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Here, we report on the first record of egg-laying and relative clutch mass (RCM) of the species and provide evidence that female reproductive season is longer than previously shown.
Herpetological Review 51(2), 2020
reticulatus is currently listed as Vulnerable under Australian fed-
eral legislation. Known major threats for C. reticulatus include
land clearing, inappropriate fire, and habitat disturbance due to
cattle grazing and feral pigs.
In Australia, feral cats (Felis catus) are opportunistic
mesopredators (Doherty et al. 2018. J. Biogeogr. 42:964–975)
feeding on a wide range of birds, mammals, and reptiles
ranging from those with several grams of body weight up to ca.
4 kg (Bonnaud et al. 2011. Biol. Invasions 13:581–603; Spencer
et al. 2014. J. Mammal. 95:1278–1288; Woinarski et al. 2017. Biol.
Conserv. 216:1–9). It has been speculated that cats might prey on
C. reticulatus, however, to date no direct evidence has been found.
At 1000 h on 11 December 2018, a subadult male F. catus was
found deceased (cause unknown) on Brindle Creek Road, within
the world heritage-listed Border Ranges National Park, Australia
(28.2251°S, 153.0639°E; WGS 84; 971 m elev.). Upon dissecting and
examining the stomach contents (Fig. 1), five reptile species were
identified, including C. reticulatus (Fig. 2), Cacophis squamulosus
(Golden-crowned Snake), Cryptophis nigrescens (Small-eyed
Snake), Hemiaspis signata (Marsh Snake), and Cyclodomorphus
gerrardii (Pink-tongued Skink). Given that all of these species are
either nocturnal or mostly active at night during summer months,
it is likely they were prey items from the night prior to discovery.
Our account represents the first record of a feral cat consuming
C. reticulatus, and therefore highlights that predation by feral cats
might pose a threat to C. reticulatus populations.
ROBYNS, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern
Cross University, New South Wales, Australia.
PARASITES. Diphoriphora australis is widespread along the
north-eastern coast of Australia, extending north to the Cape
York Peninsula, Queensland and south to northern New South
Wales (Melville et al. 2019. Mem. Mus. Victoria 78:23–55). To our
knowledge, the only helminth report for D. australis is the nema-
tode Strongyluris davisi described by Harwood (1948. Proc. Linn.
Soc. New South Wales 72:311–312). In this note we add to the hel-
minth list of D. australis.
A sample of 15 D. australis (mean SVL = 61.9 mm ± 4.2
SD, range: 58–70 mm) collected in 1971 from the vicinity of
Townsville, Queensland, Australia (19.2590°S, 148.8169°E; WGS
84) was examined from the University of Michigan Museum
of Zoology (UMMZ): UMMZ 200869, 200896, 200897, 200900,
200902, 200905, 200907–200909, 200912–200917.
The specimens had been preserved in 10% formalin and
stored in 70% ethanol. The body cavity was opened by a
longitudinal incision and the digestive tract was removed and
opened. The esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large
intestine were examined for helminths under a dissecting
microscope. Each helminth was placed in a drop of lactophenol
on a glass slide, a cover slip was added, and identification was
made after study under a compound microscope. We found
two species of Nematoda: Maxvachonia chabaudi (small, large
intestines), prevalence = 27%; mean intensity of infection
(mean number of helminths) ± SD = 2.3 ± 0.96, 1–3; Kreisiella
chrysocampa (small intestine), 1 individual. Identifications were
made by study of the original descriptions: Mawson (1972. Trans.
R. Soc. S. Aust. 96:101–113) and Jones (1985. J. Nat. Hist. 19:1231–
1237). Maxvachonia chabaudi and K. chrysocampa in D. australis
are new host records. Voucher helminths were deposited in
the Harold W. Manter Parasitology Laboratory (HWML), The
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA as Maxvachonia chabaudi
(HWML 111446) and Kreisiella chrysocampa (HWML 111445).
Maxvachonia chabaudi was described from Morethia
lineoocellata by Mawson (1972, op. cit.), and other hosts have
been previously described from Australia (Mawson 1972, op. cit.;
Jones 2003. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania. 137:7–12; Goldberg and
Bursey 2012. Comp. Parasitol. 79:247–268), Malaysia (Goldberg et
al. 2018. Sauria 40:92–94), Oceania (Goldberg et al. 2000. Comp.
Parasitol. 67:118–121; Goldberg et al. 2005. Pac. Sci. 59:609–614;
Bursey and Goldberg 2001. J. Parasit. 87:135–138; Goldberg and
Bursey 2002. J. Nat. Hist. 361:2249–2264), and Papua New Guinea
(Goldberg et al. 2010. Pac. Sci. 64:131–139).
Kreisiella chrysocampa was described from Egernia inornata
(from Australia) by Jones (1985, op. cit.). Other hosts have been
described from Australia (Jones 1995. Aust. J. Zool. 43:141–164,
Goldberg and Bursey 2000. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 124:127–133)
and Papua New Guinea (Jones 1985, op. cit.; Goldberg et al. 2008.
J. Nat. Hist. 42:1923–1935).
We thank D. Rabosky and A. Rabosky (UMMZ) for permission
to examine D. australis and G. Schneider (UMMZ) for facilitating
the loan.
STEPHEN R. GOLDBERG, Whittier College, Department of Biol-
ogy, Whittier, California 90608, USA (e-mail:;
CHARLES R. BURSEY, Pennsylvania State University, Shenango Campus,
Department of Biology, Sharon, Pennsylvania 16146, USA (e-mail: cxb13@
gaudichaudii is a small gymnophthalmid lizard (up to 50 mm
SVL) endemic to the Atlantic Forest and found mainly in south-
eastern and southern Brazil (Dias and Rocha 2013. Check List
9:607–609). Their reproductive biology is poorly known, but fe-
males seemingly produce a single egg per clutch from late win-
ter (September) to early summer (January; Uzzell 1969. Postilla
135:1–23; Perini and Butti 2008. Herpetol. Rev. 39:222). Here, we
report on the first record of egg-laying and relative clutch mass
(RCM) of the species and provide evidence that female repro-
ductive season is longer than previously shown.
On 22 March 2012, a gravid female E. gaudichaudii (IBSP.
CRIB 413: 35 mm SVL, 60 mm tail length, 0.577 g) was collected
at Parque Estadual Restinga de Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil
(23.77826°S, 46.07745°W; WGS 84; 11 m elev.). The female was
Fig. 2. Deceased Coeranoscincus reticulatus.
Herpetological Review 51(2), 2020
brought to our laboratory, placed in a plastic container with
leaf litter, and kept at room temperature (22–26°C). A couple of
days later, the female laid a single egg (7.51 × 3.94 mm, 0.078 g).
The egg was incubated in a plastic container with moistened
vermiculite and kept at room temperature, but it spoiled due to
fungal contamination. RCM (total clutch mass/maternal body
mass after oviposition + total clutch mass; sensu Vitt and Price
1982. Herpetologica 38:237–255) was 0.119, which is similar to
that of many gymnophthalmids (Mesquita et al. 2016. Am. Nat.
187:689–705) and active forager lizards (Vitt and Price 1982,
op. cit.). Our record of egg-laying in late March indicates that
the reproductive season of female E. gaudichaudii extends
throughout rainy season.
We thank V. J. Germano for assistance in the laboratory.
SERENA N. MIGLIORE, Programa de Pós-graduação em Anatomia
dos Animais Domésticos e Silvestres, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (e-mail: serenanajara@usp.
br); HENRIQUE B. BRAZ, Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto Bu-
tantan, Av. Dr. Vital Brazil, 1500, CEP 05503-900, São Paulo, Brazil (e-mail:
autotomy and subsequent regeneration is an effective anti-pre-
dation strategy used by members of many lizard families (Arnold
1984. J. Nat. Hist. 18:127–169; Bateman and Fleming 2009. J. Zool.
277:1–14). However, in certain cases, either from an incomplete
autotomy, or from a significant caudal wound, additional tails
can be regenerated, producing an individual with a multifurcat-
ed tail (Bellairs and Bryant 1985. In Gans and Billett [eds.], Biol-
ogy of the Reptilia, Volume 15: Development B, pp. 301–410. John
Wiley & Sons, New York, New York; Barr et al. 2019. Herpetol. Rev.
50:567). Here, we report on three observations of Egernia kingii
with regenerative bifurcations, two from the preserved collec-
tion of the Western Australian Museum, and one from a field
population on Penguin Island, Western Australia (32.30584°S,
115.69134°E; WGS 84).
Egernia kingii is a large (up to 0.5 m) skink endemic to
Western Australia and its surrounding Islands (Storr 1978.
Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 6:147–187; Cogger 2014. Reptiles and
Amphibians of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia.
544 pp.). Data was obtained from preserved specimens of the
Western Australia Museum from May 2017–August 2018 and for
field data from November 2017–February 2018 and November
2018–February 2019. Standard morphometrics including snout–
vent length (SVL), tail length (TL) and regeneration length (RL)
were measured using a plastic ruler to the nearest mm. Field
individuals were sexed using hemipene probing as per Brown
(2012. A Guide to Australian Skinks in Captivity. Reptile Pub.
Burleigh, Queensland, Australia. 360 pp.).
The entire collection of preserved specimens of E. kingii from
the Western Australian Museum (N = 300) was assessed as a part
of another study (Barr et al. 2018. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 126:268–275),
and 105 E. kingii individuals were assessed over the two field
seasons from Penguin Island. Tails of 60 individuals from the
museum collection were not attached to the specimen, most
likely lost posthumously, and could not be assessed. The first
individual with caudal bifurcation from the Western Australian
Museum (R36041), a large adult (unknown sex) measured
240 mm SVL and 215 mm TL and possessed a large, mature
bifurcation 65 mm from its cloacae, with the primary (longer) tail
portion measuring 150 mm, and secondary tail measuring 117
mm (Fig. 1). The second individual with caudal bifurcation from
the Western Australian Museum (R9348), a juvenile (unknown
sex), measured 136 mm SVL and 178 mm TL and possessed a
small bifurcation 150 mm from its cloaca, with the bifurcation
length measuring 20 mm. The specimen from Penguin Island,
an adult female, measured 194 mm SVL and 172 mm TL, had
a small distal bifurcation measuring 13 mm. The incidence
of bifurcation in the museum specimens overall was 0.83%
(2/240) and 0.95% (1/105) for Penguin Island, with incidence of
bifurcation for those showing evidence of regeneration as 1.54%
(2/130) for museum specimens, and 1.22% (1/82) for the Penguin
Island population. Observation of regenerative bifurcations in
populations or museum collections, when reported, is generally
low (Cordes and Walker 2013. Herpetol. Rev. 44:319; Vrcibradic
and Niemeyer 2013. Herpetol. Rev. 44:510–511; Sorlin et al. 2019.
Herpetol. Rev. 50:377–378), with some ecological evidence that
this may be caused from inefficient predation or wounding (e.g.,
Cyclura spp. attacked by invasive rodents; Hayes et al. 2012.
Biodivers. Conserv. 21:1893–1899).
JAMES BARR, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University,
Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia and CSIRO Land and Water, 147,
Underwood Avenue, Floreat WA 6014, Australia (e-mail: james.barr@post-; PHILIP W. BATEMAN, School of Molecular and Life
Sciences, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia (e-mail:
geckoides (Phyllodactylidae) is endemic to the Caatinga and dis-
tributed in the following states in Brazil: Tocantins, Mato Gros-
so, Goiás, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernam-
buco, Alagoas and Bahia (Vanzolini 2004. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc.
76:663–698; Costa and Bérnils 2018. Herpetol. Bras. 7:11–57).
Lizards may exhibit various pre-copulatory reproductive behav-
iors, ranging from cloacal friction on theioids, nodding on tropi-
durids, extending barbed on polyrotrids to darkening of the skin
on leiosaurids (Carpenter 1962. Am. Midl. Nat. 67:132–151; Car-
penter 1977. Herpetologica 33:285–289; Jenssen 1977. Am. Zool.
17:203–215; Lima and Sousa 2006. Rev. Bras. Zooc. 8:193–197).
The most recurrent post-copulatory behavior is polygyny (An-
derson and Vitt 1990. Oecologia 84:145–157; Olsson 1993. Behav.
Ecol. Sociobiol. 32:337–341; Censky 1995. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
Fig. 1. Two preserved Egernia kingii specimens (top: R36041; bottom:
R9348) from the Western Australia Museum showing caudal bifurca-
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