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Industry 4.0 -Digital Transformation, Challenges and Benefits


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The purpose of this paper is to study the basics of Industry 4.0, the trend towards automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes. This paper highlights the strategic roadmap that can serve manufacturers as a simple guide for the process of Industry 4.0 transition. Digital technology has transformed the industrial and manufacturing world. To keep pace with the fast-growing technological enhancements accompanying Industry 4.0, there is a great need to evolve and change the way we work. We now stand on the crossover of this new era, where machines acquire human characteristics, including cognitive capabilities. Therefore, the question is-Are we ready for Industry 4.0? In addition, what are the challenges that we will face in the near future? Index Terms-Industry 4.0, automation, challenges, benefits
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International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
Industry 4.0 Digital Transformation, Challenges and Benefits
Monika Gadre Dr. Aruna Deoskar
Assistant Professor, BBA(CA), MIT WPU, Pune
Principal, ATSS CBSCA
The purpose of this paper is to study the basics of Industry 4.0, the trend towards automation and data
exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes. This paper highlights the strategic roadmap that
can serve manufacturers as a simple guide for the process of Industry 4.0 transition.
Digital technology has transformed the industrial and manufacturing world. To keep pace with the fast-
growing technological enhancements accompanying Industry 4.0, there is a great need to evolve and
change the way we work. We now stand on the crossover of this new era, where machines acquire human
characteristics, including cognitive capabilities. Therefore, the question is - Are we ready for Industry 4.0?
In addition, what are the challenges that we will face in the near future? Index Terms Industry 4.0,
automation, challenges, benefits
Modern industry has seen countless developments since the industrial revolution in the 18th century.
Manufacturing of goods, tools, clothes, weapons was manual, which changed in the end of the 18th century
with the introduction of manufacturing processes. The progress from Industry 1.0 was then rapid up to the
upcoming industrial era Industry 4.0. The emergence of Industry 4.0 has come up with the rapid
development of technology on one hand, and socioeconomic factors on the other. This paper provides an
overview of this evolution, along with its challenges and benefits.
Industrial Revolution is a period of major industrialization and innovation where change from an
agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing had started.
Industrial revolution is the paradigm shift in production technology [1]. It has shaped the societies we live
Fig. 1 Journey from Industry 1.0 to Industry 4.0
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
in today. The working conditions and lifestyles of the people have changed with the latest production
technologies. The history of industrial revolution has been explained below:
The period between 1760 and 1820 is referred as the first industrial revolution i.e. Industry 1.0. It
marked a transition from hand production methods to machines with steam and waterpower.
Industry 2.0, the second industrial revolution, the technological revolution is the period between 1870
and 1914. The main contributor to this revolution was the development of machines running on electrical
energy. The first assembly line where streamlining the process of mass production was also introduced,
which later on became a standard practice. The third industrial revolution or Industry 3.0 occurred in the
late 20th century. It is also known as digital revolution because of the extensive use of computer and
communication technologies in the production process.
Industry 4.0, or as is originally termed - “Industrie 4.0” [2] was the concept that originated in Germany.
Industry 4.0 is a national strategic initiative from the German government through the Ministry of Education
and Research (BMBF) and the Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWI). It aims to drive digital
manufacturing forward by increasing digitization and the interconnection of products, value chains and
business models. Industry 4.0 leads to the digitalization era.
Industry 4.0 is the turning point to end conventional manufacturing. It resulted in merging the boundaries
of physical and the virtual world to create Cyber Physical Systems. [3] Industry 4.0 means connectivity,
and it will give an opportunity to change the way industry responds to the needs of society. Unlike previous
industrial revolutions were led by innovations in manufacturing processes and systems, the advancements
of Industry 4.0 are driven by smart, interconnected, pervasive environment.
Following table gives a summary of the four industrial revolutions, period and the features of each:
Table 1: Industry 1.0 to 4.0
Industry 1.0
Water and steam powered
mechanical manufacturing
Industry 2.0
Mass production
using electricity
Assembly line division
Industry 3.0
Digital Revolution
Extensive use of Computers
Industry 4.0
Virtual System, Cyber
world, Internet of Things,
Artificial Intelligence
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
Fig. 2 Industry 4.0 - fusion of the physical and virtual worlds
As per National Science Foundation's (NSF) report 2017, the development of Industry 4.0 will likely
follow an incremental approach in growing from the existing technologies. There has been an exponential
progression in researches and publications on Industry 4.0 by academicians and Industrial experts.
However, there are certain grey areas related to industry 4.0, which need great attention and can be the
opportunities for further research.
Several research opportunities have been identified and presented below:
Table 2: Findings based on studied literature
Industry 4.0 A Glimpse (Saurabh Vaidya,
Ambad, Santosh Bhosle) [4]
Nine components of Industry 4.0 - Autonomous
robots, big data, augmented reality (AR),
additive manufacturing, cloud computing, cyber
security, IoT, system integration, and simulation
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
India’s Readiness for Industry 4.0 (Global
Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA)) [5]
Digital technologies are reshaping the
industries in India
Tremendous opportunities for
manufacturers to optimize operations quickly
and efficiently Need for a highly trained and
flexible workforce
Industry 4.0 technologies: implementation
patterns in
manufacturing companies [6]
(Alejandro Germán, Frank Lucas Santos,
Néstor Fabián Ayala)
There is a gap between existing manufacturing
units and the one needed for Industry 4.0
Need for Internet-connected machinery to
monitor and improve manufacturing process.
Smart factory for Industry 4.0: A review (Elvis
Hozdić) [7]
Smart factory is highly digitized and
connected production facility
Smart factory is an integral part of
Industry 4.0 It helps improve quality, enhances
productivity and cost effective.
The objective of the study is:
1. To understand what is Industry 4.0.
2. To identify the challenges of Industry 4.0.
3. To explore the benefits and applications of Industry 4.0.
Industry 4.0 is the integration of data, artificial intelligence, machinery and communication. To create
an efficient industrial ecosystem, industries must be both automated and intelligent. However, the
technologies that are the foundation for Industry 4.0 are already in use in manufacturing industries.
However, integrating them together will enable to transform the production with Industry 4.0.
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
(Source: Report from the Boston Consulting Group (BCG)) KPMG-AIMA Report (2018) defines
the technology levers or enablers for Industry 4.0 [8], as under:
1. Internet of Things (IoT): establishes a connected value chain by networking machine to machines.
2. Cloud Computing: provides huge storage, networking and computational capabilities enabling
interaction between technologies.
3. Big Data and data analytics: creates capabilities to support intelligent and real-time decision-making,
and reducing the downtime and wastage.
4. Additive Manufacturing or 3D Printing: Reduces leadtime from product design to release, permitting
customization, and small batch production in a costeffective manner.
5. Augmented Reality: Uses mathematical modelling, artificial intelligence and virtual reality to enhance
business generation.
6. Robotics: Improves efficiency through automated manufacturing processes.
7. Cyber security: ensures secured communication protocols enabling data security.
8. Machine Learning: exploits industrial sensors and instruments to record and communicate data directly
with software.
9. Simulation: the imitation of the operation of a real-world process, which would help to visualize the
design and identify the problems that might occur in a much earlier stage.
Pillars of Industry 4.0
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
Many opportunities are waiting for Industry 4.0 to take shape. Industry 4.0 will affect all sectors and
disciplines therefore there is a need to address the below listed pain points
[9]. According to McKinsey, “Industry 4.0 disrupts the value chain and requires companies to rethink the
way they do business. They need to drive the digital transformation of their
business to succeed in the new environment.” [10]
Following are the major challenges faced in the implementation of Industry 4.0:
Table 3: Challenges of Industry 4.0
S. No
Huge investment - With the emergence of Industry 4.0, industry’s functioning has become more
processdriven, which demands for large investment for smooth digital transition and transformation
[11]. In addition, in training the existing workforce.
Need to consider new business models -With Industry 4.0, companies are in a new industrial
paradigm wherein there is a need to transform the way we interact with the customers, understand
business cases, changing operations for manufacturers and how customers receive and engage with
products. [12]
Resistance to change - There is need to examine the company culture and enhance the flexibility
in adopting the change for the good. There is lack of courage to launch the radical digitalization
of Industry 4.0
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
Reorganizing the processes- For Industry 4.0, there is a need to automate and integrate horizontal
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
The emerging Industry 4.0 technologies can entirely transform the manufacturing value chain. The
benefits of digitalization are noteworthy from enhanced production efficiency to innovative product and
services deployment. Like digital transformation, the benefits of Industry 4.0 will ultimately help a business
become smarter and more efficient.
vertical value chains. Therefore, it is essential
to understand where there is a need for action
[14]. In addition, it is required to conduct pilot
study to leverage better outcomes.
an average, companies expect to reduce
operational costs by 3.6% p.a., while
increasing efficiency by 4.1% annually.
Revenue gains
Through optimization and automation
efficiency and productivity is enhanced
Workforce- Current technological trends are
bringing about the change at an
unprecedented rate and there is a lack of in-
house talent to meet those changes. To
improve quality and efficiency it is essential
to develop and train the existing employees as
the skill sets, they possess are getting
obsolete. New categories of jobs will emerge
and there is a need to hire new breed of tech-
savvy employees. According to the 2018
Global Trends report released by World
Economic Forum, 76% of recruiters and
hiring managers think that Industry 4.0 will
have a significant impact on the recruitment
industry. [15]
Improved supply/demand
With the availability of real time demand
and supply are improved
Reduced machine downtime
Improved productivity
Predictive maintenance
Quality products
Customized as per requirements
Monitored and rectified in every
phase of manufacturing Quality control
Standardization - The world is undergoing a
digital transition phase that will enter and
change all areas of industry. Industries require
norms and standards to ensure that the
individual components are compatible and
interoperable. [16]
Speed of delivery
Use of 3D printers for faster
prototyping, reducing the cost of
engineering and speeding up time to
Reduce variability of operations
Data Management - Industries are
generating a lot of real-time production and
quality data. There is a need to make data
readily available and accessible.[17]
Customer Satisfaction
Tailor made and personalized products
Identifying new value generating services
Competition- Increasing competition is
driving an integration between the customer
and manufacturer at various stages of
External factors Government
incentives to promote Industry 4.0.
Smart Advanced Manufacturing and
Rapid Transformation Hub (SAMARTH)
- Udyog Bharat 4.0 is an Industry 4.0
initiative of Department of Heavy
Industry, Government of India under its
scheme on Enhancement of
Competitiveness in Indian Capital Goods
Data security - Industry 4.0 deals with large
amount of data. To achieve the true potential
of Industry 4.0 security is a major concern. It
is essential to implement end-to-end
encryption to avoid
vulnerability, phishing and various other
International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
To summarize, here are the key benefits of Industry 4.0:
Table 2: Key benefits of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 aims to increase productivity and profits by using machines and intelligent components
connected to the internet.
Following are the application areas of Industry 4.0:
interconnected services,
combining operational
technology (OT) with
Information Technology
customized products[23]
Key Benefits
Significant reduction in production
cost due to minimized wastage and automation
to prevent errors
Reduced labour costs
Boost in labour productivity
According to 2016 Global Industry 4.0 Survey,
Internet of Things
To perform
Sensors provide date
to devices, robots,
simulations, and tools
shift from centralized to
decentralized product[22]
Big Data and
Data Analytics
streamline production
process data
predict equipment failures
Machine to
Data Collection,
Assessment of Data,
Actionable Data
Cloud Solutions
network model of
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Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
Production lines
Product Delivery
Assembly line production
Mass production of
standard products
Cyber Security
to track third-party
acceptance and risk
Smart Sensors
Trend Monitoring
Safer Data Storage
The main aim of this paper was to provide an overview of Industry 4.0, challenges and benefits of
implementing Industry 4.0. It was been found that Government and various private sectors are coming
forward and adapting to the latest trends in the technologies. Therefore, it is evident that Industry 4.0 will
bring substantial growth in the country’s economy, creating more opportunities in principal sectors like
agriculture, health, manufacturing and transportation.
Findings reveal that Industry 4.0 is key to the growth of sustainable business performance. However,
the structure and process of the organization must be supportive for implementing the latest technology and
get the maximum benefit from Industry 4.0. [24]
Industry 4.0 would certainly revolutionize the education sector. The future will belong to the ones who
are ready to accept changes and adapt technology like new rules of the game. Industry 4.0 in education
domain will be a beginning of new era where learning and exploring things would happen in a distinct way.
Disruptive technologies, driven by Industry 4.0 will greatly affect the future jobs. Indian universities
are not exactly the hotbeds of great ideas, innovation and entrepreneurial activities whereas globally
Universities are always welcoming the wave of change. Is India's higher education "relevant to the era"?
With the educational transformation, country will be able to reap the benefits better in times of Industry 4.0.
The government, industry and academia needs to collaborate to enable an Industry 4.0-ready workforce.
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Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), pp. 139 - 149
ISSN: 2233-7857 IJFGCN
Copyright 2020 SERSC
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Research in Advent Technology, Special Issue, March 2019
... In contrast, the present study proposes a novel MCDA framework to evaluate the companies' progress in terms of the identified challenges related to sustainability goals in order to help top managers redesign business models and strategies and to lead companies towards a sustainable transformation. In addition, Gadre and Deoskar [32] studied the current status of Industry 4.0 to figure out whether the world was ready for Industry 4.0 adoption. On top of that, the challenges to the adoption of Industry 4.0 were identified and analyzed. ...
... Privacy and Security (C 3 ) Data security and privacy risks could adversely affect the scalability of digital technologies [61]. Industry 4.0 copes with a considerable amount of data; thus, security is a significant concern in uncovering the true capability of Industry 4.0 [32]. Ervural and Ervural [62] mentioned that "it is vital to employ end-to-end encryption to avoid phishing, vulnerability, other attacks, enhancing cybersecurity and privacy." ...
... Gadre and Deoskar [32] mentioned that there is a lack of employees who are talented with respect to meeting the changes brought by current technological trends. New careers have emerged, leading companies to hire a new generation of tech-savvy workers. ...
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Decision and policymakers are looking at the potential of Industry 4.0 smart technologies to create a green economy as the European Commission aims to deliver the European Green Deal by rethinking policies for clean energy supply. Industry 4.0 will eventually be applied to all aspects of life; however, it is necessary to identify the challenges to the adoption of Industry 4.0 for a sustainable digital transformation. In this vein, the present study aims to identify the challenges to the adoption of Industry 4.0 in fintech companies and to develop a novel Fermatean fuzzy CRITIC-COPRAS method to rank the identified challenges and evaluate the performance of companies concerning the weighted challenges based on three decision experts' support. The results indicated that "difficulty in coordination and collaboration" is the most significant challenge to the adoption of Industry 4.0 out of the fourteen identified challenges, followed by "resistance to change" and "gov-ernmental support." In addition, the superiority and efficiency of the proposed method were investigated through comparative analyses.
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Agriculture 4.0 focuses majorly on precision agriculture. Precision agriculture can be achieved in several ways such as refinement of cultivation practices, choices of crops, reduction of risk and volatility, water management, optimized use of pesticides, land/crop monitoring with minimal environmental impact. The best way to achieve precision agriculture through the Internet of Things Based Devices in Agriculture. The rapid developments on the Internet of Things-based devices have impacted every industry including “Agriculture”. This revolutionary change in agriculture is changing the present agricultural methods, and creating new opportunities, and challenges. The Internet of Things-based devices, and communication techniques along with wireless sensors are analyzed in this chapter in detail. What are the specific sensors are available for precision agricultural applications like the preparation of soil, checking the status of the crop, pest, and insect identification, and detection, irrigation, spraying of fertilizers are explained. How the use of Internet of Things-based devices helps the farmers through the crop stages i.e., sowing to harvesting is explained. At last, this chapter concludes and provides the challenges faced while implementing Internet of Things-based devices in agriculture.
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Quality 4.0 corresponds to the growing digitisation of industry, which uses advanced technologies to enhance the quality of manufacturing and services. This fourth quality revolution is envisaged to digitise the entire quality systems and subsequently improve the existing quality approaches. Innovative industries adopt cloud-based quality 4.0 innovations in the controlled production process. It is used to resolve quality problems satisfactorily when they emerge and carry out real-time quality analyses to improve competitiveness and use them. Various ongoing challenges are take-over by Quality 4.0 technologies, such as automated root cause analysis, machine-tomachine connectivity to parameter auto adjustment, simulation of real-time processes and more. Quality 4.0 is a modern form of quality management. Digital technologies paired with more sophisticated methods and smarter processes will allow high-performance teams to provide consumers with high-performance and quality goods reliably. Sensors play an essential role in improving the quality of manufacturing and services. These can improve protection, increased internal productivity and sustainable operations. This paper provides how quality 4.0 will have a significant impact in the field of manufacturing. Various Key Aspects and enablers of Quality 4.0 for Manufacturing are discussed, finally, Identified and discussed eighteen significant applications of Quality 4.0 in the field of manufacturing. Quality 4.0 not only concerns the things happening inside a factory; it also includes the complete supply chain from Research and Development (R&D), manufacturing, development, distribution, sales, and service after-sales.
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Industry 4.0 leads to the digitalization era. Everything is digital; business models, environments, production systems, machines, operators, products and services. It’s all interconnected inside the digital scene with the corresponding virtual representation. The physical flows will be mapped on digital platforms in a continuous manner. On a higher level of automation, many systems and software are enabling factory communications with the latest trends of information and communication technologies leading to the state-of-the-art factory, not only inside but also outside factory, achieving all elements of the value chain on a real-time engagement. Everything is smart. This disruptive impact on manufacturing companies will allow the smart manufacturing ecosystem paradigm. Industry 4.0 is the turning point to the end of the conventional centralized applications. The Industry 4.0 environment is scanned on this paper, describing the so-called enabling technologies and systems over the manufacturing environment.
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In the era of industrial digitalization, companies are increasingly investing in tools and solutions that allow their processes, machines, employees, and even the products themselves, to be integrated into a single integrated network for data collection, data analysis, the evaluation of company development, and performance improvement. To study the impact of Industry 4.0 on the company we used Porter’s (1985) value chain model, which is particularly useful when paying particular attention to corporate areas which have a primary role in customer value creation. Since the primary impact of Industry 4.0 is perceived in value-creating processes, and has so far had the greatest transformative effect in this area, the model can be considered to be appropriate. The objective of our research is to discover how companies operating in Hungary interpret the phenomenon of Industry 4.0, what Internet of Things (IoT) tools they use to support their processes, and what critical issues they face during adaptation. We applied a dual methodology in our investigation: We sent an online questionnaire to manufacturing and logistical service companies to investigate the IoT tools they use, and the problems they face, and received 43 answers we could evaluate. We also conducted four expert interviews with manufacturing firms to get deeper insights into the application, critical issues and development phases of IoT tools. During our research, we found that the spread of real-time data across companies—given the availability of appropriate analytical tools and methods—can have a significant impact on the entire company. In the case of CPS (Cyber Physical System), CPPS and Big Data Technologies, companies using them have been evaluated as having a higher level of logistic service, more efficient processes with their partners, improved cooperation between certain logistic functions, and higher market and financial performance and competitiveness. Applying more efficient production processes, and achieving better productivity and economies of scale, might also result in increased economic sustainability. Furthermore, we have found that companies have started on the path to digital evolution, and investments of this type have already begun.
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The following article presents a brief literature review conducted to extend our knowledge about how Industry 4.0 affects business models and to identify business model innovations derived in consequence. Based on the results, a set of features, issues and requirements have been identified and three different approaches has been suggested to make firms getting closer to the industry 4.0 phenomenon such as service orientation, networked ecosystems and customer orientation. Furthermore, the impacts on the creation, delivery, and capture of value through the reconfiguration of Business Models due to embracing the Industry 4.0 are depicted. As a result, four different ways to innovate the business models based on different degrees of innovation are proposed to embrace the digitalization. Those paths goes from optimizing internal and external processes or improving customer relationship to creating new value networks or smart products and services through disruptive business models.
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Purpose The rise of new information and communication technologies forms the cornerstone for the future development of work. The term Industry 4.0 refers to the vision of a fourth industrial revolution that is based on a network of autonomous, self-controlling, self-configuring, knowledge-based, sensor-based and spatially distributed production resources. All in all, different forms of the application of the Industry 4.0 concept can be observed, ranging from autonomous logistic transport systems drawn upon the idea of swarm intelligence to smart knowledge management systems. This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework to analyze different applications of Industry 4.0 on an organizing continuum. The general research questions are: What forms of organizing digitalized work lead to the reproduction of routines, and what forms foster innovation within Industry 4.0? The authors thus analyze the consequences of different forms of organizing work on workers’ perceptions and the results of the working process. Design/methodology/approach – This paper provides case studies for different stages of the organizing continuum in the context of Industry 4.0. The cases and a further analysis of all 295 funded projects are based on the Platform Industry 4.0 Map, which is part of the Industry 4.0 initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The consequences for people acting in such organizational and digitally supported structures are discussed. Findings A variety of applications of Industry 4.0 can be found. These applications mainly vary in the dimensions of the degree of formalization, the location of control authority, the location of knowledge and the degree of professionalization. At the right side of the organizing continuum, the digitalization organizes a work environment that supports highly qualified humans. They have broad leeway and a high degree of autonomy to design and create innovative forms of digitalization for tomorrow. At the left side of the organizing continuum, Industry 4.0 structures a work environment with narrow leeway, a low degree of autonomy and a top-down structure of control authority predetermined by digital applications. In this case, employees fill the gaps the machines cannot handle. Research limitations/implications As the paper focuses on Industry 4.0 developments in Germany, the comparability with regard to other countries is limited. Moreover, the methodological approach is explorative, and broader quantitative verification is required. Specifically, future research could include quantitative methods to investigate the employees’ perspective on Industry 4.0. A comparison of Industry 4.0 applications in different countries would be another interesting option for further research. Practical implications – This paper shows that applications of Industry 4.0 are currently at a very early stage of development and momentarily organize more routines than innovations. From a practical point of view, professional vocational and academic training will be a key factor for the successful implementation of digitalization in future. A joint venture of industry and educational institutions could be a suitable way to meet the growing demand for qualified employees from the middle to the right-hand of the organizing continuum in the context of Industry 4.0. Social implications – Industry 4.0 is designed by men, and therefore, humans are responsible for whether the future work situation will be perceived as supportive or as an alienated routine. Therefore, designers of Industry 4.0, as well as politicians and scientists, absolutely must take the underlying outcomes of digitalized work into account and must jointly find socially acceptable solutions (e.g. unconditional basic income to absorb negative societal effects of unemployment caused by digitalization). Originality/value This paper provides a promising avenue for future research on Industry 4.0 by analyzing the underlying organizational structures of digital systems and their consequences for employees. Moreover, the paper shows how Industry 4.0 should be organized to simply reproduce routines or to support innovation.
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The global development industry is in the midst of a transformation to meet today’s more complex and highly competitive industry demands. With the rapid advances in technology, a new phenomenon has emerged in the current era, Industry 4.0. The integration of information technology and operational technology brings newer challenges, especially cyber security. In this chapter, one of the most popular topics of recent times, cyber security issue, has been investigated. The occurrence of the Internet of Things (IoT), has also dramatically altered the appearance of cyber threat. Security threats and vulnerabilities of IoT, industrial challenges, main reasons of cyber-attacks, cyber security requirement and some cyber security measures/methods are discussed with a global perspective involving both the public and private sector in the IoT context.
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Even if information technology (IT) is considered to be the key driver for the full implementation of cyber-physical systems that characterize the next industrial revolution, the importance of human resources is constantly highlighted. [1] Human resources management (HRM) might be able to support the transition to ID4 and help organizations as well as individuals to cope with the change. Within this paper Activity Theory will be used as a framework to briefly describe the impact on HRM and to draw focussed conclusions for further research and organizational activities.
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Parallel to the development of information-communication technologies, the Internet, wireless networks, production networks, developed and industrial production which experienced a strong and profound changes. Factories have become more flexible than ever to complex modern market turbulence. Modern concepts of production systems require vertical and horizontal integration of all participants in the production process. This integration determines the foundation of a new, radical change in the mode of production by German industrialists called the industry is 4.0. In this, the smart production environment, structuring the smart factory. Smart factory is a production solution in a flexible and efficient way should be to meet the needs of today's market, and achieves integration between the various industrial and non-industrial partners who build dynamic, and very often and virtual organizations. This type of integration, linking the physical components of the production system and digital, abstract, virtual components into a single system called cyber-physical production systems. Systems are the backbone for the smart factory. Cyber-physical systems of production will be structured so that they can respond to almost any change in the market in time within really smart factories, but also beyond its borders. This not only makes production faster and in accordance with the specific requirements of individual customers, but also allows to production processes within the company are optimized through a network of global cooperation, adaptive and evolutionary and self-organizing. The potential for savings and innovation in these production systems and production operators is huge. Implementation of cyber-physical production systems in smart factories providing management with real-time, which is one of the fundamental principles of a new era in the sphere of industrial production.
Conference Paper
The Industry 4.0 promotes the use of information technologies in manufacturing processes to obtain customized products that satisfy new consumers by transforming the traditional model of automation to a model of interconnected services. This new model allows the communication between clients, factory and suppliers, creating an ecosystem that includes the so-called “smart” intelligence and allows to have a more flexible production system through the interconnection and sharing of data. In this new environment, Standardization is the key factor for this interconnected world. This paper analyzes the need to adapt existing standards or create new ones for Industry 4.0. The main contribution of this paper is to discuss the importance of standardization in Industry 4.0 and identify the aspects that represent a great opportunity for research and work.
An Overview of Industry 4.0: Definition, Components, and Government Initiatives
Shu Ing Tay, Lee Te Chuan, A. H. Nor Aziati, Ahmad Nur Aizat Ahmad "An Overview of Industry 4.0: Definition, Components, and Government Initiatives", Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems 10(14):14 · December 2018