plant materials to be used in pharmacological studies or for ethnomedicinal purposes. The technical details for both the general phytochemical analysis and the specific quantitative one, were inserted in this paper. Moreover, the chemotaxonomic and ethnopharmacological relevance of these compounds was also discussed.
Article
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Euphorbia hirta leaf extract on the growth performance, hematological and organosomatic indices of hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus × C. gariepinus. The fish were treated with 0 (control), 300, 500 and 800 mg/kg (ppm) for 90 days. The weight gain, average daily growth rate, and specific growth rate were at significantly higher levels in fish from all the treatment groups on days 75 and 90, while the feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were consistently higher in fish from all the treatment groups from day 60 up until day 90. The feed conversion rate significantly decreased from day 60 until day 90 in all treatment groups when compared with the control group, and the survival rate was significantly different from day 30 until day 90; a consistently higher rate was observed in fish fed 800 mg/kg. The highest viscerosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat were observed in the group fed 500 mg/kg (p < 0.05). The hepatosomatic index was significantly increased alongside increasing levels of E. hirta extract. The total white blood cell count in the control group was significantly higher on day 30, but on day 90 all the treatment groups showed higher levels. Hematocrit percentage was significantly different on days 30 and 90. Lymphocyte, eosinophil and thrombocyte levels were shown to be significantly different (p < 0.05) when different groups of fish were compared. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg of E. hirta leaf extract could improve growth performance, hematological and some organosomatic indices in hybrid catfish.
Article
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Freeze dried and finely ground leaves of two plants with known antimicrobial activity, Anthocleista grandiflora and Combretum erythrophyllum were extracted with acetone, ethanol, methanol, methylenedichloride, methanol/chloroform/water and water at a 1 to 10 ratio in each case. The quantity and diversity of compounds extracted, number of inhibitors extracted, rate of extraction, toxicity in a bioassay, ease of removal of solvent and biological hazard were evaluated for each extractant. An arbitrary scoring system was developed to evaluate the above parameters for the different extractants. Acetone gave the best results with these plants with an arbitrary value of 102 followed by methanol/chloroform/water (81), methylene dichloride (79), methanol (71), ethanol (58) and water (47). Four five minute sequential extractions of very finely ground A. grandiflora shaking at a high rate extracted 97% of the total antimicrobial activity.
Article
A comparative study of the phytochemical and anti-microbial properties of leaves of Loranthus micranthus harvested from six host trees, namely, Irvingia gabonensis, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Kola acuminata, Baphia nitida, Persea americana and Azadirachta indica, was carried out using standard methods. The result showed marked variations in phytochemical constituents and anti-microbial activities of the extracts from the different host trees, both kind and in degree. The extracts from K. acuminata, P. americana and to lesser extent, I. gabonensis showed marked broad-spectrum activities against bacteria and fungi. When compared with standard antibiotics (amoxycillin and ketoconazole) as controls, some of the extracts were found to be significantly more active than the control. The extract from P. americana exhibited significant anti-pseudomonal activity (P < 0.01) when compared to amoxycillin while the extracts from I. gabonensis, P. macrophylla and A. indica all showed significant activity (P<0.05) against Staph. aureus when compared to amoxycillin. Alkaloids were found to be most abundant in K acuminata; P. americana and I. gabonensis The preponderance of alkaloids in the extracts from K. acuminata, P. americana and I. gabonensis as compared to the extract from the other host plants could be suggestive of a relationship between alkaloidal content and the antimicrobial activity. Hence, during the preparation of Pharmaceutical /herbal formulation for the treatment of non- specific infections, mistletoe may be preferentially sourced from K. acuminata and P. americana. Keywords: Mistletoe, host-tree variation, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical contents, Loranthus micranthus, comparative study. Bio-Research Vol.2(1) 2004: 18-23
Article
The use of natural products from plants and microorganisms as biopreservatives in foods is discussed. The botanical biopreservatives are useful in extending shelf life and increasing overall quality of food products by reducing or eliminating survival of pathogenic bacteria. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) has created a regulatory framework for the safety and labeling of dietary supplements, including vitamins, herbs, minerals, amino acids, specific enzymes and botanicals. Under the act, a botanical or herb use as food additive must undergo premarket approval from FDA's Office of Premarket Approval for their levels in foods.
Article
A novel dimeric hydrolyzable tannin, euphorbin E, was isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta. Its structure (1), having two dehydrohexahydroxydiphenoyl groups, and a dehydroeuphorbinoyl group as a novel connecting unit between two polyaroylglucose cores, was determined based on spectral and chemical evidence.
Article
A rapid and economical procedure for the determination of the main active principles of medicinal plants (alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, essential oils) is proposed. The extraction of these active principles has been performed by means of three solvents, based on a method of increasing polarity. The plant extracts, whose compositions are known, were analysed on silica gel layers with the aid of three solvent systems and six spray reagents.
Article
The study was conducted in Eastern parts of Rajasthan from March 2008 to February 2009 to identify the important species used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) in relation to medicinal plant use. METHODOLOGY OR MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 844 villagers (486 men and 358 women) were interviewed using specimen display method and a forest walk with interviewee and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the knowledge of use of medicinal plants. A total of 213 species of medicinal plants belonging to 68 families were documented. The family Fabaceae had the highest number of species (28) followed by Euphorbiaceae (14). The majority of informants (46.12%) mentioned Azadirachta indica as most popular remedy for the treatment of various ailments, followed by Ocimum sanctum (25.31%) and Tridax procumbens (21.63%). The average number of medicinal plants known and used by female and male practitioners was similar (chi=9.192, d.f.=17, p=0.941). The number of medicinal plant species reported and used by each informant was not significantly (chi=40.625, d.f.=34, p=0.202) different among the four districts: Alwar (7.80+/-0.917), Bharatpur (6.88+/-1.076), Dholpur (7.13+/-0.965) and Karauli (7.97+/-1.068). From the study it is clear that ethnomedicinal information from traditional practitioners provides a corporeal guide towards development of new drugs than the approaches of random screening.