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A Comparative Analysis of Natural Scorpion Repellents

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The population of arthropods increases with time due to their rate of reproduction and this have tremendously amplified the susceptibility of human or plant attack. Under normal circumstances, this could be easily controlled. However, existing methodologies are gradually becoming unsuitable for pest control. Methods such as chemical control are usually designed to kill certain species of pest and could be potentially detrimental to human health in the long run through ingestion of these substances. Although most of the biological control strategy usually involves the introduction of natural enemies periodically, the most common method involves the use of predators, parasitoid and microbial antagonists which are unfortunately deterred by effectiveness, and cost of implementation. Presently, scientists adopt the use of extract of plants (such as artemisia, rosemary, cinnamon, ginger etc.)as scorpion repellents.However, this study focuses on the adaptation of biological and environmentally sustainable methodologies by using Fresh leaves from parent plants and an examination to know if the repellence activities of the plants are time dependent. A statistical evaluation of the conducted experiment which was based on the use of natural plant-based repellents like Citrus spp (Citrus sinensis and Citrus maxima) and mint leaves (Mentha piperata) for the repellent of scorpion proved to be time independent and an effective method as opposed to the existing methodologies which are not environmentally friendly and requires technical expertise. The results showed that the most effective repellent of the three was the Citrus maxima which recorded the lowest number of crosses.
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A Comparative Analysis of Natural Scorpion
Repellents
1IdemiliOnyeka, 2Dr Adimuthu Ramasamy, 3Dr Kamalakanta Muduli, 4NgeneTochukwu, 5Oyekola Peter
1Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
2Department of Business Studies, Papua New Guinea University of Technology
3,5 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Papua New Guinea University of Technology
Papua New Guinea University of Technology
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Papua New Guinea University of Technology
3e-mail: kamalakantam@gmail.com
Abstract The population of arthropods increases with time due to their rate of reproduction and this have
tremendously amplified the susceptibility of human or plant attack. Under normal circumstances, this could
be easily controlled. However, existing methodologies are gradually becoming unsuitable for pest control.
Methods such as chemical control are usually designed to kill certain species of pest and could be potentially
detrimental to human health in the long run through ingestion of these substances. Although most of the
biological control strategy usually involves the introduction of natural enemies periodically, the most
common method involves the use of predators, parasitoid and microbial antagonists which are unfortunately
deterred by effectiveness, and cost of implementation.
Presently, scientists adopt the use of extract of plants (such as artemisia, rosemary, cinnamon, ginger etc.)as
scorpion repellents.However, this study focuses on the adaptation of biological and environmentally
sustainable methodologies by using Fresh leaves from parent plants and an examination to know if the
repellence activities of the plants are time dependent. A statistical evaluation of the conducted experiment
which was based on the use of natural plant-based repellents like Citrus spp (Citrus sinensis and Citrus
maxima) and mint leaves (Mentha piperata) for the repellent of scorpion proved to be time independent and
an effective method as opposed to the existing methodologies which are not environmentally friendly and
requires technical expertise. The results showed that the most effective repellent of the three was the Citrus
maxima which recorded the lowest number of crosses.
Keywords- ANOVA, Natural Repellent, Scorpion Control.
I. INTRODUCTION
Except for snakes and honey bees, scorpions are liable for more human death consistently than some
other non-parasitic gathering of creatures (Bowles, Swaby, & Harlan, 2019). Out of assessed 2000 species of
scorpions, just 25 have venom that is savage to people; the vast majority of which have a place with the
family Buthidae (including Leiurusquinquestriatus, Hottentotta, Centruroides andAndroctonus)(Ellse &
Wall, 2014). Scorpion stings (scorpionism) are the most significant reason for 8-legged creature
envenomation and are answerable for noteworthy dismalness and paediatric mortality in numerous pieces of
the world. This is on the grounds that either the occurrence or seriousness of envenomation is high (or the
two factors simultaneously), and are hard for the wellbeing administrations to adapt to(O’Connor, Padilla-
Jones, & Ruha, 2018).
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The level of reality of scorpion stings relies upon variables, for example, scorpion size, measure of
venom infused, the weight of the person in question, affectability of the patient to the venom (Ellse & Wall,
2014). Different factors, for example, interim of time between the nibble and organization of intravenous
implantations and the support of fundamental capacities, can influence the underlying movement of the
ailment and the early conclusion. Lethal scorpion stings are uncommon in Nigeria and up to this point, there
has been no report of death following scorpion stings(Warrell, 2019). The study of disease transmission of
scorpionism on the planet is ineffectively comprehended, in light of the fact that, among different reasons,
numerous cases are not brought to medicinal consideration. In Mexico ca. approximately 250,000 scorpion
stings was recorded on an annual basis, neverthelessthe fatality ratemaintained a steady annual decline from
2,000 to under 50(World Health Organization, 2016). This speaks to the most noteworthy frequency of
scorpion stings. The assessed yearly number of scorpion stings is 1.2million leading to 3,250 deaths
(0.27%)(Ellse & Wall, 2014). From the measurements given above, it could be seen that not all scorpion
stings are deadly.
This highlights the importanceof this work with primary objective to identify a conservative, eco-
friendly, easy to use, natural plants with a repulsive effect against scorpions as these plants could serve for
other purpose. Not all scorpions can give a lethal envenomation, added to certainty that "dry sting" isn't
absolutely outlandish (Ellse & Wall, 2014). There is a higher event in grown-ups, because of higher
movement proportion, and greater seriousness in youngsters while lion's share of the unfortunate casualties
created symptomatic appearances, for example, torment, while the extreme cases showing significant
pathophysiological impact are under 20% (Ellse & Wall, 2014). Scorpion stings are intended to deaden its
prey which is absolutely a cautious component. Be that as it may, it is practical to comprehend their jobs in
the biological system and how their exercises can be misused for human advantage, following the
discoveries by some scientist Dipanjan Pan at the University of Illinois at Urbana-champagne has been
working with his team to exploit the possibilities of using scorpion venom to treat cancer. According to a
publication in Nature World News by Jenna Lacurci, his group utilized venom poisons in small nanometre
estimated particles to treat breast cancer and melanoma cells in the laboratory. In a similar publication by
Science Daily, experts of the faculty of chemistry at the University of Colima were reported to have
identified peptides from scorpion venom that could actually invade channels in diseased cancerous cells and
destroy the cancer cells(“Scorpion venom is toxic to cancer cells -- ScienceDaily,” n.d.).
Over the years, in different parts of the world where scorpion stings are endemic, there have been various
control measures adopted, some of which includes, use of pyrethroids and organophosphates at labelled
quantities above that required for insects, especially in circumstance where substitute control measures like
eradication of breeding sites, woodpiles, rocks and debris from areas around homes, have been hard to apply
or been demonstrated to be inadmissible. Some of these compounds were ineffective as the pest species have
become physiologically resistant to them and some others posed as threat to the ecosystem. Nevertheless,
there is no reference in the WHO directive regarding the stimulus to the of existing pesticides or the
advancement of new procedures and molecules for scorpion control (World Health Organization, 2016).
According to Novaes (Novaes, Antonio, & Assis Marques, 2011), the best scorpion collection technique
would be evening dark light gathering. Between 2006-2008, a program in Brazil caught a large number of
scorpions in the town with an end goal to stay away from another invasion as was prescribed by the
Brazilian Secretariat of Health(Rajendran, Kumar, Houreld, & Abrahamse, 2018). Information on
conventional anti-agents’ plants acquired investigations is an important asset for the advancement of new
natural items. As of late, business repellent items containing plant-based fixings have increased expanding
prominence among shoppersin spite of the fact that this is a misguided judgment. Until this point, lacking
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investigations have adhered to standard WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme rules for repellent testing. There
is a requirement for additional institutionalized examinations so as to assess repellent mixes and grow new
items that offer high anti-agents. The purpose of conservation is not just to ensure the continuity of
organisms but also to support a successful coexistence of all life forms. Africa is motherland to numerous
scorpion species. But for some bizarre reasons, these magnificent creatures are gradually becoming extinct
owing to the neglect of their ecological, scientific, and economic importance. According to goal 15 of the
sustainable development(Gunawan, Permatasari, & Tilt, 2020), Securing significant locales for terrestrial
and freshwater biodiversity is fundamental for guaranteeing long haul and feasible utilization of terrestrial
and freshwater natural resources.
In recent times, a bid to reduce environmental degradation caused by heavy chemicals, biological control
(plant-based repellents and predation) that are bio-degradable are employed to tackle the problems of pest
infestation both in the homes and on the fields. Botanical insecticides are commonly pest-specific and are
comparatively harmless to non-targeted organisms’ humans inclusive. Additionally, plant-based insecticides
is made up of an array of chemical compounds, which impacts on both the behavioural and physiological
process thus; This makes the probability of the pests developing resistance to the treatment more unlikely
when compared with the conventional insecticides based on a single active ingredient (Hunt, Carper, Lasley,
Raisch, & Wissick, 2013). The viability of common anti-agents relies upon how they are sent, and
discouragement can change between live species. It is likewise ordinarily expressed that plant-based anti-
agents are preferable for nature over engineered particles. Plant essential oils (EOs) with decent repellent
properties and low environmental and human toxicities have been considered as an option in contrast to
conventional synthetic insecticides(Ileke Kayode & Olabimi Isaac, 2019). More than 3000 essential oils
(EOs)from different plants have been investigated up to this point, and around 10% of them are
commercially accessible as possible repellents and insecticides(Lee, 2018). Oil of Lemon eucalyptus (PMD)
has exhibited protection against ticks and mosquitoes as suggested by Diaz (Guo et al., 2019).Moreover, the
conventional plant-based anti-agents recently utilized contained mixes keeping assault from phytophagous
(plant eating) creepy crawlies, for example, anti-agents, bolstering obstacles, poisons, and development
controllers. Most can be assembled into five significant substance classes: nitrogen mixes (basically
alkaloids), terpenoids, phenolics, proteinase inhibitors, and development controllers. In spite of the fact that
the essential capacity of these mixes is protection against phytophagous creepy crawlies, some are likewise
compelling against bugs and its family members.
This work shows the progression of arthropod pest control measures, utilization of plantbased repellents
with its main objectives being to examine the repellent action of mint leaves, Menthapiperita and two
species of citrus plants, Citrus maxima and Citrus sinensis on scorpions in their natural forms and to
determine the action of repellents on scorpions with respect to time.An underlying purpose of this work is to
also observe the possibility of supporting a continuous existence of these plants as they could be utilized as
repellents without being crushed or burnt.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Most plants contain compounds normally utilised in averting attack from phytophagus insects. These
synthetic substances fall into a few classes dependent on their activity, together with repellents, toxins,
feeding deterrents, and growth regulators. Since numerous compounds are repellents to arthropods, this
could potentially be an evolutionary stock from a plant-feeding ancestor, given that some of these
compounds evolved as repellents to phythophagus insects(Khalil, Gibson, Baer, & Willand, 2018). This
repellence of plant materials has been abused by man for a huge number of years, most essentially by
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hanging bruised plants indoors. This is still commonly practiced in developing country (Chellappandian et
al., 2018),as it is evident in the rural areas of south-east Nigeria which is the primary location of this study.
Plants have also been adapted for use a crude fumigantby burning them in other to drive away bugs
especially mosquitoes. Much later, they were used as oil formulations which is applied to the skin or clothes
as first recorded by ancient Greek(Chellappandian et al., 2018).
Many plantextracts have been utilized to deter pest arthropods as this means serve as a better alternative
to other synthetic repellents. Neem for instance is broadly declared as a natural alternative to DEET, and it
has been tried for repellence against range of arthropods of medical importance, with variable results. The
oil extracted from neem possesses a low dermal toxicity, and can cause in its undiluted state (Ribes, Fuentes,
Talens, & Barat, 2018).Similarly, an investigation of the repellence activity of Citrus oils against arthropods
through the use of a T-tube olfactometer(Yoon et al., 2009)found that oils from Citrus sinensis and Citrus
aurantiumhad the highest reppelling effect among the species of Citrus againstBlattella germanica,
Periplaneta Americana and Periplaneta fuliginosa Serville. A similar lab experiment on the essential oil
from Citrus limon L Burm showed a similar level of repellence of N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET)
against the mosquito Anopheles stephensi(Benelli & Pavela, 2018). Murugan et al. (2012) also demonstrated
the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis peel oil against Anopheles
stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. In other works, essential oils of lemon grass and
its components citral and geraniol,(Mahanta, Sarma, & Khanikor, 2019) as well as phenethyl alcohol (PEA)
and β-citronellol (Li et al., 2017) have shown repellent activity against arthropods.
Advancement on plant-based scorpion repellent is the development of botanical repellents made from
extractsof some other plants that have been found to have pesticidal activities. Extracts of plants such as
Artemisia, rosemary, cinnamon, ginger, peppermint and others have shown repellent and pesticide
activities(Kassem, Hassaneen, & Sallam, 2015). Hesham Kassem et al (Kassem et al., 2015), used the
powder extract of the aforementioned plants with the exception of cedar, which the oil was extracted.
Compared to other plants, Artemisia proved to have more repulsive ability than other plants.Research has
shown the efficacy of plant extracts in repelling arthropods, scorpions inclusive and has shown that most of
the extract has a mean protection time meaning they are not potent for a long period of time owing to the
volatile nature(Mutalib et al., 2017). Again, due to the process and expertise invested in the extraction of
some of these essential oils, they have been commercialized(Sadgrove & Jones, 2015), thereby making their
availability limited. However, most of these plants used in deriving these essential oils and emulsions, emit a
strong odour on their own without being bruised or burnt hence a possibility that they can be perceived by
the chemosensory organ of the arthropod.Other than plant extracts, mustard seed (Brassica nigra), known to
have anti-inflammatory effect and can help ease the scorpion sting, when spread in a certain way can repel
scorpions (Berkes, 2019). In other works, fresh green pods of Garmalo(Cassia fistula) are kept under the cot
at night to repel snakes and scorpions (Ahmad et al., 2017).
Similar articles on the repellent effects of EOs against arthropods, which were published between 1990
and 2018, showed an increase in the number of studies omost of which was a shift from the conventional
synthetic repellents to the search for natural alternatives(Fathy Khater et al., 2019). Notwithstanding, only
very few of these articles addresses the repellence of scorpions. As seen in the sample literature survey
above where most of the research was focused on repelling other animals such as snakes and rodents.
The test plants used for the present study are two species of Citrus plant and Mint leaves which are
abundantly available in the research location. Citrus plant is a variety of blooming trees and bushes in the
family Rutaceae which incorporates oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pomelo and limes. This species has been
powerful in its job as creepy crawly repellent just as in the therapeutic field. Its viability as repellent is
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subject to the species utilized and type of utilization. Species, for example, Citrus sinensis has been
accounted powerful in the control of arthropods (Asadollahi, Khoobdel, Zahraei-Ramazani, Azarmi, &
Mosawi, 2019). The watched inconstancy of repellent action among separates from the diverse citrus natural
product species may propose that anti-agent’s action isn't just reliant on the grouping of a phytochemical
remove yet in addition on the source (i.e., the citrus organic product species) from which it was acquired.
The method of activity of these phytochemicals can't be detached with the proposals made before by
Tanase(Tanase, Cosarcă, & Muntean, 2019) in their studies on terpene-like nepetalactone of catnip plant as
well as Sakkas et al (Sakkas & Papadopoulou, 2017). Pavelastudy on repellent action of characteristic
vegetable concentrates against Aedes aegypti which indicated that mosquitoes were only not pulled in which
was maybe because of the dynamic fixings (alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics and tannins) present
in the phytochemical separates from the citrus strips applying some inhibitory impact on lactic corrosive
receptor cells by concealing or changing the lactic acids that regularly draw in them consequently
confounding or diverting the mosquitoes (Pavela, Maggi, Iannarelli, & Benelli, 2019)(Siriporn & Mayura,
2012). This basically forestalled blood-nourishing contact.Citrus maxima being a member of the Rutaceae
family has also displayed its repellent property, as its essential oil proved more effective than that of Citrus
sinensis, against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, amongst other species of the same family as
suggested by Soonwera
Mint leaves (Mentha) is a sort of plant in the Lamiaceae family which is in circulation across Europe,
Africa, Asia, Australia and North America (Christopher, 2008) which has about 13-18 species (Saitta,
Anslan, Bahram, Brocca, & Tedersoo, 2018). Zekri et al 2016 revealed that the leaves of Mentha sp have
antifeedant properties and that as common anti-agents, can drive bug away after presentation to the plant
without necessarily feeding. One type of mint is the peppermint (Mentha piperita), a typical species in
Nigeria normally known as "Na'anaa" among the Hausa merchants. Its importance ranges from culinary,
restorative and corrective use (Karar & Kuhnert, 2017), fragrance-based treatment as well as pesticidal use.
It likewise has a high grouping of regular pesticides, chiefly pulegone (discovered predominantly in Mentha
arvensis assortments piperascen, scornmint, field mint, Japanese mint, and to a lesser degree (6,530ppm) in
Mentha piperita) (Ziedan & Farrag, 2008). Essential oils of mint leaves have been effective in repelling
species of mosquitoes as suggested by Ansari et al., 2000. This efficacy of the extract mint leaves as
repellent of mosquito was also established by Gupta and Singh, as they made treated fabrics that served as
mosquito repellent using these extracts (Shivankar, Shinde, Mulla, & Raichurkar, 2019).
The observations obtained from this work tenders new perspective to the repellence of scorpions, using
plants in their natural forms instead of their extracts, as suggested byDronamraju et al(Dronamraju &
Dronamraju, 2019), in using fresh green pods of Garmalo (Cassia fistula), in repelling scorpions. This audit
additionally surveys the viability of these anti-agents as for time.
The methodology of natural scorpion control was favoured due to the strategic control of chemical
substances such as chordane. The chemicals used in pest controls are mostly illegal and only allowed under
special licence.Additionally, the potential of scorpion extinction is getting close to being a reality in the
African region which is gradually raising awareness on the search for alternative methods of conserving this
elusive species without compromising human safety. The sensitisation of the local communities on this
natural repellent will be a major milestone in the conservation aforementioned
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The investigation was completed at Ifite-Awka, Anambra state, in an open space where the apparatus for
the project work was kept and the studies were conducted and observed. The species of scorpions used were:
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Buthus(Sousa, Arnedo, & Harris, 2017), Hottentotta(Mirza, Ambekar, & Kulkarni, 2019) and
Androctonus(Ben Othmen et al., 2009), which was collected from different sites identified as natural habitat
of scorpions; abandoned buildings, active building sites, packed bricks, piled rocks, wood piles and
shavings, and at night, crevices around homes were also checked. In all, forty-five scorpions were captured
and used for study using natural repellents of mint leaves (menthe piperata) and citrus plants (Citrus sinensis
and Citrus maxima).
The selected repellents were tested in two replicate study apparatus made up of a box measuring 25cm ×
20cm with some quantity of soil substrate and rocks whichoffers to reproduce the natural surroundings of
the scorpions. The repellents were used to demarcate the box into two equal halves with the scorpions in one
portion of the case and the other portion of the crate contained bugs and water troughs that fill in as the
scorpion attractants.Extra diminish light was utilized because of scorpions' night-time activity to brilliant
light. The different control box with no dividing repellent was additionally arranged while the development
of the scorpions was watched for three (3) hours day by day for a month.The repellent action was observed
by checking the number of scorpions that made a complete cross in each experimental setup.
The total scorpions were assigned to three (3) repellent treatments in two (2) replicates (R1 and R2) of
five (5) scorpions per replicate and fifteen (15) scorpions per treatment. The treatments were labelled thus:
- Control (C) scorpions without any repellent
- Treatment 1 (T1) - scorpions with Citrus sinensis as repellent
- Treatment 2 (T2) - scorpions with Mentha piperata as repellent
- Treatment 3 (T3) - scorpions with Citrus maxima as repellent
The data collected from the experimental setup was exposed to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) utilizing
SPSS PC programming bundle (Version 20) at 0.05 huge levels.
4.1. Analysis of repellents
Chemical tests were conducted on the ethanol extract of each plant sample to ascertain the availability or
nonappearance of different phytochemicals, that is, Alkaloids, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids and
Flavonoids using standard methods.
The subjective examination for alkaloids was directed within the sight of alkaloids and decided utilizing
Wagner's reagent. The reagent (Iodine in Potassium Iodide) was used to treat 1ml of the filtrate, which
framed a dark brown/reddish precipitate demonstrating the nearness of alkaloids. Subsequently, flavonoids
were examined using sodium hydroxide test (Bharadwaj et al., 2016). 2ml of the filtrate were treated with
drops of sodium hydroxide which formed an unusual yellow dreary shade on enlargement of weaken
hydrochloric corrosive, this shows the nearness of flavonoids.
Presence of Tannins was investigated using 2ml of filtrate and 2ml of 10% Ferric chloride solution. The
precipitates, Blue-black, green or blue-green indicates the evidence of tannin presence. Whileterpenoids
were investigated using the Salkowski test which involved the addition of chloroform and concentrated
H2S04. Similarly, saponin was investigated in the sample by frothing test. A strong frothing confirms the
presence of saponins. Investigation for Steroids was determined using Salkowski’s test (Chincinska et al.,
2019).
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The number of scorpions that made a complete cross and those that were repelled were collected under
observation and at different time intervals.
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Table 1: Test for scorpions repelled and complete cross.
Replicate one (R1)
Replicate two (R2)
Time
7:00
8:00pm
8:10 -
9:10pm
7:00
8:00pm
9:20 -
10:20pm
Repellents
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
Citrussinensis(T1)
2
3
2
3
1
4
3
2
2
3
3
2
Menthapiperata(T2
)
2
3
3
2
1
4
3
2
2
3
4
1
Citrusmaxima(T3)
1
4
1
4
1
4
2
3
1
4
1
4
Control
3
2
4
1
3
2
3
2
4
1
3
2
Where A represents the number of scorpions which crossed while B were those repelled.
5.1 Effect of Repellent on scorpions
The result of the repellent effect of three plant leaves on Scorpions is represented in Table 3. The results
shown indicate that the mean number of scorpions repelled (4.00±0.00) was recorded higher when exposed
to Citrus maxima followed by those exposed to Citrus sinensis (3.00±0.77) but lowest in the control
(2.00±0.51). However, the effect of the various plant leaves on the repellent of scorpions was significantly
(P<0.05) different between the plants and the control.
The result of the repellent effect of three plant leaves on scorpions at various exposure periods shown
also indicate that the mean number of scorpions repelled (4.00±1.11) was recorded higher between 9:20 -
10:20pm followed by 8:10 - 9:10pm (3.00±1.04) but lowest between7:00 - 8:00pm (3.00±0.32). However,
the effect of the various plant leaves on the repellence of scorpions was not significantly (P>0.05) different
between the various exposure periods.
Table 2: Mean Number of scorpions repelled when exposed to three plant leaves
Repellents
R1
R2
Mean±SD
Citrus sinensis (T1)
3
3
2.83±0.75bc
Menthapiperata(T2)
3
2
2.50±1.05ab
Citrus maxima((T3)
4
3
3.83±0.41c
Control(C)
2
2
1.67±0.52a
Repellents (time)
7:00-8:00pm
3
2
2.63±0.744a
8:10 9:10pm
3
3
2.63±1.188a
9:20 10:20pm
4
3
2.88±1.246a
Table 3: statistical analysis of experiment
N
Mean
Std.
Dev
Std.
Error
95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Min
Max
Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound
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Orange
(Citrussinensis)
6
2.83
.753
.307
2.04
3.62
2
4
Mint
(Menthapiperata
)
6
2.50
1.049
.428
1.40
3.60
1
4
Shaddock
(Citrusmaxima)
6
3.83
.408
.167
3.40
4.26
3
4
Control
6
1.67
.516
.211
1.12
2.21
1
2
Total
24
2.71
1.042
.213
2.27
3.15
1
4
Repellents (time)
7 8
8
2.63
.744
.263
2.00
3.25
2
4
8:10 - 9:10
8
2.63
1.188
.420
1.63
3.62
1
4
9:20 - 10:20
8
2.88
1.246
.441
1.83
3.92
1
4
Total
24
2.71
1.042
.213
2.27
3.15
1
4
Table 4: Analysis of variance of conducted experiment
Sum of
Squares
Df
Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Between
Groups
14.458
3
4.819
9.180
.001
Within Groups
10.500
20
.525
Total
24.958
23
Post Hoc Homogeneous Subsets Tests
Between
Groups
.333
2
.167
.142
.868
Within Groups
24.625
21
1.173
Total
24.958
23
Table 5: Test for scorpions repelled in homogeneous subsets.
no. of scorpions repelled
Repellents
N
Subset for alpha = 0.05
1
2
3
Control
6
1.67
Mint Mentha piperata
6
2.50
2.50
Orange Citrus sinensis
6
2.83
Shaddock Citrus
maxima
6
3.83
Sig.
.060
.435
1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 6.000.
Time
N
Subset for alpha = 0.05
1
7 8
8
2.63
8:10 - 9:10
8
2.63
9:20 - 10:20
8
2.88
Sig.
.668
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 8.000.
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5.2 phytochemical analysis of repellent plants
The phytochemical analysis of the three plant leaves used as repellents showed that all three plants
contain the compounds: terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins, whereas Citrus maxima do not
contain tannin and steroids. For this, different phytochemicals from the leaves of the plants were extracted
and highlighted by different methods; their presence (+) or absence (-) is shown below (Table 6).
Table 6: Qualitative phytochemical composition of leaves
A
B
C
Sample
Citrus sinensis
Menthapiperata
Citrus maxima
Alkaloids
+
+
+
Flavonoids
+
+
+
Saponins
+
+
+
Tannins
+
+
-
Terpenoids
+
+
+
Steroids
+
+
-
The consequence of the present investigation uncovered that all the plants caused higher repellence to
scorpions than the control. Also, the effect of various plant leaves on the repellence of scorpions was
significantly (P<0.05) higher. This shows that Citrus sinensis, Mentha piperata, Citrus maxima possess the
ability to repel scorpions. This is in line with the result of previous authors that reported the efficacy of
Citrus spp and Mentha spp on the control of arthropods (Mya et al., 2017).
The phytochemical screening of the plants revealed that they all have active constituents’ alkaloids,
terpenoids and saponins which could be responsible for the repelling ability(De Oliveira, Candido,
Coronado Dorce, & Junqueira-De-Azevedo, 2015). Additionally, the repellence effect of the plants was not
time dependent although a higher number of scorpions were repelled between 9:20 - 10:20pm. This indicates
that the test plants limited the high activity of scorpions late at night. This is in contrast to the report of
Danciu(Danciu et al., 2015) who expressed that time is a factor to be considered being used of plant
materials against creepy crawlies that are unsafe to put away grains.
This study proves that in place of plant extracts, Fresh leaves from parent plant of Citrus maxima, Citrus
sinensis, and Mentha piperata could be applied as natural repellent plant against scorpions, limiting also
their nocturnal activities, providing a safer residential area and a balanced ecosystem.
5.3 Implication of study
Scorpions, like different living beings have common predators which incorporate flying creatures
(chicken, owl), tarantulas, centipedes, insectivorous reptiles, and warm-blooded animals (counting bats,
felines, mongoose, wenches, grasshopper, mice), (Ahsan, Tahir, & Mukhtar, 2016) and these were utilized
in homes in earlier years to control scorpions (De Oliveira et al., 2015) . Very few studies have tried to
rigorously evaluate the value and effectiveness of plant-based repellent as a worthy replacement of the
present chemical repellent system to scorpions. Presently, researchers and academicians lack a thorough
knowledge of the suitable organism and its reaction to some aroma expelled from some natural herbs and
fruit trees. Scientific perspective for efficient management and conservation of animals is therefore
important for researchers in this critical period of time and interactions for optimised management is a
necessary program to be adopted.
This study will therefore shift focus from the common utilisation of synthetic chemicals in scorpion
control as a more economical and green solution. Additionally, this study seeks to disregard the need for the
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use of extract of plants concentrate as a control method. This will increase rural dweller need for natural
plant control which in turn benefits the ecosystem and their surrounding environment.Furthermore, in the
bid to ensuring biodiversity, this study seeks to support the co-existence of all life forms as it encourages the
use of natural repellent method other than the old traditional method which usually involves indiscriminate
killings of these species.
The research gaps in control on arthropods previously highlighted based on the available research
literatures have been addressed and it is a viable step in solving an underlying problem as well as giving
focus to researchers and other individuals seeking a more friendly control methodology.
V. CONCLUSION
The study examined above seeks to address the significant challenge in pest control specifically scorpions
in the local communities where there is absolutely no tolerance of their presence in the vicinity due to the
perceived threat they might or might not actually pose. Sometimes, the scorpions themselves might not pose
significant risk whatsoever to health of people. Similarly, these creatures are a source of sustainable control
of rodents, termites, crickets, cockroaches and other household and field pests.
The result of this study indicates that Citrus sinensis, Mentha piperata, and Citrus maxima possess the
ability to repel scorpions which is a worthy substitute to the current methodology of using direct extract of
some specific plants which is costly, requires technical skills as well as expensive equipmentwhich cannot
be afforded by the local citizens. The repellence of the various plants does not significantly vary with time
as they all recorded higher repellence than the control experiment. However, the use of Citrus maxima had
the best repellence effect but was not significantly different from Citrus sinensis. The utilization of these
plants by either having them in gardens or purchasing is adequate in light of the fact that it is cheap,
generally safe and environmentally friendly. In view of the consequences of this examination, it is hereby
recommended that further studies on the use of other ornamental crops rather than their extracts and
essential oils for the control of scorpions and other arthropods are carried out. This would support plant life
and offer repellence for scorpion, hence achieving a goal in conservation- coexistence of all life forms.
5.1 Limitation and future research scope
During the course of this study, the sample size used in this investigation has an impact on the results
acquired. This model could be extended to include other scorpion species in other to evaluate their reaction
similarities and difference to obtain a wider knowledge of the effectiveness of this methodology as well as
identify factors for performance improvement. Again, Climate conditions defers in the geographical regions,
this can also create an impact in the adaptability of scorpion species in their natural habitat.This can be
exploited further in future studies.
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This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, and treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, insects, and scorpions; and poisoning by ingestion of fish, turtles, and shellfish. Invertebrate stings cause fatalities by anaphylaxis, secondary to acquired hypersensitivity (Hymenoptera, such as bees, wasps, and ants; and jellyfish), and by direct envenoming (scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, and echinoderms). Simple preventive techniques, such as wearing protective clothing, using a flashlight at night, and excluding venomous animals from sleeping quarters, are of paramount importance to reduce the risk of venomous bites and stings.
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In the last decades, major research efforts have been done to investigate the insecticidal activity of plant-based products against mosquitoes. This is a modern and timely challenge in parasitology, aimed to reduce the frequent overuse of synthetic pesticides boosting resistance development in mosquitoes and causing serious threats to human health and environment. This review covers the huge amount of literature available on plant extracts tested as mosquito larvicides, particularly aqueous and alcoholic ones, due to their easy formulation in water without using surfactants. We analysed results obtained on more than 400 plant species, outlining that 29 of them have outstanding larvicidal activity (i.e., LC50 values below 10 ppm) against major vectors belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, among others. Furthermore, synergistic and antagonistic effects between plant extracts and conventional pesticides, as well as among selected plant extracts are discussed. The efficacy of pure compounds isolated from the most effective plant extracts and – when available – their mechanism of action, as well as their impact on non-target species, is also covered. These belong to the following class of secondary metabolites: alkaloids, alkamides, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, coumarins, anthraquinones, xanthones, acetogenonins and aliphatics. Their mode of action on larvae ranges from neurotoxic effects to inhibition of detoxificant enzymes and larval development and midugut damages. In the final section, current drawbacks as well as key challenges for future research, including technologies to synergize efficacy and improve stability - thus field performances - of the selected plant extracts, are outlined. Unfortunately, despite the huge amount of laboratory evidences about their efficacy, only a limited number of studies was aimed to validate their efficacy in the field, nor the epidemiological impact potentially arising from these vector control operations has been assessed. This strongly limits the development of commercial mosquito larvicides of botanical origin, at variance with plant-borne products developed in the latest decades to kill or repel other key arthropod species of medical and veterinary importance, as well as mosquito adults. Further research on these issues is urgently needed.