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Abstract

The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The terms 'bananas' and 'plantains' require clarification. 'Bananas' refers to all the members of the genus Musa. In the narrow sense, plantains are characterized by the orange-yellow color of both the compound tepal of the flower and the fruit pulp at ripeness. In this review work, we discuss the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. and M. sapientum (Musaceae) for their anti-diabetic activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidant property, wound healing, hair growth promoter, diuretic, analgesic, augmenting action on skeletal muscle contraction, antihypertensive activity, anti-allergic activity and mutagenic effects and haemostatic activity. This literature review also presents some taxonomy, traditional uses, phytochemicals, minerals and detailed pharmacological information of Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum Linn. Some pharmacological studies has been reported and number of activities require the proper scientific justification on the plant in which diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcer, antispasmodic, hypertension, nephroprotective activity and cardiac diseases etc., are scientifically possible. The different phytoconstituents present in the unripe fruit extract of the plant like; alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids etc that gives the possibility of expected pharmacological activities and which help for further research and treatment for the patients.
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(11): November 2014
1356
ISSN 0974-3618 www.rjptonline.org
REVIEW ARTICLE
Taxonomical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Reviews of Musa
sapientum var. Paradisiaca.
U.S Mahadeva Rao1*, Khamsah Suryati Mohd2, Abdurrazaq Muhammad3, Bashir Ado Ahmad3
Mohaslinda Mohamad1 and Rosmawati Mat Ali1
1Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin.
2Faculty of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Food Science, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin.
3Masters degree students, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin.
*Corresponding Author E-mail:raousm@gmail.com; raousm@unisza.edu.my
ABSTRACT:
The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants
are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical
industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of
important new medicines. Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown extensively throughout the tropical and
subtropical regions of the world. The terms ‘bananas’ and ‘plantains’ require clarification. ‘Bananas’ refers to all the
members of the genus Musa. In the narrow sense, plantains are characterized by the orange-yellow color of both the
compound tepal of the flower and the fruit pulp at ripeness. In this review work, we discuss the possible activity of
Musa paradisiaca L. and M. sapientum (Musaceae) for their anti-diabetic activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidant
property, wound healing, hair growth promoter, diuretic, analgesic, augmenting action on skeletal muscle contraction,
antihypertensive activity, anti-allergic activity and mutagenic effects and haemostatic activity. This literature review
also presents some taxonomy, traditional uses, phytochemicals, minerals and detailed pharmacological information of
Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum Linn. Some pharmacological studies has been reported and number of activities
require the proper scientific justification on the plant in which diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcer, antispasmodic,
hypertension, nephroprotective activity and cardiac diseases etc., are scientifically possible. The different
phytoconstituents present in the unripe fruit extract of the plant like; alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids etc that
gives the possibility of expected pharmacological activities and which help for further research and treatment for the
patients.
KEYWORDS: Musaceae; Spasmodic; Glycoside; Diuretic.
INTRODUCTION:
In developing countries, traditional medicine is often the
only accessible and affordable treatment available.
Consumption of medicinal herbs protects and heals a
number of ailments and they have been the principal
treatment therapy in prehistoric times until the discovery of
synthetic drugs in the nineteenth century. About40% of
prescription drugs are derived from herbs and about half of
the world’s best selling pharmaceutical preparations are
derivatives of natural products.
Received on 16.09.2014 Modified on 15.10.2014
Accepted on 19.10.2014 © RJPT All right reserved
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(11): Nov. 2014 Page 1356-1361
However, in order to make these remedies acceptable to
modern medicine, there is a need to scientifically evaluate
them to identify the active principles and understand the
mechanism of action. However, the mechanism of action of
most herbal medicines has not been fully understood, and
experience obtained from their traditional use over the years
should not be ignored [1-2]. One such medicinal plant,
which lacks scientific scrutiny, is Musaceae species. Plants
of the genus Musa Spp., grows in humid lowland to upland
tropical areas [3] comprising banana and plantain, are
among the world’s leading fruit crops, which are large
perennial herbs growing from a sympodial rhizome [4].
Most edible bananas and plantains are descended from a
wild ancestor, Musa acuminate and Musa balbisiana.
Linnaeus, as is well known, used two specific names for
edible bananas, Paradisiaca and Sapientum, and the
subsequent application of the Linnaean epithets has varied
widely with different authorities on Musa. Musasapientum
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(11): November 2014
1357
stands for bananas which are known for their edible fruits
and Musa paradisiaca standing for ‘Plantains’ and are
generally larger, more angular starchy fruits of hybrid
triploid cultivars in the banana family intended for cooking
[5]. Various parts of M. paradisiaca have been used for
various medicinal purposes. It has traditionally been used
for antidepressant, antibacterial, antihypertensive,
antiulcerogenic [6-7] urolithiasis [8] laxatives,
antihelminthics. This indigenous knowledge, passed down
from generation to generation in various parts of the world,
has significantly contributed to the development of different
traditional systems of medicine [9] as well as helped in
exploration of different medicinal plants to find the
scientific basis of their traditional uses. This exploration of
biologically active natural products have played an
important role in finding new chemical entities (NCEs) for
example, approximately 28% of NCEs between 1981and
2002 were natural products or natural product-derived [10].
This review focuses on two common species of banana
widely used as food and vegetable. This review presents the
scientific information on uses, isolated chemicals and
pharmacological studies to validate the traditional uses of
M. paradisiaca and M. sapientum in different types of
diseases.
Taxonomical classification:
A
B
C
Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca
Fruit (A) and flower (B) and plant (C).
Kingdom Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants
Subkingdom Viridaeplantae – green plants
Infrakingdom Streptophyta – land plants
Division Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes
Subdivision Spermatophytina–spermatophytes, seed plants,
phanérogames
Infradivision Angiospermae–flowering plants, angiosperms,
plantas com flor, angiosperma, plantes a
fleurs, angiospermes, plantes à fruits
Class Magnoliopsida
Superorder Lilianae–monocots, monocotyledons,
monocotyledones
Order Zingiberales
Family Musaceae – banana
Genus Musa L. – banana
Species Musa X sapientum var. paradisiaca L. (pro sp.)
– banana, plantain, French plantain.
Origin and cultivation:
The origins of the banana are as complex and convoluted as
the nature of the banana’s taxonomic origins themselves.
Archeologists have focused on the Kuk valley of New
Guinea around 8,000 BCE (Before Common Era) as the
area where humans first domesticated the banana.
Additionally, though this is the first known location of
banana domestication, other spontaneous domestication
projects may have occurred throughout the Southeast Asia
and the South Pacific. Therefore, Kuk is the first known
instance of banana domestication, but it is probably not the
cradle from which all other domesticated species sprang
[11].
In different countries about 300 varieties of bananas are
grown, of which a vast majority have been growing in
Asian, Indo-Malaysian and Australian tropics and are now
widely found throughout the tropical and subtropical
countries. India, Philippines, China, Ecuador, Brazil,
Indonesia, Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia, Thailand are the
top banana producing countries. It is extensively grown and
cultivated as a fruit plant all over Bangladesh. The banana
grows almost everywhere in the country throughout the
year. The principal banana growing areas however, are
Rangamati, Barisal, Rangpur, Dinajpur, Noakhali, Faridpur
and Khulna[12].
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(11): November 2014
1358
Traditional uses:
Many traditional uses of banana have been well
documented, for example, the leaf and stem are used to treat
diarrhoea; the stem is good for asthenia and wounds, and
the leaf for the treatment of inflammation, headache and
rheumatism [13]. Previous studies reported that M.
Paradisiaca had antimicrobial and healing activities.
Nevertheless, only a few studies have reported on the
efficacy of this plant against nematodes [14].Various parts
of M. Paradisiaca have been used for various medicinal
purposes. It has traditionally been used for antidepressant,
antibacterial, antihypertensive, antiulcerogenic [6-7]
urolithiasis [8] laxatives, antihelmin, analgesic, antifungal,
constipation, wound healing, fevers, burns, diarrhoea,
inflammation, pains and antivenomic for snake bites [9–11].
Flowers are used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Stem juice
of fruited plant is used for treating diarrhoea, dysentery,
cholera, otalgia, haemoptysis and flower is used in
dysentery, diabetes and menorrhagia [15]. The root is used
as antihelmintic [16], blood disorders and venereal diseases
[15].
Phytochemicals and mineral contents:
Catecholamines such as norepinephrine, serotonin,
dopamine [17].Tryptophan, indole compounds [18]. pectin
have been found in the pulp. Several flavonoids and related
compounds (Leucocyanidin, quercetin and its 3-
Ogalactoside, 3-O-glucoside, and 3-O-rhamnosyl
glucoside) were isolated from the unripe pulp of plantain
[19 - 21]. Serotonin, nor-epinephrine, tryptophan, indole
compounds, tannin, starch, iron, crystallisable and non-
crystallisable sugars, vitamin C, B-vitamins, albuminoids,
fats, mineral salts have been found in the fruit pulp of M.
paradisiaca and M. sapientum [15].Carbohydrates have
been isolated from M. sapientum [22]. Cellulose,
hemicelluloses, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid,
leucine, valine, phenylalanine and threonine have been
isolated from pulp and peel of M. paradisiaca [23-24].
Hemiterpenoid glucoside (1,1-dimethylallylalcohol),
syringin, (6S, 9R)-roseoside, benzyl alcohol glucoside,
(24R)-4α,l4 α,24-trimethyl-Sacholesta-8,25(27) dien-3β-o1
have been isolated from flower of M. paradisiaca [25-26].
Table 1. Macro and micro elements found in Musa species in mg/
100grams[27].
Values are presented as mean+SD.
Pharmacological Activities:
The various effects of Musa paradisiaca Linn. are
documented in traditional as well as scientific literature.
The main pharmacologial effects of this plant are anti-
diabetic activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidant property,
wound healing, hair growth promoter, diuretic, analgesic,
augmenting action on skeletal muscle contraction,
antihypertensive activity, anti-allergic activity and
mutagenic effects and haemostatic activity in which a few
are reported.
Antidiabetic activity:
Methanolic extracts of mature green fruit of Musa
paradisiaca in normal and Streptozocin treated diabetic
mice using Chlorpropamide as antidiabetic agent. MEMP
(100-800 mg/kg, p.o) showed significant doserelated
(p<0.05–0.001) reduction in the blood glucose
concentration in normal and diabetic mice. Chlorpropamide
(250 mg/kg p.o) also produced significant (p<0.01 and
p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose concentration in
normal and diabetic mice [28].
The antihyperglycemic activity was studied, where Oral
administration of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 g/kg body weight of
the chloroform extract of the Musa sapientum flowers for
30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose
and glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total
haemoglobin [29]. The effect of Methanolic Extract of
Musa sapientum Sucker on fasting blood glucose has been
studied. Alloxan induced hyperglyceamic rats was
evaluated and compared with that of glibenclamide as a
reference drug, The fasting blood glucose was calculated
using one touch life scan glucometer. The extract of Musa
sapientum at all tested doses (5mgand 10mg kg-1/ day)
significantly (p<0.05) lowered fasting blood glucose level
in the treated rats compared with the diabetic but untreated
rats (test control) [30].
Antiulcer activity:
Banana is used in the herbal medicine to treat peptic ulcer
disease. The use of M. sapientum in peptic ulcer as a
component of herbal medicine has been evaluated and
found effective[31]. It was reported that pectin and
phosphatidylcholine in green banana strengthens the
mucousphospholipid layer that protects the gastric mucosa
[32] and also reported that the gastric mucosa protective
activity of the banana is due to multiple active components.
The natural flavonoid from the unripe banana (M.
sapientum var. paradisiaca) pulp, leucocyanidin, protects
the gastric mucosa from erosions. Leucocyanidin and the
synthetic analogues, hydroxyethylated leucocyanidin and
tetraallyl leucocyanidin were found to protect the gastric
mucosa in aspirin-induced erosions in rat by increasing
gastric mucus thickness [33]. Goelet al.,(1986) reported that
banana pulp powder (M. Sapientumvar. paradisiaca)
showed significant antiulcerogenic activity in aspirin-,
indomethacin-, phenylbutazone-, prednisolone-induced
gastric ulcers and cysteamine- and histamine-induced
duodenal ulcers in rats and guinea-pigs, respectively. The
authors attributed the effect to increased mucosal thickness
and increased [3H] thymidine incorporation into mucosal
DNA that results in mucosal cellular proliferation and
healing. Mukhopadhyayaet al.,(1987) also found the same
effects like Goel et al.,(1986) in rat after orally
administering banana pulp powder as aqueous suspension at
Elements Mg/100 dry sample
Sodium 444.12±4.08
Potassium 944.12±1.41
Calcium 1335.33±14.1
Magnesium 255.00±2.83
Phosphorus 137.82±1.89
Iron 3.31±0.05
Zinc 8.05±0.05
Manganese 1.27±0.11
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(11): November 2014
1359
0.5 g/kg twice daily dose for 3 days. They also reported a
significant decrease in gastric juice DNA content after the
treatment [34]. Pannangpetchet al.,(2001) reported that the
antiulcerative effect of banana may vary depending on
different varieties of banana. They showed that the
ethanolic extract of both M. sapientum and M. paradisiaca
have significant gastroprotective effect but only M.
paradisiaca promotes ulcer healing by a similar mechanism
like prostaglandins[ 35]. Jainet al.,(2007) also reported acid
neutralizing capacity of M. sapientum fruit peel ash in rats
[36].
Histological studies showed that banana treatment sections
showed a greater aggregation and intensity of pink spots
when compared to controls. This study suggests that banana
powder treatment not only strengthens mucosal resistance
against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing
cellular proliferation. The active ulcerogenic ingredient was
extracted from unripe plantain banana by solvent
fractionation and identified by chromatography,
spectroscopy and HPLC. As the flavanoid leucocyanidin
and purified synthetic leucocyanidin demonstrated
significant (p<0.05) protective effect against aspirin
induced erosion. Extracts of plantain (Musa sapientum
Linn. var. paradisiaca was studied on the accumulation of
eicosanoids in incubates of human gastric and colonic
mucosa. The ethanol extracts caused a concentration
dependent increase in the eicosanoid but the water extract
was ineffective. Methanolic extracts of plantain banana pulp
was evaluated for its antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2
hr cold restraint stress and anti H. pylori activity in vitro.
The extract (50mg/kg twice daily for 5 days) showed
significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric
mucosa homogenates where it reversed the increase in ulcer
index, lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase values
induced by stress [37].
Antioxidant property:
The antioxidant behavior of the extracts was evaluated by
using the thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method
and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical
elimination. Antioxidant activity of water extracts was
comparable to those of synthetic antioxidants such as
butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and
it shows a significant antioxidant property. The antioxidant
effects of crude extracts from green banana and yellow peel
were investigated and the results indicated that the extract
of green peel recorded more significant activities than that
of yellow peel at other solvents extracts [38].
Wound healing activity:
The rats were given graded dose of (50-200 Kg/day) of
aqueous and methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var.
paradisiaca orally for a period of 10-21 days depending
upon the type of study. Both extracts when studied for
incision and dead space wounds parameters increased
wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyl proline,
hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced
glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased
percentage of wound area, scar area when compared with
the control group both the extracts showed good safety
profile [38].
Hair growth promoting activity:
For the evaluation of the hair growth promoting activity of
Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract, the study was aimed
to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of Musa
paradisiaca unripe fruit extract. The effect of Musa
paradisiaca unripe fruit extract for the hair growth
promoting activity, which has been traditionally used for
treating hair loss was examined. The mice were divided into
four groups the extract and minoxidil were applied over the
shaved skin surface on to the backs of mice and monitored
for 30 days. The extract of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit
when tested for the hair growth activity was assayed by
studying hair length and microscopic study of follicles in
vehicle control, 2% minoxidil treated and extracts treated
animals. The findings suggest that extract of Musa
paradisiaca unripe fruit has potential as a hair growth
promoter [39-40].
Analgesic activity:
The analgesic activity of aqueous extract of the plant was
evaluated using the hot plate method and writhing test in
mice. The hot plate method is useful in detecting centrally
acting analgesics whereas acetic acid induced writhing
method is useful to detect peripheral analgesic effects.
Acetic acid, which is used as an inducer for writhing
syndrome, causes analgesia by liberation of endogenous
substances, which then excite the pain nerve endings. The
fact that aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca showed
analgesic activity in both the models studied, indicate that
this effect could be due to the presence of two components;
one acting centrally and the other via peripheral route from
the above results, it can be deduced that aqueous extract has
shown dose dependent activity. As the phytochemical
screening has shown the presence of carbohydrates, sterols,
proteins, flavonoids, alkaloids in aqueous extract of Musa
paradisiaca leaves, its potent activity may be attributed to
the presence of these phytoconstituents [41].
Augmenting action on skeletal muscle contraction:
Augmentation action in skeletal muscles was studied by
taking an extract obtained from juice expressed from the
stem of the plantain banana tree (Musa sapientum L., var.
paradisiaca) induces twitch augmentation in skeletal
muscle. The mechanism of this action was investigated in
the mouse hemi-diaphragm preparation. Directly evoked
twitches and potassium induced (K+) contractures were
both increased by the extract [42].
Diuretic activity:
Ash of the peel of M. sapientum showed an increase in
urine volume and K+ as well as other electrolyte excretion
than normal saline in a study in rats. Successive ethanolic
extract also give this diuretic effect [36]. Phytochemicals
such as saponin, flavonoids and terpenoids are known to be
responsible for this effect [43-45].
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(11): November 2014
1360
Antihypertensive activity:
The antihypertensive effect of M. paradisiaca in albino rats
was reported by Osimet al.,(1990) [46]. Later Osim and Ibu
(1991) reported that banana diet has a mean arterial blood
pressure lowering as well as onset preventing effect in rats
with elevated blood pressure induced by
desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration [47].
Perfumiet al.,1994) reported that the antihypertensive effect
of ripe banana pulp in deoxycorticosterone enantate-
induced hypertensive rats which may be due to the high
tryptophan and carbohydrate content of banana that
increases serotonin levels and gives serotonin-mediated
natriorexic effect [48].
However, Orie (1997) reported that serotonin produced a
contraction in place of relaxation in isolated rat aortic rings.
The aqueous extract of the ripe M. paradisiaca fruit was
found to give a concentration-dependent hypotensive effect
in both noradrenaline and potassium chloride-contracted
aortic rings isolated from rat. The effect was due to the non-
specific interference in calcium ion availability needed for
the smooth muscle contraction that results in relaxation[49].
Mutagenecity:
It was reported the mutagenic effect of M. paradisiaca fruit
peel extract in mice assessed by the single-cell gel
electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. The
experiments showed DNA damaging property in peripheral
blood leukocytes for 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight
[39].
Anti-allergic activity:
The water extract of pulp of ripe M. sapientum has been
reported to have significant anti-allergic activity on antigen
induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC50
value of 13.5±2.4 [50].
CONCLUSION:
This literature review presents some taxonomy, traditional
uses, phytochemicals, minerals and detailed
pharmacological information of Musa paradisiaca var.
sapientum Linn. Some pharmacological studies has been
reported and number of activities require the proper
scientific justification on the plant in which diarrhoea,
dysentery, ulcer, antispasmodic, hypertension,
nephroprotective activity and cardiac diseases etc., are
scientifically possible. The different phytoconstituents
present in the unripe fruit extract of the plant viz; alkaloids,
steroids, glycosides, flavonoids etc that gives the possibility
of expected pharmacological activities and which help for
further research and treatment for the patients.
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... Phytochemical screening showed the presence of glycoside, oxalate, ascorbic acid, flavonoid, phytic acid, alkaloid, vitamin A, benzoic acid and steroid in banana extracts (17,21). Solvents such as chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water were used by researchers to extract different parts of banana by maceration process and showed the presence of several phytochemicals. ...
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Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Plantain or cooking banana) is among the major crops that are being cultivated by farmers and serve as the main food crop for both animals and humans in some parts of the world. It shows several beneficial properties. In traditional medicine, the fruits in addition to the other parts of the plant such as the stalk, peel, pulp and leaf are used to treat different diseases in humans. This review presents the scientific information on the pharmacological potentials, possible nutritional values and phytochemicals of this Musa species. It is a source of carbohydrate that can easily be digestible and also provides vital vitamins like vitamin B complex, vitamin C and a lot of minerals like potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) etc. Most of the in vitro studies, in vivo (animal model) studies and clinical trials, propose that innumerable banana and plantain parts have been utilized in traditional medicine for the treatment of countless non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, ulcers, urolithiasis and Alzheimer's infection. Also, this review reports the phytocompounds isolated through the use of different solvents for extraction of the plant's parts. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of different extracts is included and possible mechanisms and phytochemicals involved have been correlated.
... The proximate analysis of M. paradisiaca revealed the presence of protein, dietary fibre, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals such as potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), and water-soluble vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and folic acid (Ketiku 1973;Coulibaly et al., 2007;Eleazu et al., 2011;Ibukun et al., 2012;Adeolu and Enesi, 2013;Danlami et al., 2015;Kiin-Kabari and Giami, 2015;Annor et al., 2016). The bioactive metabolites present in the fruits of plantain include, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phytates, oxalates, amino acids, steroids, benzoic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid, and vitamin A (Dutta et al., 1983;Eleazu et al., 2011;Adeolu and Enesi, 2013;Rao et al., 2014;Danlami et al., 2015,). ...
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Objective This study was conducted to assess the toxicity profile of the aqueous-fermented extract of Musa paradisiaca in rats. Materials and Methods In acute toxicity test, the rats of different groups were orally administered with a single dose of 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of fermented extract of M. paradisiaca. The rats were monitored for behavioral changes, toxicity signs and mortality. In sub-acute test, the rats were orally administered with fermented M. paradisiaca extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated and histopathological studies of the liver and kidney were done. The study was performed from June to July 2017. Results Concerning the acute toxicity, no toxicity signs or death were recorded and an LD50 value of >5 g/kg for fermented extract of M. paradisiaca was observed. Regarding the sub-acute toxicity, ingestion of the fermented extract of M. paradisiaca caused no significant effects (p<0.05) in terms of relative organ weight, body weight percentage, haemoglobin, red blood cells count, electrolytes levels, lymphocytes count, basophils count, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. However, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in white blood cells, eosinophils, platelets, neutrophils and monocytes counts, and urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. The histological assessments of the liver and kidney showed normal results. Conclusion The findings of this study has suggested that daily administration of fermented extract of M. paradisiaca at doses up to 800 mg/kg for 14 days, is not toxic and may be considered safe for therapeutic uses.
... The proximate analysis of M. paradisiaca revealed the presence of protein, dietary fibre, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals such as potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), and water-soluble vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and folic acid (Ketiku 1973;Coulibaly et al., 2007;Eleazu et al., 2011;Ibukun et al., 2012;Adeolu and Enesi, 2013;Danlami et al., 2015;Kiin-Kabari and Giami, 2015;Annor et al., 2016). The bioactive metabolites present in the fruits of plantain include, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phytates, oxalates, amino acids, steroids, benzoic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid, and vitamin A (Dutta et al., 1983;Eleazu et al., 2011;Adeolu and Enesi, 2013;Rao et al., 2014;Danlami et al., 2015,). ...
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Objective: This study was conducted to assess the toxicity profile of the aqueous-fermented extract of Musa paradisiaca in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity test, the rats of different groups were orally administered with a single dose of 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of fermented extract of M. paradisiaca. The rats were monitored for behavioral changes, toxicity signs and mortality. In sub-acute test, the rats were orally administered with fermented M. paradisiaca extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated and histopathological studies of the liver and kidney were done. The study was performed from June to July 2017. Results: Concerning the acute toxicity, no toxicity signs or death were recorded and an LD50 value of >5 g/kg for fermented extract of M. paradisiaca was observed. Regarding the sub-acute toxicity, ingestion of the fermented extract of M. paradisiaca caused no significant effects (p<0.05) in terms of relative organ weight, body weight percentage, haemoglobin, red blood cells count, electrolytes levels, lymphocytes count, basophils count, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. However, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in white blood cells, eosinophils, platelets, neutrophils and monocytes counts, and urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. The histological assessments of the liver and kidney showed normal results. Conclusion: The findings of this study has suggested that daily administration of fermented extract of M. paradisiaca at doses up to 800 mg/kg for 14 days, is not toxic and may be considered safe for therapeutic uses.
... The proximate analysis of M. paradisiaca revealed the presence of protein, dietary fibre, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals such as potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), and water-soluble vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and folic acid ( Ketiku 1973;Coulibaly et al., 2007;Eleazu et al., 2011;Ibukun et al., 2012;Adeolu and Enesi, 2013;Danlami et al., 2015;Kiin-Kabari and Giami, 2015;Annor et al., 2016). The bioactive metabolites present in the fruits of plantain include, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phytates, oxalates, amino acids, steroids, benzoic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid, and vitamin A ( Dutta et al., 1983;Eleazu et al., 2011;Adeolu and Enesi, 2013;Rao et al., 2014;Danlami et al., 2015,). ...
Article
Objective: This study was conducted to assess the toxicity profile of the aqueous-fermented extract of Musa paradisiaca in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity test, the rats of different groups were orally administered with a single dose of 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of fermented extract of M. paradisiaca. The rats were monitored for behavioral changes, toxicity signs and mortality. In sub-acute test, the rats were orally administered with fermented M. paradisiaca extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated and histopathological studies of the liver and kidney were done. The study was performed from June to July 2017. Results: Concerning the acute toxicity, no toxicity signs or death were recorded and an LD50 value of >5 g/kg for fermented extract of M. paradisiaca was observed. Regarding the sub-acute toxicity, ingestion of the fermented extract of M. paradisiaca caused no significant effects (p<0.05) in terms of relative organ weight, body weight percentage, haemoglobin, red blood cells count, electrolytes levels, lymphocytes count, basophils count, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. However, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in white blood cells, eosinophils, platelets, neutrophils and monocytes counts, and urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. The histological assessments of the liver and kidney showed normal results. Conclusion: The findings of this study has suggested that daily administration of fermented extract of M. paradisiaca at doses up to 800 mg/kg for 14 days, is not toxic and may be considered safe for therapeutic uses.
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The main focus of the present paper was to determine Quantitative Analysis, Antioxidant Assays and Thin layer Chromatography Analysis of the roots extracts of Withania somnifera, Bacopa monnieri, Terminalia arjuna, Rannunculus sceleratus and Acalypha indica. Extractions of the plant's roots were carried out by Maceration method using three solvents Ethanol, Methanol and Chloroform. Phytochemical Quantitative analysis, consisting of Total Phenol Content, Total Flavonoid Content and Alkaloid Content were done using the standard phytochemical assays. The extracts were screened for Antioxidant Assays including DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) Radical Scavenging Assay, ABTS(2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)) Radical Scavenging Assay, Hydrogen Peroxide Assay. Selected methanol and ethanol extracts were further used for particular compound separation process through Column Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography. The results of the Quantitative screening revealed the presence of the three important bioactive compounds i.e. Phenols, Flavonoids, and alkaloids in a high a very high concentration in Ethanol, methanol plant's extracts but highly less concentration in Chloroform extracts. Similarly, the Antioxidant Scavenging Activity Of ethanol and methanol plant's extracts were shown having a very high activity except in Bacopa monnieri and methanol extracts of Rannunculus sceleratus where moderate activity is shown. The Chloroform extracts had shown very less or no scavenging activity. The methanol and
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The objective of this research is to conduct the preliminary phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and phenolic contents assays of various solvent extracts of tepal of Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemical screening was carried out according to the method of Trease and Evans, total flavonoid content was measured by the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay and total phenolic content was estimated spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteau method.-Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids in all the three different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous). Tepal methanolic extract has the richest content of both phenolics and flavonoids i.e. (4.27 mg GAE/g and 0.25 mg QE/g) respectively, and aqueous extract was the least i.e. (1.32 mg GAE/g and 0.164 mg QE/g). All the extracts were not significantly different with one another (p > 0.05). It can be hypothesised that the high contents of phenolic compounds of tepals of Musa paradisiaca indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity and can be regarded as promising plant species for natural sources of radical scavenging activity with potential value for treatment of many life threatening diseases. Abstrak Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menjalankan pemeriksaan awal ke atas ketulenan fitokimia, jumlah kandungan fenolik flavonoid dan pelbagai ekstrak pelarut tepal Musa paradisiaca. Penyaringan fitokimia telah dilaksanakan mengikut kaedah Trease dan Evans, dimana jumlah kandungan flavonoid diukur oleh ujian kalorimetrik aluminium klorida dan jumlah kandungan fenolik dianggarkan secara spektrofotometer dengan kaedah Folin-Ciocalteau. Penyaringan awal fitokimia menunjukkan kehadiran fenolik, flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin dan terpenoid dalam ketiga-tiga ekstrak yang berbeza (metanol, etanol dan akueus). Ekstrak metanol Tepal mempunyai kandungan yang paling tinggi di antara kedua-dua fenolik dan flavonoid iaitu sebanyak 4.27 mg GAE/g dan 0.25 mg QE/g, manakala ekstrak akueus adalah mempunyai kandungan terendah iaitu sebanyak 1.32 mg GAE/g dan 0,164 mg QE/g. Semua ekstrak tidak berbeza secara ketara antara satu sama lain (p > 0.05). Oleh itu, hipotesis yang boleh dibuat adalah kandungan yang tinggi sebatian fenolik daripada tepal Musa paradisiaca menyumbang kepada aktiviti antioksidan dan boleh dianggap sebagai spesies tumbuhan yang berpotensi untuk merawat pelbagai penyakit yang mengancam nyawa.
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The objective of this research is to conduct the preliminary phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and phenolic contents assays of various solvent extracts of tepal of Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemical screening was carried out according to the method of Trease and Evans, total flavonoid content was measured by the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay and total phenolic content was estimated spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteau method. - Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids in all the three different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous). Tepal methanolic extract has the richest content of both phenolics and flavonoids i.e. (4.27 mg GAE/g and 0.25 mg QE/g) respectively, and aqueous extract was the least i.e. (1.32 mg GAE/g and 0.164 mg QE/g). All the extracts were not significantly different with one another (p > 0.05). It can be hypothesised that the high contents of phenolic compounds of tepals of Musa paradisiaca indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity and can be regarded as promising plant species for natural sources of radical scavenging activity with potential value for treatment of many life threatening diseases. © 2016, Malaysian Society of Analytical Sciences. All rights reserved.
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From flower buds of Musa paradisiaca a new hemiterpenoid glucoside named 1,1-dimethylallyl alcohol β-glucoside was isolated together with 3 known compounds, benzyl alcohol glucoside, syringin and (6S, 9R)-roseoside. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.
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