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EFFECTS OF PILATES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE IN POST 6 MONTHS DELIVERED WOMEN

Authors:
  • Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Pimpri, Pune, India

Abstract

Objective: To determine the effects of Pilates on core muscle strength and endurance in post 6 months delivered women. Design: Randomized controlled study was conducted among post delivered women in Pimprichinchwad Pune, participants sample size was 52 subjects they were randomly allocated to 2 groups containing 26 samples each. In group A (Experimental Group) Pilates training was given while the group B (controlled group) conventional exercises were given on alternate days for 4 weeks. Each group was assessed pre and post of training using pressure biofeedback for core strength, plank test for core endurance, 3 minute step test for cardiorespiratory fitness and girth measurements. Results: The results shows that there was significant difference between pre and post mean in pressure biofeedback in group A pre 30.88 and post 43.11 and in group B pre 28.96 post 33.3,there was significant difference in pre and post in plank test group A pre 23.26 post 30.69 group B pre 14.15 post 19.23, there was significant difference in pre and post in 3 minute step test group A pre 109.73 post 97.61 group B pre 104.96 and post 100.11, there was significant difference in girth measurements in pre and post in group A pre 52.19 post 51.53 and group B pre 47 and post 47. 56.There was significant change seen in pre and post in group A and B of 0.05 Conclusion: Pilates mat exercises contributed to increase in the strength and endurance of core muscles in post delivered women and even improve the fitness of women by improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and decrease in the girth measurements.
EFFECTS OF PILATES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH AND
ENDURANCE IN POST 6 MONTHS DELIVERED WOMEN
Dr. Mrunal Kulkarni
1
, Dr. Seema Saini
2
, Dr. Tushar Palekar
3
,
,Dr. Nargis Hamdulay
4
1. Postgraduate student, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Pimpri – Pune, India.
Email id: mkulkarni0696@gmail.com
2. Professor, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Pimpri – Pune, India.
Email id: seemasaini80@gmail.com
3. Professor and Principal, Dr. D.Y. Patil college of Physiotherapy, Pimpri- Pune, India.
Email id: principal.physio@gmail.com
4. Postgraduate student, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Pimpri – Pune, India
Email id: nargis.hamdulay@gmail.com
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ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the effects of Pilates on core muscle strength and endurance in post 6
months delivered women.
Design: Randomized controlled study was conducted among post delivered women in
Pimprichinchwad Pune, participants sample size was 52 subjects they were randomly allocated to 2
groups containing 26 samples each. In group A (Experimental Group) Pilates training was given
while the group B (controlled group) conventional exercises were given on alternate days for 4
weeks. Each group was assessed pre and post of training using pressure biofeedback for core
strength, plank test for core endurance, 3 minute step test for cardiorespiratory fitness and girth
measurements.
Results: The results shows that there was significant difference between pre and post mean in
pressure biofeedback in group A pre 30.88 and post 43.11 and in group B pre 28.96 post 33.3,there
was significant difference in pre and post in plank test group A pre 23.26 post 30.69 group B pre
14.15 post 19.23, there was significant difference in pre and post in 3 minute step test group A pre
109.73 post 97.61 group B pre 104.96 and post 100.11, there was significant difference in girth
measurements in pre and post in group A pre 52.19 post 51.53 and group B pre 47 and post 47. 56.
There was significant change seen in pre and post in group A and B of 0.05
Conclusion: Pilates mat exercises contributed to increase in the strength and endurance of core
muscles in post delivered women and even improve the fitness of women by improvement in
cardiorespiratory fitness and decrease in the girth measurements.
Keywords: Pilates, core, post delivered, pressure biofeedback
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INTRODUCATION
The Core can be portrayed as a strong box with the abdomen in front, Para spinals and gluteal in the
back, diaphragm as rooftop and pelvic floor and hip support musculature as base. Inside this crate
are twenty nine sets of muscles that help to stabilize the spine, pelvis and motor chain during
functional movements.
1,2
The core has been depicted as a container which is comprised of muscles including abdomen which
makes up the front wall, Para spinal and gluteal muscles makes up the back wall , while the
diaphragm makes up the rooftop and the pelvis floor and hip support muscles makes up the base .
Inside this container are 29 sets of muscles. The core demonstrations through thoracolumbar belt.
Transerversus abdominals has enormous connections to the center and back layers of thoracolumbar
belt. Profound lamina of back layer joins to lumbar spinous procedures. Consequently
thoracolumbar belt fills in as band around the storage compartment. Pelvis and its immediate
connection to spine is deciding element for the state of Diaphragm. During inhalation and exhalation
pull ribcage up and there is forward tilt of pelvis encouraging spinal extension. This gives
diaphragm a state of topsyturvy letter L. During exhalation inside Interco sties pull ribcage down
and there is a retrogressive tilt of pelvis encouraging spinal flexion giving diaphragm a state of a
topsyturvy letter J.
1,2
During pregnancy women’s body experience numerous anatomical and hormonal changes. The
muscular strength will be stretched and are lengthened for a developing uterus. A brace between the
two recti abdominis muscles known as diastasis will more likely than not be evidently in any women
who was at term before work .This can differ between a little vertical gap of 2-3 cm wide and 12-
20cm in width and expanding almost the entire length of the recti muscle accordingly, the whole
abdominal corset will be debilitated with a next to no obvious mechanical control. In view of
this,notwithstanding expanded flexibility to its tendon the back will be a lot of defenseless against
injury coming about because of incorrect use. Core is the powerhouse for all the limb movements.
Women whose pregnancies required delayed idleness or the individuals who constantly take almost
no activity will surely find that their abdomen muscles are incredibly powerless. The pelvic floor
will unquestionably be more vulnerable than it was preceding pregnancy
6
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PILATES
It is an exercise program that takes a shot at fortifying the core muscles which influence pose and
offer help and quality of the spine. It shows body mindfulness , great posture and simple movement .
Pilates improves adaptability, agility and economy of movement.
BENEFITS
Pilates advances more noteworthy trunk and pelvic security, improving and muscle control of and
around the spine. Pilate's activities explicitly expect to make muscle balance in the body, more
noteworthy coordination of the development and control of abdomen and breathing. This activity
empowers the utilization of the body overall unit, developing strong, lean musculature instead of
permitting singular muscle gathering to create confined quality and to get massive. A normal Pilate's
tangle work meeting will advance the activities specifically request, so the muscles are set up for
resulting practices and completely body exercise is accomplished.
4
CORE STRENGTH AND PILATES
The guideline point of the activities is to make center quality, which will be the powerhouse for the
remainder of the body. The abdomen and the back structures the Center of the body from which all
developments in Pilates are started.
In Pilates by balancing out the middle, there is co-appointment between the abdomen muscles and
the back muscles. This implies every one of these muscles is cooperating to make a steady element.
In many people they frail in the back can be strained or tight. Right now spine might be pulled
crooked, causing inappropriate stance and danger of injury. At the point when the back muscles and
abdomen are solid and adaptable it gets simpler to keep upright stance. Pilates fortifies and extends
the core muscles, assisting with revising uneven characters and possibility of enduring back pain
5
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
This is a randomized control trial in which 52 subjects were included. In this study inclusion
criteria was the subjects should have delivered at least one time,age group between 20-40 years ,
participants who have not taken any previous physiotherapy treatment for core, participants who had
normal delivery and were willing to participate. Exclusion criteria consisted of any orthopedic,
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neurological, cardiovascular problems and psychological issues. Outcome measures used in the
study are pressure biofeedback, plank test, 3 minutes step test, girth measurement.
A written informed consent was taken from the subjects before the commencement. Subjects
were then randomly allocated into 2 groups by chit method. Control group consisted of 26 subjects.
26 subjects were included in the Experimental group. Pre – assessment was done. For control group
conventional exercisewere given for experimental group Pilates exercise were given, both were
given for 4 weeks on alternate days and post – assessment was taken.
OUTCOME MEASURES
Plank test
Purpose of the test is to hold a raised position for as long as possible. The upper body should be
reinforced off the ground by the elbow and forearm and legs should be straight with the weight
mainly taken by the toes. Hips are elevated from the floor creating a straight line from head to toe.
As soon as the participant is in the correct position, the stopwatch is started. The test is over when
the participant is not able to maintain the back straight.
7
Pressure Biofeedback
Participant in prone position and place the pressure biofeedback under the abdomen and then the
biofeedback was inflated up to 70mmHg and now participants were asked to breath in and out once
and asked participants to hold this position for 10 seconds the difference between 2-4 mmHg is
normal. Then in crook lying position pressure biofeedback was place at L3 level and the pressure
biofeedback was inflate up to 40 mmHg, the participant was ask to pull the naval towards the spine
and hold it for 15 seconds for 2 times and in this 40-42 mmHg.
9
3- Minute step test
First of all starting to this test for the heart rate of the person were checked, and first therapist
demonstrated how to perform this test, subject were ask to first steps up with one foot on
beat 1 and steps up with the second foot on beat 2, then steps down with the first foot on beat
3 and down with the second foot on beat 4.continue it for 3 minute and after that
immediately asked participant to sit and check for her heart rate.
10
Girth measurement
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Arm: with the subject standing erect and feet together, an even measure is taken at halfway
between the acromion and olecranon process.
Forearm: with the subject standing, arms hanging descending however marginally away
from the storage compartment and palms face anteriorly.
Abdomen area: with the subject standing upstanding and loose, a flat measure is taken at the
best front expansion of the mid-region, for the most part at the degree of the umbilicus.
Midsection: with the subject standing, arms along the edges, feet together, and stomach area
loose, a flat measure is taken at the tightest piece of the middle .
Hips: with the subject standing erect and feet together, a flat measure is taken at the maximal
boundary of bottom.
Thigh: with the subject standing, legs somewhat separated (~10cm), a flat measure is taken
at the maximal boundary of the hip/proximal thigh, just beneath the gluteal overlay.
Midthigh: with the subject standing and one foot on a seat so the knee is flexed at 90 degree,
a measure is taken halfway between the inguinal wrinkle and the proximal fringe of the
patella, opposite to the long hub.
Calf: with the subject standing erect an even measure is taken at the degree of the most
extreme periphery between the knee and the lower leg.
10
Conventional exercises for control group were given as follows:
1. Static Back
Participants were asked to lie in a supine position in a relaxed position, and ask to press her
head, shoulders, hips and ankles at the same time on the ground surface and hold it for 10
seconds repeating it for 10 times, this is one seat. And they were ask to do 3 seats in a day
2. Static abdominal
Participant were ask to lie in crook lying position, were ask to pull the naval towards the spine
without holding the breath for 10 seconds repeat it for 10 times, this was one seat .were asked to
do it 3 seat in a day
3. Pelvic contraction
Participant were asked to lie in crook lying position, were ask to pull the naval towards the spine
without holding the breath for 10 seconds and do pelvic bridging along with it, again come back
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to the crook lying position and repeat it for 10 times, this was one seat were ask to do it for 3
seat in a day
4. Core stability exercise (abdominal pull in I with heel slides)
Participant were ask to lie on the back on mat and to draw the heel toward buttocks while
maintaining the abdominal drawing while returning back to the starting position10 to 20 times
5. Kegal’s exercise
Participant were ask to empty the bladder first then lie down, and to tighten the pelvic floor
muscles and ask to hold it for 8 sec, then relax the muscles and count to 10 , repeat I for 10
times
6. Cat and Camel exercise
Were requested exhale as they sit back onto heels , lower head, chin tuck and reach the arms
out. Cat Inhale as they curve the back up and hollow the abdominals while the head remains
tucked. Camel – exhale and lower abdominal and reach chin towards ceiling do the chin tuck
7. Pelvic Bridging
The patient lies down with the back, knees in full extension and feet flat on the floor and close to
the buttock. Then the person lifts the hip off the floor towards the ceiling as high as possible.
Pilate’s exercises for experimental group were given as follows:
Mat group exercises were performed in groups for 30 minutes each day for 3 days a week. The
no. of repetition for each exercise was from 5-6 repetitions. Basic commands about the positing,
activation and engagement of core along with breathing control were given to the subjects.
1. Pelvic tilt
Participants wereasking to lie on the mat with the knee bent. Compress the back against the
mat by asking to tighten the abdominal muscles and tilt the pelvis up slightly, hold it up for
10 seconds and repeat
2. Supine leg circles
Participant wasasking to get supine on the ground, hands under butt. Bend one leg and ask to
raise the other leg off the floor and bring them above the hip, tuck the chin to the chest. Bring
the leg up and repeat.
3. Side lying circles
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Participants were asked to side lie, shoulders and hips loaded and to lift the top leg to hip
height, inhale and bring the top leg forward. Keep the shoulders, torso and hips still as the top
leg circles; continue to circle the leg up to the highest point without lifting the top hip up or
shortening the waist. Repeat time and execute on the other side
4.
Side lying clamps
Participants were asked to lie in side lying, knees together and bent forwards, heels together
in line with hips and shoulder. Head relaxed on shoulders. Create a small space under the
waist .Roll the top hip slightly forwards and keep it forwards. Exhale: squash the top buttock
and gradually raise the top knee keeping the feet close to each other. Make sure the hips are
still and do not rock backwards. Inhale: bring the knees together
.
5. Quadruped superman
Participant wasasking to get down on her hands and knees with her hands shoulder width
apart and flat on the Mat. Her knees and hips should be apart and bent to 90. And to tighten
her core and extend one leg completely behind it to hip height, using the abdominal to
maintain stability. Lower the leg to return to the starting.
6. Seated twist
Participants were asked to sit in long sitting, and to extend the arms in T shape and ask to side
rotate the upper body.
7. Prone lying stretch
Atthe end of the session Participants were asked to lie down prone lying with legs parallel to
each other, with her shoulder and elbow in one line near to the chest and hold it for 30
seconds.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package: Winpepi (version 11.65), and primer of
biostatistics (version 7). Initially the normality of the data was analyzed using Shapiro wilk test in
Winpepi software. Then the differences between pre and post readings of all outcomes were
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compared. The intra-group (within) comparison was done using t test and inter group (between)
comparison was done using paired t test.
Table- shows comparison of PRE –Treatment and POST –Treatment mean scoring using pressure
biofeedback, plank test, 3 minutes step test, girth measurement.
Table
Experiment
al Group
Mean / S.D
Control
Group
Mean /
S.D
‘t’ value
(Experime
ntal
Group)
‘P’ value
(Experim
ental
Group
‘t’
value
(Contro
l
Group)
‘P’ value
(Control
Group)
Pre-test Pressure
Biofeedback
Mean/S.D
30.88
(13.47)
26.96
(10.34)
19.16 .000 14.78 .000
Post-test Pressure
Biofeedback
Mean/S.D
43.11
(11.91)
33.03
(10.48)
Pre-test
Plank Test
Mean/S.D
23.26
(47.52)
14.15
(7.06)
0.80 .430 12.82 .000
Post test
Plank Test
Mean/S.D
30.69
(3.97)
19.23
(7.19)
Pre-test
3 minute step-test
Mean / S.D
109.73
(6.18)
104.96
(17.45)
12.26 .000 1.38 .179
Post-test
3 minute step-test
Mean / S.D
97.61
(3.91)
100.11
(5.07)
Pre-test
Girth measure-Arm
Mean/S.D
20.50
(5.97)
25.55
(16.02)
5.67 .000 1.17 .252
Post-test
Girth measure-Arm
Mean/ S.D
18.93
(5.14)
21.93
(4.03)
Pre-test
Girth measure-
Abdomen
Mean/ S.D
52.19
(16.42)
47.00
(11.76)
0.90 .379 0.42 .677
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The above table shows that in pressure biofeedback pre-test the mean is 30.88 post-test which is
43.11 in the experimental group and pre and post for control group 26.96 and 33.03 which shows
that there was a significant difference in experimental group of 0.01.
The above table shows that in the plank test pre and post mean was 23.26 and 30.69 in the
experimental group and pre and post for control group 14.15 and 19.23 which shows that there was
no significant difference in the experimental group of 0.4. In 3 minutes step test pre and post mean
difference in the experimental group was 109.73 and 97.61 and control group 104.96 and 100.11
which shows there was significant difference in experimental group of 0.01. Whereas in girth
measurement of arm, abdomen and thigh in the experimental group a significant difference of 0.01
was found.
DISCUSSION
The Pilates method has a main objective to strengthen the abdominals and pelvic floor muscles. The
iliopasoas, pelvic floor and quadriceps muscles are responsible for stabilization which consequently
decreases pain and maintains posture thereby preventing an overall damage to the lumbosacral
region. The mat Pilates exercises involved the use of gravity and participants own body weight as
resistance. In Pilates one of the main techniques is to align, lengthen, and protect the spine is to
scoup the umbilicus to the spine. One of the known benefits of abdominal tuckin is in the order to
reduce the sacroiliac joint laxity than the abdominal bracing. Pilates focuses through whole body
activity through emphasized posture. Movement patterns of each muscle are not involved primarily
in alignment of each exercise. In the movement pattern the weaker muscles are promoted by the
stronger muscles and the total strengthening of leg, arm and core are based on the radiation concept.
The torso of the feet maintains the body weight slightly forward in the Pilates stance phase. With the
core already engaged and with alignment optimal, the spine is prepared and protected for performing
more skilled tasks. The TrA and multifidi get activated at a rate of about 100 milliseconds before the
Post-test
Girth measure-
Abdomen
Mean/ S.D
51.53
(16.83)
47.56
(10.24)
Pre-test
Girth measure-Thigh
Mean/ S.D
62.35
(13.25)
63.98
(16.76)
6.83 .000 0.44 .666
Post-test
Girth measure-Thigh
60.77
(12.77)
63.69
(17.06)
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movement of the limb, irrespective of direction of movement. With single leg standing and activities
on any unstable surface, core muscle activity increases.
3
After analysis of data it was found that there was significant change in the value of pressure
biofeedback, plank test, muscle circumference and the step test after the 4 weeks of Pilates.
Following Pilates training and conventional training there has been change in the strength of the
core muscles within the group and between the group but the experimental group i.e. Pilates shows
more increase in the strength than the controlled group, because the “Scoup” performed during
Pilates focuses on in drawing of the abdominal muscles and contraction of the pelvic floor muscles.
As the scoup was performed with every exercise and contraction had to be maintain throughout the
exercise, this may be the reason for the increase in the strength post 4 weeks of exercise.
Drysdale et al. reported that when subjects performed an abdominal hollowing exercise inducing
contraction of the local deep muscles, the transverse abdominis was contracted , while rectus
abdominis, obliqusinternusabdominis, obliqusexternusabdominis, which are the global muscles
contracted less. They concluded that the characteristics and thickness of transverse abdominis
muscle increased after the exercise.
3,7
The Pilates group included exercise which involved the activation of multifidus , like leg pull prone
and similar exercise in the strength training in multifidus and transeveabdominas strength may have
increased due to continuous and sustained contractions during exercise.
NidhiAgarwal et al. reported that there is significant difference in pre and post reading in plank test
after the 4 weeks of Pilates exercise, but in this With regard to the results of this study, Pilates
exercises has found to be efficient training method for the improvement in the endurance of core
muscles, but there is no statistical difference in pre and post reading in plank test but there is clinical
difference in it, this may be due to small sample size and Pilates was given on alternate day for 4
weeks.
7,11
In the present study the subjects showed significant reduction in girth and skin fold measurement.
Mainly the subjects showed the difference in the abdomen, waist, and thigh circumference.
DrShamlaPazare et al. reported that this could be because strengthened abdominal muscle would
have firmed the waist line, improved posture and resulted in trimmer appearance. Due to gravity
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there is anterior pelvic tilt, so to maintain the spine neutral, it is required to strengthen the abdominal
and toning of the abdominal muscles. So after toning of the abdominal muscles, the pelvic position
is corrected thereby decreasing abdominal belly in size. Thus reduction in the girth is seen.
According to the results of this study it was determined that one can bring about positive changes in
body composition (e.g., reduction in total fat percentage and increase in lean body mass).
11
with
regular physical exercise
In this study there is statistical difference in pre and post readings of step test i.e. in the resting heart
rate as Hee Sung LIM et al reported that the resting heart rate is the heart rates under stable
conditions; which inversely is related to exercise tolerance. As an increase in strength with physical
exercise is achieved, there is a reduction in resting heart rate. Thus, the heart rate is normalized more
quickly post an exercise session. The resting heart rate of the Pilates group of this study reduced as
observed both clinically and statistically, compared to the control group, in whom the resting heart
rate remained the same.
In this study samples also showed improvement in their regular activity like speed of walking; doing
any activity for more time in standing or sitting, maintaining balance for more time on the Scotty
etc.
According to the article published in the 2017 says that because the core muscle strengthening
allows the local stabilizers to get recruited first to stabilize the trunk, hips and ribs allowing for the
accurate and purposeful firing of global mobilizers thus allowing perfect movement over stable
framework. Through this study it is found that females suffer from low back pain because of their
involvement at work and home, their lack of exercise hampers the core stability and is associated
with back pain. Thus improving their local stability by strengthening of core had also produced
effect in their endurance and benefited them in their ADL’S.
7
Therefore, we can accept the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant effect of Pilates on
strength, endurance, fitness and muscle circumference in the post delivered women.
Conclusion
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In conclusion, this study showed that Pilates mat exercises contributed to increase in the strength
and endurance of core muscles in post delivered women and even improved the fitness of women by
improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and decrease in the girth measurements. In the future
which may lead to better quality of life and lower the risk of back pain through improvements in
abdominal and lower back strength, and abdominal muscular endurance.
FUTURE SCOPE OF STUDY
This study can be used or compared with various upcoming strategies to improve strength and
endurance of core muscles in women which can reduce low back pain improve their daily activities.
This study had low sample size which can be increased to improve the results. The duration of study
was four weeks which can be increased in order to achieve greater results. And in this study only
FTND samples were taken in future studies LSCS samples can also be used to see the difference.
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... The anterior tilt of the hip joint increases during the later stages of pregnancy, thus, collapsing the pelvic inclination, and causing back pain with spinal deformity [37,38]. The CPT and SPT significantly increased in the CON group, which was consistent with the findings of previous studies that have reported on pelvic tilt deformity in pregnant women [39,40]. However, there was no significant difference in the CPT in the PE group. ...
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Pilates is effective for training the core muscles and stabilizing the hip joints, which provides relief from pelvic pain and low back pain during pregnancy. However, there are no specific guidelines on appropriate physical exercises for pregnant women due to the current pandemic. We aimed to apply the exercise standard proposed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to home-based tele-Pilates exercise (HTPE), to determine its effect on the physical and mental health of pregnant women. We randomly divided the subjects into the following two groups who completed 8 weeks of HTPE (50 min/day, 2 days/week): (a) Pilates exercise (PE, n = 7) and (B) non-Pilates exercise (CON, n = 7). HTPE was performed by adjusting the program every 3 weeks, based on pain and physical fitness levels. We measured body composition, muscles of the hip joint, pelvic tilt, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), before and after HTPE. Following HTPE, while the percentage of body fat and body mass index had significantly decreased, the body fat mass did not change in the PE group (p < 0.05). The PE group showed an increase in strength of the left and right hip flexion and hip abduction, compared to the CON group (p < 0.01). The ODI and PSQI were significantly decreased in the PE group (p < 0.05). Therefore, the 8-week HTPE program is an effective exercise for pregnant woman that reduces body fat metabolism and strengthens muscles of the hip joint, thus alleviating pregnancy-induced low back pain and insomnia.
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To assess claims regarding the effects of Pilates training on flexibility, body composition, and health status. An observational prospective study. A community athletic club. A sample of 47 adults (45 women, 2 men) who presented for Pilates training. Not applicable. Fingertip-to-floor distance, truncal lean body mass by bioelectric impedance, health status by questionnaire and visual analog scale were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months (+/-1 wk). Thirty-two of 47 enrolled subjects met the protocol requirements of missing no more than 1 weekly 1-hour session Pilates mat class during each 2-month period. Investigators were blinded to measurements from previous time points. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) fingertip-to-floor distance improved from baseline by 3.4 cm (1.3-5.7 cm), 3.3 cm (0.3- 7.8 cm), and 4.3 cm (1.5-7.6 cm) at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively (paired nonparametric analysis, all P<.01). There were no statistically significant changes in truncal lean body mass, height, weight, or other body composition parameters. Self-assessment of health also did not change in a statistically significant manner from its baseline median (IQR) value of 77 mm (69-85 mm). Pilates training may result in improved flexibility. However, its effects on body composition, health status, and posture are more limited and may be difficult to establish. Further study might involve larger sample sizes, comparison with an appropriate control group, and assessment of motor unit recruitment as well as strength of truncal stabilizers.
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The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on abdominal and lower back strength, abdominal muscular endurance and posterior trunk flexibility of sedentary adult females. The body fat and body mass index (BMI) pre-and post-data were also assessed as secondary outcomes. To assess abdominal and lower back strength, posterior trunk flexion and extension data were obtained concentrically on a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 601 and 1201 s À1 . Abdominal muscular endurance was assessed using the crunch test and posterior trunk flexibility was measured using the sit and reach test. Results of multivariate analysis revealed a significant difference (po.05) between pre-and post-measures of 601 s À1 flexion/extension and 1201 s À1 flexion, and abdominal muscular endurance and posterior trunk flexibility of the exercise group. It can be concluded that there was a positive effect of Modern Pilates mat exercises on abdominal and lower back muscular strength, abdominal muscular endurance and posterior trunk flexibility in sedentary adult females regardless of the fact that the body weight and fat percentages did not differ significantly.
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Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three sets in relevant muscle-groups (ES 1.05), and after a regimen of resisted- and assisted-sprint training with elastic surgical tubes (ES 1.21). Secondly, several studies suggest that high training volumes do not pose any immediate advantage over lower volumes (with higher intensity) for swim performance. Overall, very few studies were eligible for the current review although the search strategy was broad and fairly liberal. The included studies predominantly involved freestyle swimming and, overall, there seems to be more questions than answers within intervention-based competitive swimming research. We believe that this review may encourage other researchers to pursue the interesting topics within the physiology of competitive swimming.
From the mechanical point of view the spinal system is highly complex, containing a multitude of components, passive and active. In fact, even if the active components (the muscles) were exchanged by passive springs, the total number of elements considerably exceeds the minimum needed to maintain static equilibrium. In other words, the system is statically highly indeterminate. The particular role of the active components at static equilibrium is to enable a virtually arbitrary choice of posture, independent of the distribution and magnitude of the outer load albeit within physiological limits. Simultaneously this implies that ordinary procedures known from the analysis of mechanical systems with passive components cannot be applied. Hence the distribution of the forces over the different elements is not uniquely determined. Consequently nervous control of the force distribution over the muscles is needed, but little is known about how this achieved. This lack of knowledge implies great difficulties at numerical simulation of equilibrium states of the spinal system. These difficulties remain even if considerable reductions are made, such as the assumption that the thoracic cage behaves like a rigid body. A particularly useful point of view about the main principles of the force distributions appears to be the distinction between a local and a global system of muscles engaged in the equilibrium of the lumbar spine. The local system consists of muscles with insertion or origin (or both) at lumbar vertebrae, whereas the global system consists of muscles with origin on the pelvis and insertions on the thoracic cage. Given the posture of the lumbar spine, the force distribution over the local system appears to be essentially independent of the outer load of the body (though the force magnitudes are, of course, dependent on the magnitude of this load). Instead different distributions of the outer load on the body are met by different distributions of the forces in the global system. Thus, roughly speaking, the global system appears to take care of different distributions of outer forces on the body, whereas the local system performs an action, which is essentially locally determined (i.e. by the posture of the lumbar spine). The present work focuses on the upright standing posture with different degree of lumbar lordosis. The outer load is assumed to consist of weights carried on the shoulders. By reduction of the number of unknown forces, which is done by using a few different principles, a unique determination of the total force distributions at static equilibrium is obtained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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Together the abdominal muscles contribute significantly to ventilation under some conditions, but there is little information regarding individual recruitment and timing of activation of the four abdominal muscles in humans. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted under direct vision guided by high-resolution ultra-sound into the rectus abdominis (Rectus), external oblique (Extern), internal oblique (Intern), and transversus abdominis (Transv) in nine awake healthy subjects. Airflow, end-tidal CO2, and moving-average EMG signals were recorded during 1) supine resting and CO2-stimulated ventilation and 2) resting ventilation in the standing position. During resting supine breathing, Transv showed significant phasic EMG activity during expiration. As posture changed from supine to standing, phasic activity during resting ventilation was greatest in Transv, with lesser activity in Intern and Extern, while Rectus remained inactive. As CO2 began to increase, Transv was activated first, followed by Intern, the Extern, and finally Rectus. With moderate CO2 stimulation, Transv and Intern were more active than was Extern and Rectus remained least active. EMG activities in the expiratory muscles after cessation of expiratory flow (postexpiratory expiratory activity) and in expiratory muscle activity preceding expiratory flow were observed consistently during supine stimulated ventilation and standing resting ventilation. These activities before and after expiratory airflow were prominent with stimulated ventilation during a substantial portion of inspiration, suggesting dual control of inspiratory pump action by both inspiratory and expiratory muscles, which provide acceleration and braking actions, respectively. These results suggest that in awake humans 1) during resting ventilation, expiration is an active process; 2) abdominal muscles are activated differentially; 3) Transv is the most active, Intern and Extern are intermediate, and Rectus is the least active expiratory muscle; and 4) during stimulated ventilation, inspiratory and expiratory muscles contribute dually to inspiratory pump action.
Centering and breathing in pilates
Simply Pilates by Jennifer Pohlam(2007): Centering and breathing in pilates. 19-25
Concurrent validity on pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transerversusabdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic 23.nonspecific low back pain,ISSN 1413-3555 Rev Bras Fisoter Sao Carlos,v 16n
  • O P Pedro
  • Rodrigo R Lima
  • Albertog Oliveria
  • Maria C Mourafilho
  • Leonardo O P Raposo
  • Costa
  • E C Golria
  • Laurentino
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Effectivness of core muscle strengthening on prevention of low back pain in 2 nd trimester primigravid females-A Hypothesis
  • Priyanka Mhalagi
  • Apurvshimpi Savitarairikar
Priyanka Mhalagi, SavitaRairikar,ApurvShimpi, Effectivness of core muscle strengthening on prevention of low back pain in 2 nd trimester primigravid females-A Hypothesis, Journal of Medical Thesis 2015 jan-april;3(1):19-22