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The Impact of Social Media on Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour in Malaysian Restaurants - Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics



Over the years, the dynamic advancement of technology has shaped the food and beverage industry in Malaysia. Today, the huge shift in the industry has resulted in consumers seeking readily accessible information. As such, various platforms, mostly social media, have influenced consumers’ pre-purchase opinions before purchasing. Nevertheless, limited studies have been conducted in Malaysia, focusing on consumers’ purchasing behaviour, specifically in the food and beverage industry in Malaysia. Thus, this study examines the impacts of social media on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysian restaurants. Therefore, this study has incorporated recently proposed factors including E-WOM, social media and online community marketing, higher accessibility of information, and online ordering system, which stimulate the consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysia. This study utilised the critical review process of secondary sources to identify the determinants and measurements used in the surveying instrument. Purposive sampling was applied to select the restaurants, whereas the non-convenience random sampling technique was employed to collect data from 270 consumers over three months. Later, PLS-SEM was used to analyse the data. The results proved that the electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), social media advertisement and online ordering system significantly determined consumers’ purchasing behaviour. However, highly accessible information via social media does not have a positive implication on consumers’ purchasing behaviour. The study is contributing much to the food and beverage industry.
Journal of
Spatial and
The Impact of Social Media on Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour in Malaysian Restaurants
Jeetesh Kumar, Rupam Konar and Kandappan Balasubramanian
Consumer Behavior in the Digital Age
Guest-Editors: Jose Ramon Saura, Ana Reyes-Menendez, Nelson de Matos,
Marisol B. Correia and Pedro Palos-Sanchez
Editor-in-Chief: Patrícia Pinto
Consumer Behavior in the Digital Age
Jose Ramon Saura, Ana Reyes-Menendez, Nelson de Matos, Marisol B. Correia and Pedro Palos-Sanchez
The Use of Digital Marketing Strategies in the Sharing Economy: A Literature Review
Leticia Polanco-Diges and Felipe Debasa
The Importance of the Loyalty of Fashion Brands through Digital Marketing
Rocio López Muniesa and Carmen García Giménez
A Dyadic Approach to Adolescents’ Risky Online Behaviors
Dora Agapito and Pedro Quelhas Brito
Volume VIII, Issue 3, 2020
Consumer Behavior in the Digital Age
Ana Reyes-Menendez
Carmen García Giménez
Dora Agapito
Felipe Debasa
Jeetesh Kumar
Jose Ramon Saura
Kandappan Balasubramanian
Leticia Polanco-Diges
Marisol B. Correia
Nelson de Matos
Pedro Palos-Sanchez
Pedro Quelhas Brito
Rocio López Muniesa
Rupam Konar
Guest-Editors: Jose Ramon Saura, Ana Reyes-Menendez, Nelson de Matos, Marisol B. Correia and Pedro Palos-Sanchez
Editor-in-Chief: Patrícia Pinto
Research Centre for Tourism, Sustainability and Well-being - CINTURS
Gambelas Campus, Faculty of Economics, Building 9
8005-139, Faro
Editorial Board:
André Torre, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Agro Paris Tech, France (
Carlos Costa, Department of Economics, Business, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of Aveiro, Portugal (
Charlie Karlsson, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden (
Claus Stobaus, Department of Psychology, Ponticia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (
Elisabeth Kastenholz, Department of Economics, Business, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of Aveiro, Portugal (
Eric Vaz, Department of Geography, Ryerson University, Canada (evaz@GEOGRAPHY.Ryerson.Ca).
Gualberto Buela-Casal, Department of Psychology, Universidade de Granada, Spain (
Helen Lawton Smith, Department of Management, Birkbeck, University of London, U.K. (
Jafar Jafari, School of Hospitality Leadership, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA (
João Albino Silva, Faculty of Economics, University of Algarve, Portugal (
José António Santos, School of Business, Hospitality and Tourism, University of Algarve, Portugal (
Juan Tobal, Department of Psychology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain (
Krzysztof Herman, Department of Landscape Art, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Poland (
Paulo Rita, Department of Marketing, ISCTE Business School, Lisbon, Portugal (
Puricación Galindo, Department of Statistics, University of Salamanca, Spain (
Rafael Alberto Peres, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain (
Richard Ross Shaker, Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, Ryerson University, Canada (
Saul Neves de Jesus, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Algarve, Portugal (
Teresa de Noronha, Faculty of Economics, University of Algarve, Portugal (
Thomas Panagopoulos, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Portugal (
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ISSN: 2183-1912
CINTURS, Faro, Portugal
Consumer Behavior in the Digital Age ..................................................................190
Jose Ramon Saura
Ana Reyes-Menendez
Nelson De Matos
Marisol B. Correia
Pedro Palos-Sanchez
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 190
2. How Has Consumer Behavior Changed in the Digital Age? ................................. 192
3. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 194
The Impact of Social Media on Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour in Malaysian
Restaurants .............................................................................................................197
Jeetesh Kumar
Rupam Konar
Kandappan Balasubramanian
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 197
2. Literature Review .................................................................................................... 199
3. Methodology ........................................................................................................... 203
4. Data Analysis .......................................................................................................... 203
5. Discussion ............................................................................................................... 209
6. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 210
The Use of Digital Marketing Strategies in the Sharing Economy: A Literature
Review ..................................................................................................................... 217
Leticia Polanco-Diges
Felipe Debasa
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 217
2. Framework ............................................................................................................... 218
3. Methodology Development .................................................................................... 220
4. Results ..................................................................................................................... 221
5. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 225
The Importance of the Loyalty of Fashion Brands through Digital Marketing .... 230
Rocio López Muniesa
Carmen García Giménez
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 230
2. Theoretical Framework .......................................................................................... 233
3. Literature Review .................................................................................................... 235
4. Methodology Development .................................................................................... 236
5. Analysis of Results ................................................................................................. 237
6. Discussion ............................................................................................................... 239
7. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 240
A Dyadic Approach to Adolescents’ Risky Online Behaviors ..............................244
Dora Agapito
Pedro Quelhas Brito
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 244
2. Literature Review .................................................................................................... 246
3. Method .................................................................................................................... 250
4. Results ..................................................................................................................... 253
5. Discussion ............................................................................................................... 258
6. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 262
The imPacT of Social meDia on conSUmerS’
PUrchaSinG BehaVioUr in malaYSian reSTaUranTS
Jeetesh Kumar1
Rupam Konar2
Kandappan Balasubramanian3
Over the years, the dynamic advancement of technology has shaped the food and beverage
industry in Malaysia. Today, the huge shift in the industry has resulted in consumers
seeking readily accessible information. As such, various platforms, mostly social media, have
influenced consumers’ pre-purchase opinions before purchasing. Nevertheless, limited studies
have been conducted in Malaysia, focusing on consumers’ purchasing behaviour, specifically
in the food and beverage industry in Malaysia. Thus, this study examines the impacts of
social media on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysian restaurants. Therefore, this
study has incorporated recently proposed factors including E-WOM, social media and online
community marketing, higher accessibility of information, and online ordering system, which
stimulate the consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysia. This study utilised the critical
review process of secondary sources to identify the determinants and measurements used in
the surveying instrument. Purposive sampling was applied to select the restaurants, whereas
the non-convenience random sampling technique was employed to collect data from 270
consumers over three months. Later, PLS-SEM was used to analyse the data. The results
proved that the electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), social media advertisement and online
ordering system significantly determined consumers’ purchasing behaviour. However, highly
accessible information via social media does not have a positive implication on consumers’
purchasing behaviour. The study is contributing much to the food and beverage industry.
Keywords: Malaysia, Technology, Consumer Purchasing Behaviour, Restaurant Sector, Social
Media, Digital Marketing.
JEL Classification: M37
Creative minds and innovative technology predominantly consume the world. Marketers
are continually strategising ways to convey their messages and convince consumers into
buying their products and services. With the inception of the 21st century, specialists have
anticipated that the internet would bridge the gap between consumers and marketing
organisations (Hamel & Sampler, 1998; Sotelo, 2017). Researchers such as Ward et al.
have anticipated that at the dawn of the 21st century, the internet and smart media would
be the leading shopping platforms for consumers (1998). In a similar vein, De Kare-Silver
1 School of Hospitality, Tourism & Events, Faculty of Social Sciences & Leisure Management, Taylor’s University, Selangor, Malaysia
2 School of Hospitality, Tourism & Events, Faculty of Social Sciences & Leisure Management, Taylor’s University, Selangor, Malaysia
3 School of Hospitality, Tourism & Events, Faculty of Social Sciences & Leisure Management, Taylor’s University, Selangor, Malaysia
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
(2000) asserted that innovation would ultimately run with the consumers to visit stores. As
a result, it would be simple for individuals to buy their needs without setting off the original
spots of the products.
Business organisations believe that electronic media can help promote their services
and physical goods, which will eventually profit them. Weaver et al. (2017) and Porter
(2001) posited that companies have to rely on technology to survive the business sector.
The latest trends of marketing include digital marketing, which comprises of mobile - smart
marketing, social networking sites, mobile applications, and mobile website (Horner &
Swarbrooke, 2016). Subrahmanyam et al. (2008), in their research, claimed that people
frequently communicate with each other on social networking sites and mobile applications.
Additionally, Ostrow (2009) asserted that the use of social networking sites is increasing
daily. On the other hand, Statista (2018) confirmed that Facebook has allegedly housed 207
billion accounts, whereas Twitter had 330 million followers by the end of the third quarter
in 2017.
In the field of business, these social sites are essential to determine consumers’ purchasing
behaviour. Hence, Jones concluded that individuals use social media sites to convey their
insights and purplish data on the brands they purchase and the administration they utilise
(2010) Buyers use them to prescribe a brand or showcase associations with companions
and supporters. Therefore, the relationship between technology and consumers’ purchasing
behaviour is today’s top trending topics (Groß, 2015; Horner & Swarbrooke, 2016). D’Silva
et al. (2011) asserted that this relationship could affect marketers as well as consumers.
For example, marketers can build a personal connection with the consumers, whereas
consumers will get daily updates on products or services. The internet, social media and
mobile applications have adverse or positive impacts on the food and beverage industry and
its consumers. Consumers believe that marketers focus on both the quality and quantity of
advertising and its strength to attract consumers into the food and beverage industry.
Moreover, consumers are continually seeking information via word-of-mouth marketing
or social networking sites that can supply them with pre-purchase suggestions before
purchasing (Constantinides & Fountain, 2008; Mauri & Minazzi, 2013; Zhang et al.,
2017). As for the restauranteurs, revolutionising the marketing strategy can make or break
the brand entirely. Although there are benefits to digital marketing, risks are often involved,
especially when the majority of the food and beverage suppliers try to transform uncertainty
into an advantage for them (Mori et al., 2005).
Klang Valley is centred in Kuala Lumpur and connected to several cities and towns
in the state of Selangor, Malaysia Klang Valley has a massive number of migrants from
other states within Malaysia and foreign workers predominantly from Indonesia, India, and
Nepal. The population in Klang Valley was 7.25 million in the fourth quarter of 2017 and is
expected to increase to a total of 10 million by 2020 and 20 million in 2030 with an annual
growth rate of 1.7% (Department of Statistics, 2017). The Malaysian Communications
and Multimedia Commissions stated that there are 19.2 million internet users in Malaysia,
and 15.6 million of them are active Facebook users. Therefore almost 64% of the national
population has somewhat been ingrained in the world of social media (2014). There have
been studies conducted on brand equity, brand loyalty, brand preferences, brand leadership
and the customer experience in the restaurant industry within Malaysia and worldwide,
Bolotaeva and Cata (2010), Safko (2012), Wollan, Smith, and Zhou (2010), Li and Shiu
(2012), Mhlanga and Tichaawa (2017), Hanaysha (2016).
Nevertheless, the relationship or influence of technology, specifically social media
advertising on Malaysians’ purchasing behaviour has not been explored extensively. Several
studies have focused on the influence of social media on customers’ experience and purchasing
behaviour in the restaurant sector. However, the international context of the previous research
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
might not be suitable for the Malaysian restaurant industry. Studies conducted by Safko
(2012) and Wollan, Smith, and Zhou (2010) highlighted that the relationship between
social media and customer experiences should be examined within the boundaries of cultural
and geographical context. It should not be generalised to other countries. This is because
the rate of social media network usage varies from one country to the other. Therefore, the
type of social media network in a particular country influences the customers’ experience
and purchasing behaviour differently in comparison to other countries (Li & Shiu, 2012).
As mentioned earlier, almost 64% of the total population are active social media users in
the study area. It is very substantial to have online reviews for the tourism industry on the
primary website as well as on another type of platforms that require managerial attention for
proper brand management (Saura, Palos-Sanchez & Reyes-Menendez, 2017). Nowadays,
online review sites and social media websites have become an essential source of information
for consumers and exert a strong influence on consumer purchase behaviour and decision
making (Reyes-Menendez, Saura & Filipe, 2019). Therefore, the current research aims to
understand the effects of technology on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in the Malaysian
restaurant industry. Also, it was essential to carry forward this research in Malaysian context
to understand the impacts of social media on local consumers to follow the trend in the
restaurant industry. We believe the proposed conceptual framework of current research is
very identical and will contribute enormously and will help to improve to the supply side
of the restaurants’ industry. The upcoming sections of the paper will comprise of literature
review with its proposed hypothesis, methods used for sample selection and data collection
will be discussed. The next section will include data analysis and results that will be examined
in detail. Finally, the paper ends with a discussion of research findings, an avenue for future
research and concluding remarks.
2.1 Consumer Purchasing Behaviour Journey
Marketers have linked consumers’ multiple purchasing approaches to the higher use of social
media. To curb this issue, marketers have changed their strategies and introduced, E-WOM,
a practical, accurately deliberate information transmitter, which can influence consumers’
purchasing behaviour and determined to keep them satisfied (Court et al., 2009; Okumus
& Bilgihan, 2014; Monica, John & Maria, 2017). Sheenan posited that consumers today
prefer to scout around and familiarise themselves with the produces before purchasing them.
(2010). Therefore, technology is the best mechanism to influence consumers’ purchasing
behaviour (Court et al., 2009).
The technology includes social media and e-commerce. Social media is an online market
where a brand image connects the buyers and sellers. Vollmer & Precourt (2008) stated that
social media should always be resourceful and proactively influence consumers’ perception
of choosing a brand. As such, social media marketing is a convenient and straightforward
marketing tool, which helps providers to reach out to consumers during purchasing decisions
(Sheenan, 2010). Awareness is necessary for the process of consumers’ decision-making. It
allows consumers to examine the gap between their desires and the type of information
obtained (Reid & Bojanic, 2009; Lee et al., 2016). Besides that, consumers need to be
familiar with the products and services to measure their purchasing behaviour. (Peppard &
Butler, 1998). At present digital/ social media marketing is playing a critical role in consumer
purchasing behaviour journey. Saura, Reyes-Menendez and Palos-Sanchez (2019) explored
digital marketing strategies based on promotions for Black Friday 2018 in Spain. Research
confirms that companies should generate exclusive promotions based on limited time
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
horizons and companies should avoid activities generate uncertainty and negative feelings in
customers who, in turn, speak negatively of companies and share their negative experiences
with the digital community by publishing negative content. Such negative feedback affects
the digital reputation of companies and generates negative perceptions of their offers and
discounts, thus reducing the profitability of its shares.
2.2 Electronic Word of Mouth (E-WOM)
Steve Jurvetson and Tim Draper introduced the term viral marketing in 1997 (Knight,
1999: 110-111) “Viral marketing can be understood as a communication and distribution
concept that relies on customers to transmit digital products via electronic mail to other
potential customers in their social sphere and to animate these contacts to also transmit
the products”. Pastore (2000) mentioned that it is the same as E-WOM, but Modzelewski
(2000) disagreed and confirmed viral marketing is entirely different from E-WOM. Shirky
(2000) then claimed that people would soon view viral marketing as E-WOM advertising.
Additionally, he said that the concept would focus on attracting consumers via honest
communication. Researchers also concluded that viral marketing connects with consumers,
establishes consumer relationships, and influences consumers to buy the range of products
(Helm, 2000; Vargo & Lusch, 2004; Leskovec et al., 2007; De Bruyn & Lilien, 2008; Court
et al., 2009). eWOM is the most important source of information that drives consumer
purchase behaviour in the hospitality and tourism services sectors. eWOM is personified
message in online reviews that customers write for others. The words in online reviews could
be negative or positive, depends on the experience that these specific customers have with
purchased products or services (Reyes-Menendez, Saura & Filipe, 2019). Therefore, to gain
a better understanding of the impact of eWOM on different social platforms and its effect
on the decision making and behaviour of hotel consumers, reviews on online travel sites and
social networking sites should be taken into account. Therefore, taking into consideration
Shirky’s views, this paper will view viral marketing as a natural form of communication
between consumers. This paper will further look at the impacts of viral marketing on
consumers’ purchasing behaviour.
H1. E-WOM has a positive effect on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in the restaurant
2.3 Social Media and Online Community Marketing
Social media is an unconventional web-based application in the field of online marketing.
(Yang et al., 2008). Companies employ social media to develop online communities and
create new business designs that include novel product marketing channels (Chung &
Buhalis, 2008; Ulusu, 2010). This will ultimately address problems with time and place
limitations to mould strong relationships with consumers (Bolotaeva & Cata, 2010).
Literature supports that social media is a powerful tool, which can be used by restaurants
for marketing and publicity to reach out to a vast number of crowd and influence customers’
experience and purchasing behaviour. Social media is necessary for effective marketing
as it will induce a perceived favourable image, which results in perceived customer value
(Hanaysha, 2016). However, Mhlanga and Tichaawa (2017) mentioned that the influence
of social media on customers’ experiences could be different based on their gender, age, food
and beverage, service and atmosphere. New marketing channels create online communities
that allow marketers to collect information about consumers, deduce consumers’ needs and
priorities based on their experiences of community usage and gain direct responses from
consumers (Sigala, 2003).
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
Additionally, marketers can attain high levels of customisation by observing the contents
posted by community members. It will help provide marketers with an understanding of
consumers’ needs. As a result, they will be able to develop ground-breaking products and
services for consumers. It allows marketers to promote their start-up businesses to targeted
consumers (Chung & Buhalis, 2008; Rezaei, Ali, Amin & Jayashree, 2016).
Online communities are suitable mediums for building a close-knit relationship with
consumers. Zott et al. (2000) elaborated as the stickiness of a platform and its ability to
appeal to consumers and retain them. Which is done by developing consumer value such
as incentives for loyalty, customised products and services and trust (Zott et al., 2000).
In general, social media marketing is a proactive platform that can connect with present
consumers and draw new consumers. It is performing a substantial role in influencing
consumers’ purchasing behaviour (Sigala, 2003; Chung & Buhalis, 2008; Bolotaeva & Cata,
2010). Saura, Reyes-Menendez and Palos-Sanchez (2019) confirmed in their research that
digital platforms has been confirmed routes to transfer the message from brands to their
customers. Also, these digital platforms help suppliers to get the customers purchasing
behaviour information which can results into improving the supplier - customer relationships.
H2. Advertising on social media has a positive effect on consumers’ purchasing behaviour
in the restaurant industry.
2.4 Higher Accessibility of Information
WOM has created an essential information transfer; however, the real impact of information
obtained varies from one person to the other as a result of recipients’ views and experiences
(Liou, 2018). The internalisation phase of knowledge transfer is inclusive of information
sharing and receiving. Therefore, explicit information was converted into internalised
knowledge and meaning (Nonaka, 1994). Additionally, previous studies had focused on
the quality of information and source credibility (Davy, 2006; Hong, 2006; Xu et al., 2006;
Cheung & Lee, 2007). The quality of information is evaluated based on the accessibility of
the data, its content, accuracy, format, and timeliness (Liu & Lopez, 2016). Social media
consists of numerous online information-sharing platforms, such as social networking sites.
Therefore, social media plays a vital role in creating an impact on consumers’ purchasing
behaviour in the field of marketing and advertising (Gilly et al., 1998; Mangold & Faulds,
2009; Varkaris & Neuhofer, 2017).
H3. High accessibility of information via social media has a positive implication on
consumers’ purchasing behaviour in the restaurant sector.
2.5 Traditional vs Digital Marketing
Online platforms nowadays are necessary to create and maintain a strong bond between
marketers and consumers (Court et al., 2009). Internet usage and E-WOM have increased
steadily, and therefore, consumers can seek online peer-advice via social networking sites.
E-WOM will eventually promote marketing via multi-level information sharing to influence
consumers’ purchasing behaviour (Vargo & Lusch, 2004; Court et al., 2009; Fauser et
al., 2011). With the development of modern technology, marketers have to switch their
focus from a traditional marketing strategy to both conventional and digital marketing to
attract consumers from various perspectives (Court et al., 2009; Okumus, 2013). It will
then influence consumers to digress from the 4Ps (product, price, place, and promotion) of
traditional marketing and head towards digital marketing, which emphasises on knowledge
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
acquisition, interactivity, connectivity, brand research and feedback review (Vargo & Lusch,
2004; Varkaris & Neuhofer, 2017).
2.6 Mobile Sites and Mobile Applications
The functions of a mobile-based online service are similar to computer-based online service.
Nevertheless, mobile service stores’ unique features that make it from computer-based
service (Mozeik et al., 2009). The mobile technology is highly portable and has better
coverage compared to desktops computers because it operates on wireless internet (Kim
et al., 2007). Mobile technology is universal and therefore grants users internet access and
the ability to interact with the system anytime and anywhere (Tojib & Tsarenko, 2012).
Wang et al. (2015) maintained that mobile technologies in the 21st century could satiate
users’ impulsive and entertainment needs, help with making arrangements despite time-
constraints and are more portable and efficient. By the year 2014, the number of mobile
phone users in China was over 600 million, and this number is multiplying (China Mobile
Application, 2015).
Moreover, data usage statistics state that more than 50% of the mobile data was spent on
shopping, social media, and video websites. It is, therefore, evident that Chinese consumers’
online activities have shifted from computer-based-platforms to mobile-based platforms.
That being said, mobile apps have invaded the content of the mobile internet (China
Mobile Application, 2015). Mobile apps with restaurant search utilise online-to-offline
(O2O) business model (Liu & Xu, 2014). The O2O model helps business operators develop
business opportunities via the internet by transforming offline services online (Du & Tang,
2014). Hence, the online ordering system is engineered to aid customers when they need
to purchase or make transactions at their convenience during or off opening hours. The
services provided by marketers give consumers the liberty to choose, buy or pay via the
internet with specific apps on their mobile phones (Barutcu, 2007).
2.7 Online Ordering System
In the restaurant sector, the online ordering system is rapidly expanding among consumers
and restaurants due to its visible benefits. Consumers order online because it is more
comfortable, more convenient and fast (Kimes & Laque, 2011). As a result, restaurants will
be able to increase profit and avoid errors. Besides that, online ordering has helped improved
management capacity, boost productivity, develop transactional marketing and customer
relationship management (Kimes & Laque, 2011; Kimes, 2011). Nevertheless, restaurants
do face issues with a rise in cost, decline in service quality, and plausible commoditisation.
Studies revealed that the ordering process should be accurate, convenient and clear-cut. In
the absence of the internet or mobile app, consumers chose to make a call to order online
(Park & Kim, 2003; Flanagin et al., 2014; Metzger & Flanagin, 2015).
H4. The availability of the online ordering system has a positive effect on consumers’
purchasing behaviour in the restaurant sector.
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
Figure 1. Research Framework
Source: Own Elaboration
The quantitative research method was adopted to test the hypothesis. As such, a comprehensive
questionnaire made up of three sections was used to examine information such as E-WOM,
social media advertisement, higher accessibility of information, online ordering system
and consumer purchasing behaviour. Part one of the questionnaire consisted of screening
questions that were designed to ensure respondents had the experience of using social media
to check out restaurant menus and advertisements. Moreover, the items also measured the
amount of time spent by consumers on social media daily. Therefore, the participants in this
study were experienced consumers who frequently used social media to survey restaurants
virtually before visiting them. Section two captured participants’ demographic data such
as gender, age, monthly income, education, and nationality. The final section of the
questionnaire was created to determine consumers’ views on the primary constructs of the
study. Thirty-three items were measured via a Five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly
disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
Additionally, the consumers’ purchase behaviour (four items) was adopted from four
independent variables and E-WOM (five items) was adopted from Word-of-mouth Marketing
Association (2008). Besides that, fourteen items regarding social media advertisements were
extracted from Lee (2013); Madni (2013) and the higher accessibility of information (seven
items) were adopted from Rein et al. (2005). Finally, three items about the online ordering
system were selected based on Kimes and Laque (2011); Kimes (2011).
Next, the purposive sampling technique was used to approach five different fast-casual
dining restaurants or cafes in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They were Humble Beginnings Café,
Wondermilk, Epiphany Coffee & Tabacco, Mukha Café and JC’s Pancakes. Three hundred
questionnaires were distributed to consumers who had visited the restaurants between
March and April 2019 via the non-probability convenience sampling technique. With a
response rate of 90%, 270 were returned, completed and found to be useful.
4.1 Demographic Breakdown of the Respondents
The majority of the participants were male (56.3%) in the current study. About 27.4% of
the respondents were between 26 and 30 years old, whereas 24.1% of them were between 20
and 25 years old. Table 1 exhibits the monthly income of the participants. A total of 60.4%
of the participants obtained RM3001 to RM4000 per month. On the other hand, 23% of
them received a salary between RM4001 and RM5000. Besides that, 44.1% had graduated
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
with a diploma, 31.5% with a degree and only 13.3% with postgraduate degrees. Survey
questionnaires were distributed among the permanent residents or those who have resided
in Malaysia for more than six months. Further, the result found out that there were 75.2%
of them were Malaysians, followed by Koreans (8.5%), Chinese (7.8%), Taiwanese (5.9%)
and Singaporeans (2.6%).
Table 1. Demographics of the Participants (n= 270)
Frequency (F) Percentage (%)
Male 152 56.3
Female 118 43.7
20 - 25 65 24.1
26 - 30 74 27.4
31 – 35 31 11.5
36 – 40 52 19.3
41 and above 48 17.8
Monthly Income (RM)
Less than 3,000 18 6.7
3,001- 4,000 163 60.4
4,001- 5,000 62 23.0
5,001 or above 27 10.0
Diploma 119 44.1
Undergraduate (Degree) 85 31.5
Postgraduate (Masters/ PhD) 36 13.3
Others 30 11.1
Malaysia 203 75.2
China 21 7.8
Singapore 7 2.6
Taiwan 16 5.9
Korea 23 8.5
Source: Output from SPSS
4.2 Technology and Time Spent
A total of 94.8% of the participants used social media to review the restaurants’ menu items,
and almost 69% of them agreed that social media invoked them to visit those restaurants.
Based on the survey, 59% of the participants said that the advertisements on mass media
were uninspiring due to the invasion of technology in their daily lives. As such, Facebook
was one of the most used platforms by the majority of the participants (72.6%) daily.
Additionally, most of them (81.1%) spent about 10 hours or more on social media per week.
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
Table 2. General Questions about Technology and Time Spent
Frequency (F) Percentage (%)
Do you use social media to review the restaurant’s menu items?
Does social media trigger you to visit a particular restaurant?
Do you find advertisements on mass media are still attractive?
Which of the following social media sites are you using daily?
Social Networking Sites (e.g. Facebook)
Microblogging (e.g. Twitter)
Blogs/ Forums
Social Bookmarking Sites/ Social News (e.g. Reddit, Digg)
Photo & Video Sharing Sites (e.g. Flickr, Youtube)
Time (approx.) spent on social media sites per week
0 hour
1-3 hours
4-6 hours
7-9 hours
10 hours or more
Source: Output from SPSS
4.3 Descriptive Analysis
Results of current research revealed that the participants had high perceptions (Mean ≥ 4.0)
for buzz marketing, which employs entertainment or news to develop WOM. Additionally,
they were also into community marketing, where a circle of people supports user groups,
fan clubs, and discussion forums. Finally, the participants had strong impressions of referral
programmes too. These programmes provided satisfied consumers with a platform to spread
the word via a wide range of instruments. All in all, the mediums above had vastly influenced
consumers’ purchasing behaviour. Moreover, consumers were able to seek products and
services’ information via social media. Additionally, consumers’ initial preferences changed
after browsing for pertinent details. Most likely, their attitude and perception towards a
restaurant would have changed after reading the positive reviews and articles online. Social
media has evidently, paved the way for new products, services, and brands to lure customers,
in comparison to mass media advertisements, reviews and blog posts. Therefore, social
media is proved to be a more credible space for marketing compared to mass media. With
the expansion of social media, consumers can get specific information on an extensive menu,
especially food (halal or diet-specific) and beverages offered at a restaurant. Furthermore, the
feedback from previous customers, such as reviews, ratings, and comments on social media
would influence first-timers’ purchasing behaviour. Additionally, social media substantially
brings together groups of consumers and encourages them to communicate with each other,
and with the restaurants about availability, reservation and the ordering system.
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
Nevertheless, participants had average perceptions (Mean ≥ 3.0) when it comes to
the impact of technology on consumers’ purchasing behaviour, and their prejudgement
of products or services before use. In comparison to the mass media, the consumers had
moderate responses with regards to information accessibility, the sharing of information
(WOM), and peer-reviews on social media. Moreover, social media can help consumers
locate restaurants, promotions, and advertisements that they find appealing. As such, social
media and E-WOM had influenced consumers’ purchasing behaviour and decision-making
abilities. Thirdly, participants exhibited low perceptions (Mean < 3.0) towards a series of
items such as the ability to seek consistent information, that gelled with their first-hand
purchasing preferences. Besides that, consumers also developed low perceptions against
social media’s influence to try new restaurants and information regarding the ingredients
and cooking process. Low views were also recorded when participants were asked about
the usefulness of social media and whether it causes difficulties in the process of decision-
making. Besides that, restaurants that used technology provided consumers with a novel
dining experience.
4.4 Measurement Model
The measurement model employed in the present study had initially examined the
standardised construct loadings, which resulted above the recommended value of 0.60
(Chin et al., 2008). The degree of each construct’s indicator to its latent construct proved
that the reliability of the construct was above 0.708. On the other hand, the extracted
average variance or the overall extent of variation, which was observed among the indicators
and were accounted for the latent construct were above 0.50. It was above the critical limit
which signalled the reliability and validity of the measurement model (Table 3). The next
stage was to assess the validity of the discriminant, in which the extent of one variable is
not the reflection of other variables, which was indicated by the low correlation between
the constructs. Table 4 demonstrates Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio’s (HTMT) criteria due to
recent criticism on Alarcón, Sánchez and De Olavide’s (2015) criterion because they did not
reliably detect discriminant validity compared to the HTMT ratio (Henseler et al., 2016).
The results further indicate that the obtained values are above the critical limit of HTMT
0.85 and below than an HTMT of 0.90. Hence, the HTMT ratio values are between 0.85
and 0.90.
Table 3. Indicator Validity and Reliability
Items Loadings
E-WOM (AVE = 0.561; Composite Reliability = 0.879)
Buzz marketing (Using entertainment or news to create WOM) influences consumer purchase decision. 0.814
Viral marketing (messages designed to be passed along, often electronically or by email) influences consumer
purchase decision. 0.780
Community marketing (forming or supporting such communities as user groups, fan clubs, and discussion
forums) influences consumer purchase decision. 0.735
Conversation Creation (things such as emails, promotions, entertainment or anything that is designed to create
WOM) influences consumer purchase decision. 0.627
Referral Programs (giving satisfied customers the change to spread the word with different tools) influences
consumer purchase decision. 0.796
Higher Accessibility of Information (AVE = 0.572; Composite Reliability = 0.867)
Do you think that with the social media sites, you are able to seek out products/services information
initiatively (actively)? 0.710
Do you have prejudgement (positive/negative) towards a particular product and/or service before an actual
consumption? 0.684
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
Do you tend to seek out information that is consistent with your initial opinion/preference for a purchase? 0.698
Do you agree that information searching is easier via social media compared to mass media (e.g. TV, radio,
newspaper, and so on)? 0.819
Do you change your initial preference after searching relevant information via social media sites? 0.712
Are you likely to change your attitude towards a certain restaurant after you have read positive comments/
reviews/online articles etc. about it? 0.679
Are you likely to share comments/reviews/blog posts/related articles etc. to peers or friends via social media
after a visit to the restaurant? 0.718
Social Media Advertisement (AVE = 0.669; Composite Reliability = 0.863)
Do you search for related information on social media before a purchase? 0.659
Do you agree that, for instance, advertisements/blog posts/ FB pages/user reviews on social media influence you
to try new brands/products/services? 0.712
Do you agree that social media has provided more effective platforms for new products/services/brands to draw
consumers’ attention than mass media channels? 0.665
Do you agree that advertisements/ reviews/ blog posts etc. have higher credibility than advertisements/
editorials/ other marketing means on mass media? 0.661
Do you rely on information available on social media if you have uncertainties regarding a purchase? 0.743
It is easy to access the restaurant interactive menu through social media. 0.856
The information (e.g. ingredients, cooking process, etc.) through social media is very useful. 0.673
The visual appearance of an interactive menu in social media is attractive. 0.612
The social media make it easier to check menu variety (e.g. healthy menu, halal menu, etc.) offered in the
restaurant. 0.714
The beverage (e.g. hot drinks, cocktails, mocktails, etc.) feature in the social media is very useful. 0.801
The social media interactive menu attracts me to try the restaurant. 0.631
Do you agree that feedbacks (reviews/comments/posts and so on) on social media affect your purchase? 0.652
Do you agree that social media provides an effective and powerful platform for consumers to communicate
with each other and with the companies? 0.784
Do you think that social media makes your decision making more complex? 0.659
Online Ordering System (AVE = 0.576; Composite Reliability = 0.897)
Social media help me to order online. 0.775
The restaurant online system helps me to locate the restaurant. 0.766
The social media helps to check the reservation availability for online booking. 0.753
Consumer Purchasing Behaviour (AVE = 0.623; Composite Reliability = 0.867)
The interactive promotion of the restaurant through the social media influences consumer purchase decision. 0.853
Food promotion reminder through the social media influence consumer purchase decision. 0.603
Advertising appeal of restaurant promotions through the technology influence consumer purchase decision. 0.784
Restaurant using technology gives a new dining experience to consumer. 0.645
Note: Critical Values: AVE = 0.50; Indicator Loadings = 0.60
Source: Output from PLS - SEM
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
Table 4. Discriminant Validity
Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT)
H_AI 0.864
SMA 0.899 0.869
OOS 0.853 0.887 0.903
CPB 0.868 0.899 0.878 0.866
**Values on the diagonal (bolded) are square root of AVE while the off-diagonals are correlations.
The shaded boxes is the standard procedure for reporting HTMT ratio.
E-WOM - electronic word-of-mouth; H_AI - Higher Accessibility of Information; SMA – Social Media
Advertising; OOS - Online Ordering System; CPB - Consumer Purchasing Behaviour.
Source: Output from PLS - SEM
4.5 Structural Model
A bootstrapping procedure with 4999 iterations and 270 cases were used to examine the
importance of the path coefficient values (Chin et al., 2008; Hair et al., 2017) of the
structural model and its tested hypotheses. Moreover, critical limits of t-value statistics,
(Hair et al., 2017) 1.96 (5% of significance level) and 2.57 (1% of significance level) were
used to measure the path-coefficient values. According to the recommendation of Henseler
et al. (2016), the standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) value was applied to the
model fit’s criterion. The recommended value of 0.08 or less would be sufficient for the PLS
path analysis model. As for the present study, an SRMR = 0.058 was noticed. The value
signified acceptance of the model fit.
Figure 2. Results of the Assessment of the Structural Model
Source: Elaboration form PLS - SEM
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
Table 5. Path Coefficients
Hypotheses beta t-values Decision f-Square
Direct Effects (bootstrapping results)
H1: e-WOM Consumer Purchasing Behaviour 0.108 2.720** Supported 0.555
H2: Social Media Advertising Consumer Purchasing
Behaviour 0.584 3.248** Supported 0.820
H3: Higher Accessibility of Information Consumer
Purchasing Behaviour 0.018 0.266 Rejected 0.107
H4: Online Ordering System Consumer Purchasing
Behaviour 0.077 3.937** Supported 0.799
Notes: Critical t-values. *1.96 (p < 0.05); **2.57 (p < 0.01).
Source: Own Elaboration
Table 5 shows the structural model path coefficient values of f-square denoting each
construct’s side effect. Consumer Purchasing Behaviour was the dependent variable.
E-WOM, Higher Accessibility of Information, Social Media Advertisement and Online
Ordering System were the independent variables. The path-coefficient b-values were used
to test the hypotheses, whereas t-values confirmed the significance level of the proposed
hypotheses. There were zero auto-correlation since the Durbin-Watson value was 1.94,
and the variance inflations factor was below 3. This proved an absence of multicollinearity
problems. Additionally, the ‘Higher Accessibility of Information (ß=0.018)’ did not have a
positive effect on ‘Consumer Purchasing Behaviour’ in the restaurant sector. As a result, the
proposed H3 hypotheses were rejected. However, the ‘E-WOM (ß=0.108)’, ‘Social Media
Advertisement (ß=0.584)’ and ‘Online Ordering System (ß=0.007)’ had positive effects on
‘Consumer Purchasing Behaviour and therefore hypotheses H1, H2 and H4 were accepted.
Moreover, all the independent variables jointly signalled a variance value (R2) of 72% for the
‘Consumer Purchasing Behaviour’. It is an acceptable value. Henseler et al. (2016) reckoned
the application of standardised root mean square (SRMR) as the appropriate model fit
criterion. The suggested value of SRMR is 0.08 or less for a good model fit. Hence the
current structural model has achieved SRMR = 0.0608, signifying an acceptable model fit.
Significant works of literature have examined consumers’ purchasing behaviour in the
restaurant sector worldwide. Nonetheless, limitations rose when it came to the understanding
of the e-consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysian restaurants. Therefore, this paper
has attempted to fill the gaps via an analysis based on the developed conceptual model.
Additionally, antecedents such as the E-Word of Mouth, Social Media advertisement, Higher
accessibility of information and Online ordering system were used to measure consumers’
purchasing behaviour in the Malaysian restaurant sector.
Consumers continuously interacted via multiple objects that were related to their
surrounding environment. According to the findings, social media advertisements had
greatly influenced (58.4%) consumers’ purchasing behaviour. Similar studies have recorded
the positive impact of social media advertisements too. (Al-Dhuhli, Mukhanini & Ismael,
2013; Rasool, 2015). There had been a noticeable shift in consumers’ purchasing behaviour
as a result of an upsurge in social media’s efficiency. Lee (2013) asserted that it is difficult
to generalise due to the differences in demographic factors. However, the current study
showed that the majority of Malaysians were Millennials. About 24.1% were under the age
group of 20-25years and 27.4% between 26 and 30years of age compared to Gen X and Y.
Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, Vol. VIII, Issue 3, (2020) 197-216
The present study also coincides with Mhlanga and Tichaawa’s claims that the influence of
social media on customers’ experiences and purchasing behaviour could be different because
of their gender and age group. Therefore, these results suggested that the segmentation of
millennials would be more successful in satisfying e-consumers’ purchasing behaviour on
social media in the field of Malaysian restaurants. Consequently, Yasin and David assert that
consumers’ method of interaction had been changing simultaneously with the advancement
of technology. Some methods have, therefore disrupted the diverse availability of information
sources because of their high-quality content and presentation (Yasin & David, 2014).
Furthermore, a wide variety of prices ultimately confuses the consumers’ access to
information on the information cloud. Sensing the global trends of competition, E-WOM
has also been considered as one of the major influential factors among consumers’ purchasing
behaviour. Due to the rapid technological advancement and the multiple platforms in social
media, potential consumers can easily be targeted with their initial knowledge about the
brand and the product (Tran, 2014). E-WOM messages have received plaudits from previous
users and have had shown positive repercussions on consumers’ purchasing behaviour
during the decision-making process (Dudovskiy, 2013). This is because the Malaysian
restaurant industry attracts tourists locally and globally as such social media plays a pivotal
role in uplifting these restaurants. After all, social media reviews and recommendations very
much influence tourists before purchasing. The findings of this paper support Court et al.
(2009) and Sheenan’s (2010) assertations, that modern consumers are often influenced by
technology when it comes to searching for information before making purchase decisions.
Additionally, consumers build trust in E-MOW via reviews and recommendations shared
by friends and renowned people on social media. Moreover, the rapid expansion of the
internet and the programmatic enhancements of marketed products by the restaurants
had modified the way consumers receive information and exhibit an increase in numbers
quickly. Because consumers expect highly informative and accessible information, business
marketers are placing more efforts on technology-based intuitive information, rather than
conventional processing information.
This study also highlighted the impact of social media’s high accessibility rate on
consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Malaysian restaurants. These findings oppose the
conclusions made by previous studies (Gilly et al., 1998; Mangold & Faulds, 2009; Varkaris
& Neuhofer, 2017). Such a contrasting difference may be a result of the customers’ culture
and ethnicity, levels of trust, previous dining experiences or other experiences based on social
media information. Some customers might have realised that the images of the restaurant
atmosphere and the appearance of the menu items posted on social media differed from
their actual dining-in experience. Besides that, there would also be counterfeit promotion
information shared on social media.
The present study concluded that it is essential to adopt a technological platform in the
field of hospitality to attract consumers and further create an impact on their purchasing
behaviour. Due to the recent development of Information and Communication Technology,
consumers are ready to accept the technological advancement and integration of modern
technological innovations in the restaurant industry to race against a busy competitive
world. Although new sets of factors may arise and will be adopted by consumers in the
future, the internet will always be the pilot of their daily lives. The findings on managerial
contributions revealed that a significant number of Malaysians are often influenced to visit
restaurants that have social networking sites such as Facebook. Therefore, in comparison to
Kumar, J., Konar, R., Balasubramanian, K. (2020). JSOD, VIII(3), 197-216
mass media, social networking sites are more useful for new products, services or brands to
draw consumers’ Moreover, the current study also revealed that social networking sites have
higher credibility compared to advertisements and other marketing means on mass media.
Additionally, consumers take into consideration recommendations of friends (E-WOM)
before visiting a particular restaurant or purchasing an order online Besides that, restaurants
that use multiple channels for marketing lead to confusion because of un-updated information
or complete absence of information. It will eventually lead to flip-flopping opinions when
it comes to choosing a particular restaurant. It cannot be denied that consumers also pay
heed to the views of others without actually visiting the promotional channels used by
restaurants. So, the marketing strategies designed by restaurants should cater to consumers
from all walks of life. Restaurants should also highlight a product’s unique features and
revamp the online ordering environment to increase consumers’ purchasing intentions.
Therefore, the topics identified and proposed conceptual model in current research
makes a significant theoretical contribution in the research filed. The model will be very
useful for academic scholars, restauranteurs, policymakers, and practitioners. In conclusion,
this paper has explored the conceptual development of e-consumers’ purchasing behaviour
and decision-making in the context of Malaysian restaurants. The analysis proved that
e-marketing is still growing fast compared to traditional marketing. This paper also shows a
better understanding of e-consumers purchasing behaviours in the Malaysian context.
Although the results of the current study had shed light on several important issues,
some limitations need to be considered for future research. Firstly, the data was collected
from five restaurants only and were tested based on the convenience sampling method,
which may have produced generalised results. Additionally, this study mainly focused on four
dimensions such as E-WOM, higher accessibility of information, social media marketing,
and online ordering system to analyse consumers’ purchasing behaviour. Nonetheless, there
are other critical dimensions that the present study had disregarded, for example, pricing,
location and service quality. Moreover, the present research merely focused on consumers’
point of view. Future research may examine these factors from restauranteurs’ point of view
to gain a better understanding of the suppliers’ perspective in Malaysian restaurants. Lastly,
future research may want to include emotional factors such as personal touch, perceived
excitement and enjoyment to look after consumers’ purchasing behaviour in the restaurant
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ISSN: 2183-1912
Ana Reyes-Menendez
Carmen García Giménez
Dora Agapito
Felipe Debasa
Jeetesh Kumar
Jose Ramon Saura
Kandappan Balasubramanian
Leticia Polanco-Diges
Marisol B. Correia
Nelson de Matos
Pedro Palos-Sanchez
Pedro Quelhas Brito
Rocio López Muniesa
Rupam Konar
... There is considerable interest in academic research of the social media phenomenon because the business and marketing fields want to discover the opportunities and challenges of this new communication system. Therefore, the relationship between technology and consumer's buying behaviour is the top trending subject of today (Groß, 2015;Kumar et al., 2020). To market their business, 97% of companies use a different form of social media (Vanmeter et al., 2015). ...
... The advent of social media has led to investigating its role in restaurant choice. Thus far, a few studies have focused on the impact of social media on restaurant consumer-related issues: customers' restaurant experience (Mhlanga & Tichaawa, 2017); purchase intention, brand equity, and perceived image (Lima et al., 2019); purchasing behaviour (Kumar et al., 2020); and restaurant choice (J. Hwang & Park, 2015;Ramos et al., 2020;Tiwari & Richards, 2013). ...
... Ghiselli and Ma (2015) found that customers who do not use social media for restaurant choice rely mostly on recommendations from friends (69%). According to more recent research, photos (Oliveira & Casais, 2019), physical evidence (Yang et al., 2017), comments (Kumar et al., 2020), the popularity of restaurants on social media (Mhlanga & Tichaawa, 2017;Ramos et al., 2020), and social media ads (Kumar et al., 2020;Saura et al., 2019) have a greater influence even than information provided by friends. The studies' common argument is that social media plays an increasingly important role as information sources on restaurant consumers' purchase intentions and attitudes. ...
This paper aims to examine the impact of social media use on consumers’ restaurant choices. It presents data from a questionnaire developed for examining social media use and restaurant choice on a trip and home. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the underlying theoretical structure of the phenomena. Four social media use factors were extracted. Then the measurement model and the structural model were tested. Findings show that three social media use factors (searching for services, social interactions, and searching for products) influenced individuals’ restaurant choices on the trip (more) and at home. Based on the results, restaurants should appear more on social media. Restaurants are recommended to share the ambiance, foods, and menus on social media frequently.
... They found that impulsiveness is a significant factor contributing to two types of shopping values (hedonic and utilitarian) in the social commerce environment. Furthermore, it was found that electronic word of mouth and social media significantly influence customers' buying behaviours in a social commerce environment (Kumar et al., 2020). In general, the development of Web 2.0 technologies build and flourish social commerce, which has significantly affected customers' behaviours in the F&B industry. ...
... For example, in the context of canned food, Bj€ orklund et al. (2020) applied the notion of experimentation and provided an expanded entrepreneurial solution to address the pandemic COVID-19. In addition, in the context of social commerce, Kumar et al. (2020) found that applying social media can play a significant positive role in customers' purchase intentions. Broadly, our study contributes to existing literature on F&B research domain by showing that social commerce should be embraced to gain a more complete understanding of online transactions in the F&B industry. ...
Purpose Given the growing importance and demand for online food purchases, this study explores the new advancements in information and communication technologies (ICTs) by examining the key features of social commerce, trust and product’s attributes in the e-commerce environment. The aim is to investigate possible ICTs-related entrepreneurial opportunities in the food and beverage (F&B) industry. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a survey to collect data and applies Smart partial least squares to test the model. Findings The structural equation modelling results illustrated that social commerce constructs significantly impact trust, leading to customer’s purchase intention. Additionally, product’s attributes was found to have a significant relationship with customer’s purchase intention with trust being the most pertinent driver. Originality/value This study contributes to the F&B literature by highlighting the role of new forms of technologies in entrepreneurship activities, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises.
... Barnes et al. (2012) agreed with Weber (2009) as this form of online communication overcame physical and timerestrictions. Kumar et al. (2020) agreed on this, as social media was marked as the most convenient and direct marketing tool that affected and still affects customer purchasing decisions. It gave a chance to customers to identify the gap between their desires and obtained information. ...
... Kasavana (2008) stated that hospitality and tourism operations supported that social media became a powerful tool in enhancing success as sharing customers experiences and recommending for others (as cited in Kang, 2011). Parikh (2013) and Kumar et al. (2020) found that social media significantly affected users' decision-making concerning allowing users to go to a specific restaurant. Moreover, the hospitality industry studies have proved that social media usage extended on the pre-travel stage; and getting hotel reviews or recommendations for restaurants at any stage of their trip (Fotis et al., 2012;Leung et al., 2013). ...
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Facebook can be marked as an opportunity or as a curse for any business working these days. Social media concerns were a priority for many business managers. This empirical study aimed to examine the chain and independent restaurants’ Facebook usage to contribute in measuring their online image. The study developed an assessment tool to evaluate the contents of restaurants’ Facebook pages, Facebook groups, and Facebook accounts. A sample of sixty-seven restaurants (twenty-eight independent restaurants and thirty-nine chain restaurants) in ten college towns were assessed. Pizza restaurants were selected based on their growing & well-known performance. This study exposed some significant findings, e.g., the majority of independent restaurants did not have official Facebook page, but there was a very limited number of them that presented a superior presence. On the other hand, chain restauants used Facebook tools more efficient than the independent restaurant. The research outcomes revealed the gap in performance between independent and chain pizza restaurants at different aspects of the Facebook world. The findings highlighted various best practices, which can help Pizza restaurants to develop their Facebook presence and to gain more profits. Although the sample represented a sizeable homogenous group of Pizza restaurants, generalizability limited to empirical studies. Thus, the assessment tool of this study is recommended in future studies. When it comes to practical implications, restaurant Facebook developers should consider launching one official Facebook page and dynamically linking it to the restaurant’s website. This should contribute towards strengthening restaurant image and was considered as an unpaid promotional tool. The study was designed to contribute at the research area of Pizza restaurants’ Facebook usage, where there was a paucity of research and to guide restaurants to efficiently act towards their online image and presence.
... Focusing on the Malaysia restaurant industry, and specifically the food sector, the authors investigate the role of eWOM and its relationship with social media and online marketing communities. Specifically, Jeetesh et al. (2020) explore whether greater accessibility to information and the online ordering system can stimulate consumer purchasing behavior. ...
... Consequently, while negative user opinions and comments can significantly affect online companies' strategy, a well-designed digital platform is not the key to increase purchases. Although it is true that according to Jeetesh et al. (2020), these actions do not influence users pre-purchase behavior, but it influens the opinion that user have about the product buying process. ...
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In recent decades, the Internet, evolving technologies, and social media have led to the evolution of consumer behavior. The changes in customer behavior driven by digital developments provide many opportunities and challenges that businesses also need to deal with online. The better companies know about the behavior of their customers, the easier they can engage with them using strategies such as content marketing, User Experience (UX), influencers marketing, User-Generated Content (UGC), or Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM). These strategies are essential to get more sales and to develop businesses online, as such strategies increase the engagement with users and influence their behavior. This Special Edition of JOSD focuses on the analysis of consumer behavior in the digital age and, by doing so, contributes to extant knowledge about digital marketing strategies, online consumer behavior, and new digital business models such as mobile applications or shared economy.
... In addition to convenient interactions with technology through the use of voice (Alepis and Patsakis, 2017), the existence of VAs has also resulted in various unforeseen expectations in areas of users' emotional satisfaction (Castelo et al., 2019). Although the use of VAs in shopping is relatively new, there are several studies that report the disruptive potential and expected growth of the practice (Kumar et al., 2020;Rzepka, 2019). Nasirian et al. (2017) investigated the factors impacting consumers' adoption of VAs and identified the quality of interaction as a significant driver of trust that influences their intention to use it. ...
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Voice assistants have emerged as a new form of technology that can identify human speech and respond accordingly via synthesized voices and this family of technologies has helped people accomplish various requirements in their daily lives. However, despite the numerous benefits of AI-based assistants, consumers' concerns about their privacy have increased. Nevertheless, only a few studies focus on the brand loyalty of customers, which influences the intention of consumers to persist in using voice assistants. Furthermore, the impact of brand credibility on the overall perceived value receives little attention. Therefore, this study attempted to identify the mechanism through which the users of voice assistants might develop reuse intention and loyalty toward a specific service provider brand and analyze how brand credibility can influence the overall perceived value of voice assistants. The study drew on the uses & gratification theory, signaling theory, and prospect theory to develop the conceptual model and its underlying hypotheses. Using purposive sampling and an online survey, data were collected from 426 Chinese users of AliGenie, Alibaba's intelligent personal assistant. Data and the hypothesized model were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings from quantitative analysis identified the perceived privacy risk as the most significant factor and obstacle influencing consumers' overall perceived value toward the usage of voice assistants. Furthermore, findings indicate that brand credibility moderates the existing relationship between the perceived privacy risk and the overall perceived value, a high brand credibility results in a much lower association between the perceived privacy risk and overall perceived value. Furthermore, the findings discovered a significant and positive relationship between brand loyalty and individuals' continued usage of voice assistants.
... Accordingly, the similar finding went to the present study, consumers' intention of purchasing organic food was also largely motivated through massive information spread in varieties of social media platforms as more and more consumers relied on gathering sufficient information from social media Apps. This opinion was supported by Kumar et al. (2020), asserting that higher accessibility of information provided by social media apps had a big impact on consumers' purchase intention in food and beverage industry in Malaysia. ...
... Their desire to take care of the natural environment and their own health has contributed to this (Sallnas and Bjorklund, 2020; Gunawan and Gunawan, 2019). The situation led to buyers being willing to share their knowledge (Bossink, 2018;Kumar et al., 2020), which reflected in developing eco-innovations. ...
... Accordingly, the similar finding went to the present study, consumers' intention of purchasing organic food was also largely motivated through massive information spread in varieties of social media platforms as more and more consumers relied on gathering sufficient information from social media Apps. This opinion was supported by Kumar et al. (2020), asserting that higher accessibility of information provided by social media apps had a big impact on consumers' purchase intention in food and beverage industry in Malaysia. ...
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The present study aims to clarify how background factors influence consumers’ intention of purchasing organic food from individual, social, and information perspectives (i.e., health consciousness, self-perceived vegetarian, as well as labeling). Another aim is to explore the moderating role of word-of-mouth (WOM) in relationship between purchase intention and purchase decision to fill in the intention-behavior gap in the field of behavior of purchasing organic food. The data were acquired through purposive sampling method by distributing questionnaires among organic food consumers. 280 out of 306 questionnaires were valid to proceed to statistical analysis. All proposed hypotheses were verified through structural equation modeling (SEM) and SPSS PROCESS regression analysis. As suggested from the study results, except for hedonistic motivation factor, the other background factors (i.e., individual, social, and information) significantly impacted consumers’ purchase intention. Moreover, the relationship between purchase intention and purchase decision was significantly moderated by word-of-mouth (WOM). The present study sheds light on how to motivate consumers’ purchase intention by stressing vital background factors from individual (i.e., purchase attitude and health consciousness), social (i.e., self-perceived vegetarian and environmental concern), and information perspectives (i.e., labeling and social media information). Besides, a novel insight is presented for marketers on how to deepen the relationship between consumers’ purchase intention and purchase decision via the moderating effect of word-of-mouth (WOM).
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The COVID-19 pandemic, the blocking of activity by the government and the restrictions imposed in Romania had detrimental effects on the activity of restaurants, imposing their adaptation to new situations and generating creative innovations that caused changes in the way restaurants deliver food to consumers through food order & delivery platforms. Exploring the nature and implications of such innovations on resilience, this study analyzes their impact on the attitude and intention to use food delivery platforms by restaurant managers in Romania during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the proposed structural model, the authors integrate innovations in resilience by joining together the new components of the established TAM model. This research was conducted on a sample of 402 restaurant managers in Romania. The data was collected based on a questionnaire, and it was analyzed with the SmartPLS3 software. The results of the study show that the four variables of innovation, namely business strategy innovations, technological innovations, financial innovations and social innovations, exert different effects on behavioral intention and attitude towards using the order & delivery platforms. The results of the study can be key points in the more efficient management of material, financial and human resources, thus improving the commercial performance of restaurants.
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In the last several decades, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been widely used by consumers on different digital platforms to gather feedback about products and services from previous customer behavior. However, this useful information is getting blurred by fake reviews-i.e., reviews that were created artificially and are thus not representative of real customer opinions. The present study aims to thoroughly investigate the phenomenon of fake online reviews in the tourism sector on social networking and online reviews sites. To this end, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on fake reviews for tourism businesses. Our focus was on previous studies that addressed the following two main topics: (i) tourism (ii) fake reviews. Scientific databases were used to collect relevant literature. The search terms ''tourism'' and ''fake reviews'' were applied. The database of Web of Science produced a total of 124 articles and, after the application of different filters following the PRISMA 2009 Flow diagram, the process resulted in the selection of 17 studies. Our results demonstrate that (i) the analysis of fake reviews is interdisciplinary, ranging from Computer Science to Business and Management, (ii) the methods are based on algorithms and sentiment analysis, while other methodologies are rarely used; and (iii) the current and future state of fraudulent detection is based on emotional approaches, semantic analysis and new technologies such as Blockchain. This study also provides helpful strategies to counteract the ubiquity of fake reviews for tourism businesses.
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The Black Friday event has become a global opportunity for marketing and companies’ strategies aimed at increasing sales. The present study aims to understand consumer behavior through the analysis of user-generated content (UGC) on social media with respect to the Black Friday 2018 offers published by the 23 largest technology companies in Spain. To this end, we analyzed Twitter-based UGC about companies’ offers using a three-step data text mining process. First, a Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model (LDA) was used to divide the sample into topics related to Black Friday. In the next step, sentiment analysis (SA) using Python was carried out to determine the feelings towards the identified topics and offers published by the companies on Twitter. Thirdly and finally, a data-text mining process called textual analysis (TA) was performed to identify insights that could help companies to improve their promotion and marketing strategies as well as to better understand the customer behavior on social media. The results show that consumers had positive perceptions of such topics as exclusive promotions (EP) and smartphones (SM); by contrast, topics such as fraud (FA), insults and noise (IN), and customer support (CS) were negatively perceived by customers. Based on these results, we offer guidelines to practitioners to improve their social media communication. Our results also have theoretical implications that can promote further research in this area.
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El uso de las aplicaciones móviles enfocadas al turismo (m-tourism) ha experimentado importantes cambios en la primera década del siglo XXI. Esta investigación desarrolla un estudio exploratorio de aplicaciones móviles de turismo para definir cómo los turistas las utilizan para obtener información de sus viajes tanto antes, como durante y después de su realización. Los resultados de la investigación ponen de manifiesto que las aplicaciones móviles de turismo deben aportar valor a los usuarios por lo que deben de estar centradas en el consumidor y en la personalización. Para ello es necesario que exista un enfoque de marketing en la concepción y desarrollo de las aplicaciones de m-tourism. Las limitaciones de este estudio exploratorio son las relativas al número de estudios analizados y el periodo temporal en que se analizan.
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Th e purpose of this study was to determine the infl uence of social media on customers' experiences in restaurants in South Africa. Using the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality as a case study area, structured survey questionnaires were distributed at selected formal full-service restaurants to customers. Th e data analysis consisted of the experiences of respondents with diff erent social media types and t-tests. Th e results indicated that on a 5 point Likert scale, customers who used Instagram in the 35 to 44 year age group recorded the highest mean experience score (4.69) whilst customers who used Instagram who were above 65 years of age recorded the lowest mean experience score (3.78). Customers who used Facebook and Instagram rated experiences of food and beverage, service, ambience levels and overall experiences signifi cantly diff erent (p<0.05). Customers who used You Tube rated experiences of service quality signifi cantly diff erent (p<0.05). Th ere were no signifi cant diff erences (p<0.05) in the means calculated for customers who used Twitter, Trip advisor and other social media types. Consequently, restaurant customer experiences for food and beverage, service and ambience were infl uenced by Facebook and Instagram. Th e study concludes that, while social media usage continues to grow in South Africa, restaurateurs should market restaurants on any social media type but put more emphasis on Facebook, Instagram and You Tube because these social media types currently play a substantial role in infl uencing customers' experiences.
This qualitative study intends to investigate how college students perceive their emotional experiences during service practice and the effects of service-learning on the way students look at their interaction with others. The core themes emerging from the study involve (1) getting in touch with emotional experiences, and (2) finding ways to improve relationships with others. The findings are discussed from the perspective of experiential learning in psychotherapy, and the implications for both research and practice are provided.
In this study, we examine how healthy eating initiatives (i.e., providing healthful foods and nutrition information on children’s menus) affect parents’ intentions to visit restaurants. We test the mediating roles of perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) and empowerment and examine whether mediating effects are contingent on the level of parents’ concerns about children’s eating. The results of a scenario-based experimental design show that both initiatives increase parents’ visit intentions through increased CSR perceptions. The indirect effect of nutrition information on visit intentions through perceived CSR is pronounced only among parents with moderate to high concerns about children’s eating. The provision of healthful foods has an indirect effect on parents’ visit intentions through perceived CSR, regardless of concern level. Our findings suggest that providing healthful items and nutrition information on children’s menus increases parents’ perceptions of CSR and visit intentions.