Conference PaperPDF Available

Accepted National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Portland OR

Authors:

Abstract

Extended reality (XR) technologies bring new dimensions of science to learners. While these technologies may have a high novelty factor, XR has great potential to expand learning for individual students through immersion in a topic, embodied learning, and spatial presence. Access to technology has historically been the challenge for educational settings, now that cost is decreasing (Castaneda, Cechony & Swanson, 2018) the challenge will be having quality experiences that are designed around clear learning objectives (Sulleman, 2018). Research is needed to identify realistic goals and fruitful design pathways to reach those goals. In this session, we will explore the affordances of three different types of XR tools-virtual reality (VR), multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs) and augmented reality (AR) games. Each of the examples explores a different affordance: learning about cells through a cross platform VR and tablet experience, developing spatial ability through a VR game, developing and practicing scientific skills through a MUVE, and developing scientific thinking skills through a collaborative AR platform game. During the session, we will examine how we can move beyond the effect of novelty of these technologies towards a discussion of how these tools can be leveraged for deeper scientific learning and thinking. Subject/Problem: The goal of this study is to explore the variety of ways that students experience the novelty effect while in an immersive virtual environment called EcoMUVE (Metcalf et al., 2011). We also explored whether these novelty effect profiles were related to students' post-intervention science interest, self-efficacy, and log file data of student behavioral engagement within EcoMUVE. Hidi and Renninger's (2006) four-phase model of interest development suggests interest has to be sparked for learning to occur. This triggered situational interest is fleeting. This initial spark can be turned into a maintained situational interest. If students are continually engaged with this type of situational interest over time, it can grow such that students revisit tasks on their own accord rather than being prompted from external sources-passing from maintained individual interest to well-developed individual interest. In a recent study (Authors, 2016), we assumed that a novelty effect within EcoMUVE was one in which EcoMUVE triggered students' interest in the technology, but did not maintain their interests in the technology over the 10-day curriculum. Thus, we modeled the novelty effect as a latent growth model in which the intercept represented students' triggered situational interest for EcoMUVE, and the slope (i.e., decay of initial spark over time) represented their maintained situational interest in EcoMUVE. We build on this recent study by characterizing and quantifying the variety of ways the novelty effect can
Beyond the novelty effect – examining learning affordances of XR educational technologies
in STEM conceptual understanding and skill development
Accepted National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Portland OR March
14-18, 2020
Meredith Thompson, M. Shane Tutwiler & Denise Bressler
Abstract: Extended reality (XR) technologies bring new dimensions of science to learners.
While these technologies may have a high novelty factor, XR has great potential to expand
learning for individual students through immersion in a topic, embodied learning, and spatial
presence. Access to technology has historically been the challenge for educational settings, now
that cost is decreasing (Castaneda, Cechony & Swanson, 2018) the challenge will be having
quality experiences that are designed around clear learning objectives (Sulleman, 2018).
Research is needed to identify realistic goals and fruitful design pathways to reach those goals.
In this session, we will explore the affordances of three different types of XR tools virtual
reality (VR), multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs) and augmented reality (AR) games. Each
of the examples explores a different affordance: learning about cells through a cross platform VR
and tablet experience, developing spatial ability through a VR game, developing and practicing
scientific skills through a MUVE, and developing scientific thinking skills through a
collaborative AR platform game. During the session, we will examine how we can move beyond
the effect of novelty of these technologies towards a discussion of how these tools can be
leveraged for deeper scientific learning and thinking.
Paper 1: Not all Novelty Effects are Created Equal: Differential Gains in Self-Efficacy and
Online Behavior
M. Shane Tutwiler, Jason Chen, Amy Kamarainen, Shari Metcalf, Tina Grotzer, Chris
Dede
Subject/Problem: The goal of this study is to explore the variety of ways that students
experience the novelty effect while in an immersive virtual environment called EcoMUVE
(Metcalf et al., 2011). We also explored whether these novelty effect profiles were related to
students’ post-intervention science interest, self-efficacy, and log file data of student behavioral
engagement within EcoMUVE.
Hidi and Renninger’s (2006) four-phase model of interest development suggests interest has to
be sparked for learning to occur. This triggered situational interest is fleeting. This initial spark
can be turned into a maintained situational interest
. If students are continually engaged with this
type of situational interest over time, it can grow such that students revisit tasks on their own
accord rather than being prompted from external sources—passing from maintained individual
interest to well-developed individual interest
. In a recent study (Authors, 2016), we assumed
that a novelty effect within EcoMUVE was one in which EcoMUVE triggered students’ interest
in the technology, but did not maintain their interests in the technology over the 10-day
curriculum. Thus, we modeled the novelty effect as a latent growth model in which the intercept
represented students’ triggered situational interest for EcoMUVE, and the slope (i.e., decay of
initial spark over time) represented their maintained situational interest in EcoMUVE. We build
on this recent study by characterizing and quantifying the variety of ways the novelty effect can
be experienced, and how the novelty effect is related to gains in science self-efficacy and
interest, and students’ behavior while using EcoMUVE.
Design/Procedure: We drew our sample from the classrooms of two teachers in a suburban
school in the Northeastern United States. This sample included 189 participants in Grade 6
enrolled in Earth and Space Science. We first examined the fitted intercept and slopes of a latent
growth model of student interest controlling for teacher. We then specified a latent class model
with three classes, using the latent class to predict post-intervention gains in science self-efficacy
and interest, as well as students’ online behaviors.
Findings/Analysis: Figure 1 (left) shows the latent profiles that surfaced, which represent the
three ways in which students experienced the novelty effect. Although a majority of students
(n=167, 88%) initially appeared to be highly interested in EcoMUVE and maintained that
interest over time, one profile of students (LC1; n=15, 8%) started out highly interested but
became substantially less interested in EcoMUVE over time, and another profile of students
(LC3; n=7, 4%) started out disinterested, and continued to become less interested over time.
Figure 1 (right) shows how the profiles differed in self-efficacy gains. Students who exhibited
the marked drop in interest (LC1 and LC3) evinced declines in self-efficacy, whereas students
who evinced a gradual decline in EcoMUVE interest (LC2) evinced positive
gains. The
differences between the gains of LC2 and LC3 were statistically significant (p
=.003), whereas
the differences between the gains of LC1 and LC2 (p
=.093) and LC1 and LC3 (p
=.066) were
not. In the full paper, we will show how the profiles relate to science interest and online
behaviors.
Figure 1. Latent profile plots (left) and difference in
self-efficacy gains (right) for students who used the EcoMUVE.
Paper 2 Leveraging the novelty of virtual reality to challenge students’ initial ideas of cells
Meredith Thompson, Lucy Cho, Melat Anteneh, Cigdem Uz
Subject/ Problem: Understanding cells is central to the study of biology (NGSS, 2013) yet the
visualizations available to teach students vastly oversimplify the densely packed, dynamic
environment of the cell. Research on students’ conceptions of cells has shown that students think
cells are two dimensional (Vijapurkar et al, 2014) and that all types of cells are circular and are
of similar size (Vlaardingerbroek, Taylor & Bale, 2016). Additionally, students believe cells are
primarily empty and that all organelles within the cell are the same relative size
(Vlaardingerbroek, Taylor, and Bale, 2014; AAAS, n.d.). These conceptions are reinforced by
current biology learning materials, which represent cells with two dimensional, highly ordered,
mostly empty, and with inaccuracies in the number, location, and size of organelles (Tibell &
Rundgren, 2010).
Educators need ways to include more complex representations so that teachers and students may
develop more sophisticated ideas about cells (Celiker, 2013). One way to address this issue is by
incorporating new types of visualizations into biology education; research suggests that complex
models improve students’ conceptions about cells and their motivation to learn biology (Host et
al, 2013). In this study, we examine how individuals’ ideas about cells change after playing a
collaborative cross platform based game called Cellverse
. In Cellverse
two players collaborate to
figure out what is wrong with the cell; an explorer views the cell using a virtual reality headset
and a navigator views the cell using a tablet. Our research question for this study is How does
playing a collaborative game influence players’ knowledge of cells and understanding of size
and scale within the cellular environment?
Design/ procedure: We videorecorded 4 pairs (8 individuals) during game play and pre and post
interviews. All participants were high school graduates in the first four weeks of an eight month
biotechnology workforce development program. Six males, two females, two had prior
experience in VR, six did not, seven had self-reported average (medium level) confidence in
biology, one had high biology confidence. All recordings were transcribed and independently
coded by two raters. Our code system was adapted from the five-level coding system from
Dikmenli’s (2010) research: level 1 included the nucleus and mitochondria, level 2 included any
2 additional organelles; levels 3, 4 included additional organelles and awareness of one or more
of size, scale, organelle representation or locations. Level 5 indicated an accurate portrayal of
multiple organelles (n = 5+) and the correct understanding of all features mentioned above. We
coded utterances about biology using a coding system based on Yarden & Yarden’s (2010) three
levels of conceptual status: Intelligibility “I” where student knows the names of organelles only,
plausibility “P”, when the student knows names and functions or organelles, and fruitfulness “F”
when student knows organelle name, function, and can apply knowledge in problem solving
context.
Results/ Analysis: A summary of the initial ideas and drawings and final ideas and drawings for
two of the four pairs is included in table 1. All eight participants’ post drawings included new
structural organelles (intermediate filaments, microtubules, centrosomes). Students were often
surprised at the density of the cell, and most all of the post cell drawings had more organelles
than the pre drawing. The post drawings of Navigators reflected the shape and layout of the cell
as depicted during the game, indicating that participants’ gained knowledge of cells through
playing the game. However, pre and post interview responses showed that most participants’
maintained the same level of conceptual status of the cell; only two of the eight players in this
sample moved from a plausibility to a fruitfulness view of cells. Evidence of understanding of
size and scale was less apparent in the pre and post interviews discussions, however, students’
depictions of organelles did change. Analysis of gameplay dialog will reveal whether playing the
game impacted participants ability to link organelles with their related function in the cell.
Table 1: Drawings of cells for two teams before and after playing Cellverse
Interview
Explorer Pre
Explorer Post
Navigator pre
Navigator post
D1
E:male, med
bio conf,
some VR
N: female,
low bio conf,
no VR
Level 3, “I”
Level 4, “I”
Level 3, “I”
Level 4, “I”
M1
E:male,
medium bio
conf, no VR
N: male, low
bio conf.,
some VR
Level 1, “I”
Level 3, “I”
(same as pre)
Level 1, “P”
Level 3, “P”
M2
Explorer:
male,
medium bio
confidence,
no VR
Navigator:
male, high
bio, some
VR
Level 2, “P”
Level 3, “F”
Level 3, “P”
Level 4, “P”
R2
E: male, low
bio
confidence,
no VR
N: female,
low bio
confidence,
no VR
Level 3, “P”
Level 4, “P”
Level 2, “I”
Level 4, “I”
Conclusion and Importance: This study provided preliminary evidence into the impact of an
educational game on students’ conceptions of cells. Participants’ drawings suggest that players
were most impacted by the number and density of organelles. Furthermore, the novel nature of
VR and tablet visualizations helps students conceptualize cells as three dimensional. We explore
how students’ spatial awareness of cells is revealed through their dialog during gameplay in a
separate paper in this set. Furthermore, our upcoming analysis of the gameplay will provide
insight into whether and how participants access and apply their knowledge of biology in the
context of the game. As educators have more choices in how to represent scientific concepts such
as cells, research will help guide when and how best to leverage new technology in learning
environments.
Paper 3: Developing Spatial Awareness in Novel Learning Environments
Cigdem Bilgin Uz, Melat Anteneh, Lucy Cho, Meredith Thompson
Subject/Problem:
The aim of this study was to investigate how partners communicate spatial information while
playing the game Cellverse, a collaborative VR game designed to teach cell biology. In order to
promote student learning and engagement, Cellverse is designed to evoke a strong sense of
spatial presence, the feeling of being in a real or artificial space (Riva, & Waterworth, 2014),
while minimizing feelings of spatial unawareness. Players also use several spatial abilities
including spatial orientation, “the ability of an individual to regulate his body orientation and/or
posture in relation to the surrounding environment“ (Pietropaolo & Crusio, 2012, p.1969), and
navigation while playing the game. Pouliquen-Lardy et. al. (2016) defined five categories for
classifying spatial navigational information: neutral
, directions are independent of perspective,
ego-centered
, directions are from the speaker’s perspective, addressee-centered
, directions are
from the listener’s perspective, object-centered
, directions are in relation to an object, and
other-centered
, when directions do not fall into one of the above groups. Depending on how a
speaker decides to relay spatial information, cognitive effort can be maintained by the speaker,
shifted to the listener, or distributed between the two (Schober, 1995). In the present study,
spatial navigation dialogs were coded based in part on those from the study conducted by
Pouliquen-Lardy et. al. (2016). Moreover, spatial presence, spatial unawareness, and navigation
question were added as codes in addition to these navigation codes.
Design / Procedure
Four middle school students, four high school students and eight Biotechnology Workforce
Program (BWP) students played Cellverse while being videotaped and observed. Each
participant was given a role: navigator or explorer. The explorer entered VR to explore the cell at
micro and nanoscales. The navigator used a tablet to view the cell and supported the explorer in
finding clues in the cell. They shared and synthesized disparate sources of information, made
decisions, and predicted outcomes. In order to explore which kinds of spatial utterances pairs
used while playing Cellverse
, the conversations were digitally recorded and transcribed. In total,
961 spatial utterances were coded by the researchers. The codes were: spatial presence, spatial
unawareness, navigation strategies (neutral, ego-centered, addressee-centered, object-centered,
other-centered) and navigation questions.
Results and
Discussion
When overall
codes were
analyzed, spatial
presence was
the most
commonly
stated utterance,
with 606 of 905 utterances coded this way (see Figure 1). This shows that both the navigator and
explorer experienced feelings of spatial presence while playing the game. Spatial unawareness
was stated a little bit more by explorers than navigators. However, just 58 of 961 utterances
were coded this way, which shows that both players had a sense of spatial presence. Navigators
mostly preferred neutral and addressee-centered navigation statements while playing the game
(neutral: 56, addressee-centered: 14, object-centered: 5, ego-centered: 2, other-centered: 0).
Using addressee-centered statements indicates that the navigator tried to take the explorer's point
of view to help her/him while navigating. In other words, navigators tried to reduce the
explorers` cognitive load by taking their point of view (Pouliquen-Lardy et al., 2016). Explorers
used only neutral and ego-centered navigation statements (neutral: 24, ego-centered: 20).
Ego-centered navigation represents the directions relative to the body axes of the self. The
effectiveness of VR
environments has been
associated with the sense
of presence and it is
linked to immersion
which is about how VR
technology has become an
integrated part of the self
(Riva, & Waterworth,
2014). Our study finds
that ego-centered
statements help foster
spatial presence. If the
player feels like he/she is
immersed in the
environment, she/he will
use more ego-centered
statements while playing the game. When BWP and MS/HS students were compared, BWP
students used spatial presence utterances more than MS/HS students (see Figure 2). MS/HS
students expressed a higher sense of spatial unawareness than BWP students (MS/HS: 40, BWP:
18).
Conclusion
Outcomes of the present study showed that individuals have different sense of spatial presence
and share spatial knowledge in different ways. Strong spatial skills are associated with success in
STEM topics (Uttal, Miller & Newcombe, 2013). In this respect, analyzing and interpreting
codes in spatial dialogs will help curriculum and game designers understand how best to employ
VR in building and reinforcing spatial skills and spatial presence.
Paper 4: Good Learning Shouldn’t Be Novel: Individual Level Impact of Collaborative
Learning in Mobile Augmented Reality on Student Learning
Denise Bressler, M. Shane Tutwiler
Subject/ Problem: In 2011, the National Research Council published Learning Science through
Computer Games and Simulations and highlighted that “games have potential to advance
multiple science learning goals” (p. 2). Some researchers have confirmed this potential. Clark et
al. (2016) reviewed 69 study samples and found that games enhanced learning more than
nongame conditions. In a meta-analysis of 55 reports, Sitzmann (2011) determined that gamers
scored higher on measures of factual knowledge than those who acquired knowledge through
traditional means. In studying science games specifically the learning potential has not been
realized. Wouters, van Nimwegen, van Oostendorp, & van der Spek (2013) conducted a
meta-analysis of 39 studies and reported that games had higher learning gains over traditional
teaching in all domains except science and engineering
.In reviewing over 300 articles, Young et
al. (2012) found little support for the academic value of the average science video game.
These findings may be due to the great variety of game designs: digital vs immersive, solo vs.
group, competitive vs. collaborative. Research indicates that collaboration and augmented reality
(AR) are important design elements for learning. First, collaboration enhances learning while
students play educational games (Chatterjee, Mohanty, & Bhattacharya, 2011) and learning
games are more effective when played in groups (Wouters et al., 2013). Second, mobile AR
games have shown potential for promoting science learning (Authors, 2016) and Clark et al.
(2016) concluded that augmented game designs offer significant learning benefits.
Bringing together these two design elements, the collaborative AR game model used by Authors
(2016) yielded higher learning outcomes than the traditional hands-on lab condition; however,
outcomes were never analyzed to take into account the group level variable nor any individual
level factors. In developing our multilevel model, we wanted to account for certain influences
based on the literature. Kulturel-Konak, D'Allegro, and Dickinson (2011) argue that girls and
boys have different learning styles and that teaching methodologies can make a difference in
closing the gender gap in science education. Therefore, our first question is: Does the impact of
mobile AR on learning differ for boys and girls? Wouters et al. (2013) determined that learning
games did not improve learning more than passive instruction. Since the effectiveness of science
instruction is heavily dependent on teacher quality (Johnson, 2009), our second question is: Does
the impact of mobile AR on learning differ between teachers?
Design/ Procedure: This study employed a post-test only control group design with a
quasi-experimental intervention. The quasi-experiment was a mobile AR game played on iPads
with quick-response codes posted around the school. The entire school became a crime scene
complete with suspects, evidence, and mysterious substances. Each player collected unique
pieces of virtual evidence; ultimately, students conducted a hands-on experiment to determine
the thief. The control was a ‘tried and true’ hands-on lab experiment where students determined
the components of a mystery powder by testing three known powders (cornstarch, baking soda,
and sugar) with iodine, pH paper, vinegar, and heat.
Participants were 179 eighth grade science students from a middle school in Pennsylvania, USA.
The school was located in a diverse, urban area. Full classes were randomly assigned to
conditions. Two teachers participated each teaching a mixture of control and experimental
classes. Both the control (n=120) and the experiment (n=59) conditions required students to
work in collaborative groups. Students were randomly assigned to groups of 3 to 4 students. All
students completed two measures: a post-survey to empirically assess flow and an artifact to
measure scientific practices. The artifact included 9 open-ended responses. Two raters
individually scored all artifacts and then met to discuss differences. Cronbach’s alpha was .80 for
this instrument.
Analysis and findings: Across all students in the study, we noted that the use of the AR game
had a positive effect on learning (i.e. artifact scores) of about 0.8 s.d. units. However, these gains
vary by individual factors in important ways. As we note in Figure 1 (left), the AR game had a
differential impact on gender, with an effect size of about 0.3 s.d. units for girls and about 0.6
s.d. units for boys. We also note in figure 1 (right) that the impact of the intervention on the
student in Teacher A’s class was about 0.2 s.d. units, whereas the effect on students in the
comparison class was almost 1.0 s.d. units.
Figure 1. Effect of the AR game on the relationship between gender and learning (left) and
teacher and learning (right).
Conclusion: This study has significance to the learning and teaching of science. Namely, based
on scores from the culminating artifact, this study has shown that a well-designed mobile AR
science game promotes a more conducive learning environment as compared to business as
usual. Girls and boys both learned more in the game and boys learned significantly more as
compared to the control. Teacher quality can also be mitigated by mobile AR games. Students
from both teachers learned equally well in the game, while students’ learning suffered with the
more inexperienced teacher during the control.
Overall paper set - Conclusions and Contributions
Policymakers and researchers agree that a rigorous background in science, technology,
engineering, and mathematics is essential to encouraging innovation, supporting the economy
and developing the future workforce (Atkinson & Mayo, 2010; NRC 2012). Citizens need a
strong understanding of life sciences in order to interpret the results of direct-to-consumer
personal genomic tests and to consider the implications of synthetically engineered cells, organs,
and organisms (Nurse, 2016). As STEM understanding becomes more integral to our everyday
lives, educators and researchers must continue to update the way we teach students about STEM.
This related paper set investigates how XR technologies can develop conceptual understanding
and collaborative and spatial skills that can help them build a solid foundation in STEM fields
such as cellular biology, field ecology, and basic chemistry.
XR technologies such as VR, AR, and MUVEs are novel ways of learning material to many
students and teachers. Not surprisingly, the novelty effect played a role in the way students and
teachers responded to the learning experience. However, these studies demonstrate that these
technologies hold promise after this effect has subsided; specifically, a gradual decrease may
have a positive effect on self-efficacy when learning with MUVEs (paper 1), that VR can help
students develop conceptual understanding (paper 2) and spatial awareness about cells (paper 3)
and that novel AR learning environments can help both boys and girls learn (paper 4). As access
to these technologies improves, additional focus will be needed to inform and support educators
in using XR effectively in classrooms.
References
Castaneda, L., Cechony, A., & Swanson, T. (2017). Implications of Virtual Reality in
Applied Educational Settings.
Çeliker, H. D. (2015). Prospective science teachers’ levels of understanding and
explanation of animal and plant cells: Draw-write. Journal of Baltic Science
Education
.
Clark, D. B., Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Killingsworth, S. S. (2016). Digital Games, Design,
and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational
Research
. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315582065
Dikmenli, M. (2010). Misconceptions of cell division held by student teachers in
biology: A drawing analysis. Scientific Research and Essays
.
Hidi, S., & Ann Renninger, K. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development.
Educational Psychologist
. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4
Höst, G. E., Larsson, C., Olson, A., & Tibell, L. A. E. (2013). Student learning about
biomolecular self-assembly using two different external representations. CBE Life
Sciences Education
. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.13-01-0011
Johnson, C. C. (2009). An examination of effective practice: Moving toward elimination
of achievement gaps in science. Journal of Science Teacher Education
.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-009-9134-y
Kulturel-Konak, S., D’Allegro, M. Lou, & Dickinson, S. (2016). Review Of Gender
Differences In Learning Styles: Suggestions For STEM Education. Contemporary
Issues in Education Research (CIER)
. https://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v4i3.4116
Metcalf, S., Kamarainen, A., Tutwiler, M. S., Grotzer, T., & Dede, C. (2011). Ecosystem
Science Learning via Multi-User Virtual Environments. International Journal of
Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations
.
https://doi.org/10.4018/jgcms.2011010107
Pietropaolo, S., & Crusio, W. E. (2012). Learning Spatial Orientation. In Encyclopedia of
the Sciences of Learning
(pp. 1969–1971).
Podolefsky, N. (2012). Learning science through computer games and simulations.
Studies in Science Education
. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057267.2012.720770
Pouliquen-Lardy, L., Milleville-Pennel, I., Guillaume, F., & Mars, F. (2016). Remote
collaboration in virtual reality: asymmetrical effects of task distribution on spatial
processing and mental workload. Virtual Reality
.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-016-0294-8
Riva, G., & Waterworth, J. A. (2014). Being Present in a Virtual World
.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199826162.013.015
Schober, M. F. (1995). Speakers, Addressees, and Frames of Reference: Whose Effort Is
Minimized in Conversations About Locations? Discourse Processes
.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01638539509544939
Sitzmann, T. (2011). A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of
computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology
.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01190.x
Sulleman, A. (n.d.). VR’s problems run much deeper than price, Palmer Luckey says.
Trusted Reviews
. Retrieved from
https://www.trustedreviews.com/news/palemer-luckey-vr-adoption-problems-36156
91
Tibell, L. A. E., & Rundgren, C. J. (2010). Educational challenges of molecular life
science: Characteristics and implications for education and research. CBE Life
Sciences Education
. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.08-09-0055
Uttal, D. H., Miller, D. I., & Newcombe, N. S. (2013). Exploring and enhancing spatial
thinking: Links to achievement in science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics? Current Directions in Psychological Science
, 22(5), 367-373.
Vijapurkar, J., Kawalkar, A., & Nambiar, P. (2014). What do Cells Really Look Like?
An Inquiry into Students’ Difficulties in Visualising a 3-D Biological Cell and
Lessons for Pedagogy. Research in Science Education
.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-013-9379-5
Vlaardingerbroek, B., Taylor, N., & Bale, C. (2014). The problem of scale in the
interpretation of pictorial representations of cell structure. Journal of Biological
Education
. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2013.849284
Wei, C. S., & Ismail, Z. (2010). Peer interactions in computer-supported collaborative
learning using dynamic mathematics software. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral
Sciences
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.083
Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van Der Spek, E. D. (2013). A
meta-analysis of the cognitive and motivational effects of serious games. Journal of
Educational Psychology
. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031311
Yarden, H., & Yarden, A. (2010). Learning using dynamic and static visualizations:
Students’ comprehension, prior knowledge and Conceptual Status of a
biotechnological method. Research in Science Education
.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-009-9126-0
Young, Michael, F., Slota, S., Cutter, A. B., Jalette, G., Mullin, G., Lai, B., …
Yukhymenko, M. (2012). Our Princess Is in Another Castle: A Review of Trends in
Serious Gaming for Education. Review of Educational Research
.
https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312436980
... Association for Research in Science Teaching) argues that glocalization should continuously play a role in facilitating a dynamic and interconnected community and in sustaining research and practice outcomes. Glocalization will move the science education field towards greater collaboration (and communication) instead of competition among children, science teachers, science education researchers, and policymakers (Chiu, 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This research study examines those aspects of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) that could be socially and culturally relevant in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, for teaching meteorological science concepts in a grade 9 Social Science (Geography) classroom using dialogical argumentation as an instructional model (DAIM). The literature reviewed in this study explains the use of argumentation as an instructional method of classroom teaching in particular dialogical argumentation, combined with IKS (Indigenous Knowledge Systems), which in this study is seen as a powerful tool both in enhancing learners’ views and positively identifying indigenous knowledge systems within their own cultures and communities, and as tool that facilitates the learning of (meteorological) literacy and science concepts. With the development of the New Curriculum Statements (NCS) and the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS) for schools, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) of South Africa acknowledges a strong drive towards recognising and affirming the critical role of IK, especially with respect to science and technology education. The policy suggests that the Department of Education take steps to begin the phased integration of IK into curricula and relevant accreditation frameworks. Using a quasi-experimental research design model, the study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods (mixed-methods) to collect data in two public secondary schools in Cape Town, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A survey questionnaire on attitudes towards, and perceptions of high school, of a group of grade 9 learners, as well as their conceptions of weather, was administered before the main study to give the researcher baseline information and to develop pilot instruments to use in the main study. An experimental group (E-group) of learners were exposed to an intervention - the results were recorded against a control group (C-group) that were exposed to no intervention. Both the E-group and C-group were exposed to a Meteorological Literacy Test (MLT) evaluation before and after the DAIM intervention. The results from the two groups were then compared and analysed according to the two theoretical frameworks underpinning the study, namely, Toulmin’s Argumentation Pattern - TAP (Toulmin, 1958) and Contiguity Argumentation Theory - CAT (Ogunniyi, 1997). The findings of this study revealed that: Firstly, the socio-cultural background of learners has an influence on their conceptions of weather prediction and there was a significant difference between boy’s and girls’ pre-test conceptions about the existence of indigenous knowledge systems within the community they live in. For instance, from the learners’ excerpts, it emerged that the girls presented predominantly rural experiences as opposed to those of the boys which were predominantly from urban settings. Secondly, those E-group learners exposed to the DAIM intervention shifted from being predominantly equipollent to the school science to emergent stances and they found a way of connecting their IK to the school science. The DAIM model which allowed argumentation to occur amongst learners seemed to have enhanced their understanding of the relevance of IK and how its underlying scientific claims relate to that of school science. Thirdly, the argumentation-based instructional model was found to be effective to a certain extent in equipping the in-service teachers with the necessary argumentation skills that could enable them to take part in a meaningful discourse. The study drew on the personal experiences and encounters from a variety of sources. These included storytelling-and sharing, academic talks with local community members recorded during the research journey, formal round table discussion and talks at international and local conferences, conference presentations, informal interviews, indigenous chats at social event-meetings, and shared experiences at IKS training workshops as a facilitator. These encounters lead to the formulation of the research study and occurred throughout the country in various parts of the Southern African continent including: Namibia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Botswana, Tanzania and Mozambique.
Article
Full-text available
In the context of a remote collaboration task in virtual reality, this study aimed to analyze the effects of task distribution on the processing of spatial information and mental workload in spatial dialogs. Pairs of distant participants with specific roles (a guide and a manipulator) had to collaboratively move a virtual object in a plane factory mock-up. The displays allowed the participants to be immersed together in the virtual environment. We analyzed the dialogs that took place according to the frames of reference and the mental transformations required to produce the spatial statements. We also measured the associated mental workload. Results showed that when participants took a perspective, the manipulator’s point of view was preferred. Perspective-taking only yielded a moderate increase in mental rotations, which may explain a specifically high mental demand score for the guides’ NASA-TLX. Overall, this is in accordance with the least collaborative effort principle. This study reinforces the idea that, in collaboration, operators do not need the same aids as each other. Thus, it is not necessary to develop symmetrical tools, i.e., the same tools for all co-workers; instead, the needs of each operator should be taken into account, according to the task he has to perform. In our case, the guides would be helped with perspective-taking aids, while the manipulators would be helped with action-oriented tools.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding science concepts and being able to explain them is important for science teachers. The perception of students about the concepts of science is related to teachers who use these concepts. In this study, it was aimed to determine prospective science teachers' (n=152) levels of conceptual understanding and ability to explain animal and plant cells by drawing and written explanations. In the study, descriptive survey design has been used. As for the outcome of the research, the conceptual understanding of prospective science teachers regarding plant and animal cells was not adequate. In addition, prospective science teachers' level understanding and explanation the animal cells and plant cells was found out to be associated with each other. Prospective teachers' writing and drawing scores are remarkably in favor of writing and significantly differ. The majority of prospective teachers had difficulty over drawing concepts. Recommendations are presented on the basis of these results.
Article
Full-text available
Women have made great strides in baccalaureate degree obtainment, out numbering men by over 230,000 conferred baccalaureate degrees in 2008. However, the proportion of earned degrees for women in some of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses continues to lag behind male baccalaureate completions (National Science Foundation, 2010). In addition, according to the National Center for Women and Information Technology (NCWIT), only 21% of information and computer science degrees were awarded to women in 2006 (NCWIT, 2007). In the past decade, higher education has experienced a rapid decline in the number of women involved in the information sciences, particularly computer science (Bank, 2007). A number of social and educational factors have been considered barriers to women entering STEM fields and this area has been well studied in the literature. However, research examining the relationship between gender differences and learning styles in the context of these technical fields is limited. According to Kolb (1976), people decide on a major based on how well the norms of the major fit with their individual learning styles. This paper presents gender differences in learning styles and recommends teaching methodologies most preferred for female learners in STEM courses. Further, a survey was administered to ascertain the extent the results of this study support previous findings.
Article
Full-text available
Diagrams feature prominently in science education, and there has been an increase in research focusing on students' use of them in knowledge construction. This paper reports on an investigation into first year university students' perceptions of scale and size at the cellular level. It was found that many students appeared to tacitly assume that textbook diagrams presented cellular components in true relative size, leading to widespread interpretative problems with regard to scale and absolute size. The paper includes recommendations for textbook designers and classroom practitioners.
Article
Full-text available
It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional instruction methods (learning: k = 77, N 5,547; motivation: k = 31, N 2,216). Consistent with our hypotheses, serious games were found to be more effective in terms of learning (d= 0.29, p d = 0.36, p d = 0.26, p > .05) than conventional instruction methods. Additional moderator analyses on the learning effects revealed that learners in serious games learned more, relative to those taught with conventional instruction methods, when the game was supplemented with other instruction methods, when multiple training sessions were involved, and when players worked in groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) literature includes many descriptions of users reacting to a virtual environment in instinctual ways that suggest they believe, at least for a short time, that they are “immersed” and even “present” in the synthetic experience. In the field of computer graphics “immersion” is generally understood to be a product of technology that facilitates the production of the multimodal sensory “input” to the user, while presence is defined as the psychological perception of being “there,” within a virtual environment (Waterworth et al. 2012). However, as commented by Biocca (1997), and agreed with by most researchers in the area, “while the design of virtual reality technology has brought the theoretical issue of presence to the fore, few theorists argue that the experience of presence suddenly emerged with the arrival of virtual reality.” Rather, as suggested by Loomis (1992), presence may be described as a basic state of consciousness: the attribution of sensation to some distal stimulus, or more broadly to some environment. Because of the complexity of the topic and the interest in it, different attempts to defi ne presence and to explain its role are available in the literature (Coelho et al. 2006). In this chapter we will present and discuss a vision of presence as “inner presence,” a broad psychological phenomenon, not necessarily linked to the experience of a medium, the eff ect of which is the control of the individual and social activity.
Article
In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed research on digital games and learning for K-16 students. We synthesized comparisons of game versus nongame conditions (i.e., media comparisons) and comparisons of augmented games versus standard game designs (i.e., value-added comparisons). We used random-effects meta-regression models with robust variance estimates to summarize overall effects and explore potential moderator effects. Results from media comparisons indicated that digital games significantly enhanced student learning relative to nongame conditions ( = 0.33, 95% confidence interval [0.19, 0.48], k = 57, n = 209). Results from value-added comparisons indicated significant learning benefits associated with augmented game designs ( = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [0.17, 0.51], k = 20, n = 40). Moderator analyses demonstrated that effects varied across various game mechanics characteristics, visual and narrative characteristics, and research quality characteristics. Taken together, the results highlight the affordances of games for learning as well as the key role of design beyond medium.
Article
Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.