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Abstract

Early Childhood Development refers to the physical, cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional development of a child from the prenatal stage up to age eight. This development happens in a variety of settings (homes, schools, health facilities, community-based centers); and involves a wide range of activities from child care to nutrition to parent education. Providers of services can include public, private, and non-governmental agencies. Early Childhood Development encompasses a number of distinct sub-stages, each of which presents particular needs Pregnancy and pre-natal: prenatal care, attended births, registration, postnatal care 0 to 3 parent education, early stimulation and nutrition interventions, home-based care, crèches 3 to 6 parent education, preschool 6 to 8 transition to formal education, improved early primary school From a development point of view, children who come from the most vulnerable and disadvantaged backgrounds need good-quality services and care the most, including children with special needs for early childhood development.To ensure a nation's children develop well, adequate investment in early childhood development is essential. However, a study by the Child and Family Policy Center (CFPC) shows that although brain growth and general child development is most important during the initial stages of life up to three to five years of age, the amount of public spending for that period in 12 states of the United States was vastly inferior to investment in later years.35 These results mirror those in many other nations where far greater emphasis is placed on investing in formal education from ages five or six forward. It is instructive to compare national investments in children from zero to five years with fundingfor children from six to 14 or up to 18 years. Note; [Different programs classify the early childhood period according to their own context. Therefore, it is recommended that users of this guide refer to their own early childhood development national policy guidelines when planning and implementing early childhood programs.]
Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies,
Online ISSN 2278-8808, SJIF 2019 = 6.380, www.srjis.com
PEER REVIEWED & REFEREED JOURNAL, MAY-JUNE, 2020, VOL- 7/59
Copyright © 2020, Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies
A STUDY ON CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY STAGE
Gouri Manik Manas, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of social work, VSK University Ballari,
email-drmanasa_social@gmail.com
Early Childhood Development refers to the physical, cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional
development of a child from the prenatal stage up to age eight. This development happens in a variety
of settings (homes, schools, health facilities, community-based centers); and involves a wide range of
activities from child care to nutrition to parent education. Providers of services can include public,
private, and non-governmental agencies. Early Childhood Development encompasses a number of
distinct sub-stages, each of which presents particular needs Pregnancy and pre-natal: prenatal care,
attended births, registration, postnatal care 0 to 3 parent education, early stimulation and nutrition
interventions, home-based care, crèches 3 to 6 parent education, preschool 6 to 8 transition to formal
education, improved early primary school From a development point of view, children who come
from the most vulnerable and disadvantaged backgrounds need good-quality services and care the
most, including children with special needs for early childhood development.To ensure a nation’s
children develop well, adequate investment in early childhood development is essential. However, a
study by the Child and Family Policy Center (CFPC) shows that although brain growth and general
child development is most important during the initial stages of life up to three to five years of age,
the amount of public spending for that period in 12 states of the United States was vastly inferior to
investment in later years.35 These results mirror those in many other nations where far greater
emphasis is placed on investing in formal education from ages five or six forward. It is instructive to
compare national investments in children from zero to five years with fundingfor children from six to
14 or up to 18 years.
Note; [Different programs classify the early childhood period according to their own context.
Therefore, it is recommended that users of this guide refer to their own early childhood development
national policy guidelines when planning and implementing early childhood programs.]
Keywords; Early, child, children, Childhood, Development.
Introduction;
The future of any societydepends on its ability to foster the health and well-being of the
nextGeneration. Stated simply, today‟s children will become tomorrow‟s citizens, workers,
and parents.When we invest wisely in children and families, the next generation will pay that
backthrough a lifetime of productivity and responsible citizenship. When we fail to provide
childrenwith what they need to build a strong foundation for healthy and productive lives, we
Scholarly Research Journal's is licensed Based on a work at www.srjis.com
Abstract
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put ourFuture prosperity and security at risk.Two recent developments have stimulated
growing public discussion aboutthe right balance between individual and shared
responsibility for that strongFoundation. The first is the explosion of research in
neurobiology that clarifiesthe extent to which the interaction between genetics and early
experienceliterally shapes brain architecture. The second is the increasingly recognizedneed
for a highly skilled workforce and healthy adult population to confrontthe growing challenges
of global economic competition and the rising costs ofSocial Security, Medicare, and
Medicaid for the aging baby boomers.In an effort to identify those aspects of development
that are accepted broadlyby the scientific community, the National Scientific Council, based
at theCenter on the Developing Child at Harvard University, brought togetherseveral of the
nation‟s leading neuroscientists, developmental psychologists,Pediatricians and economists.
This document presents their critical reviewof the existing literatures in their fields and a
consensus about what we nowknow about development in the early childhood years. The
objective of the Council is to move beyondthe public‟s fascination with “the latest study” and
focus on the cumulative knowledge of decades of researchthat has been subjected to rigorous
and continuous peer review. The goal of this document is tohelp the public and its policy
makers understand the core principles of that body of work that are nowsufficiently accepted
across the scientific community to warrant public action. It is our hope and belief that better
public understanding of the rapidly growing science of earlychildhood and early brain
development can provide a powerful impetus for the design and implementationof policies
and programs that could make a significant difference in the lives of all children. Withoutthat
understanding, investments that could generate significant returns for all of society stand
therisk of being rejected or undermined. Thus, there is a compelling need for scientists to
share with thepublic and its representatives an objective basis for choosing wisely among
competing demands on limitedresources. This paper is designed to provide a framework
within which this complex challenge can be addressedmost effectively. Its goal is to promote
an understanding of the basic science of early childhood development,including its
underlying neurobiology, to inform both public and private sector investment inyoung
children and their families. To this end, the paper presents a set of core developmental
conceptsthat have emerged from decades of rigorous research in neurobiology,
developmental psychology, andthe economics of human capital formation, and considers
their implications for a range of issues in policyand practice.
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Objectives;
To assess the growth of early childhood development.
To study specific factors of early childhood development.
Research Methodology:
This is a descriptive research paper, where secondary information produced by different
authors and researchers has been used. For obtaining necessary information, various books,
journals as well as websites have been explored by the researcher which has been mentioned
in the reference section.
Different Stages in Early Childhood Development;
Advancing early childhood development 2016;
On 25 September 2015, countries around the world adopted a set of goals to end poverty,
protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all as part of the new sustainable development
agenda (United Nations, 2015). For young children and families this was a landmark
moment, as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize the critical importance of
assuring that all young children get off to a good start. For the Bernard van Leer Foundation,
after more than 50 years of experience investing in early childhood development (ECD), this
represents the dawn of a new era. We are therefore relaunching this journal in a new format,
on a new publication schedule and to serve a new purpose. Early Childhood Matters:
Advances in Early Childhood Development will be published annually with the aim of
elevating key issues, spreading awareness of promising solutions to support holistic child
development and strong families, and exploring the elements needed to take those solutions
to scale. It is our hope that by documenting the advances in these areas each year, we will be
sharing the latest ideas, inspiring innovations and contributing to momentum on behalf of
young children and families. That momentum is growing around the world. More than ever
before, the earliest years of life are being recognized as the foundation of human
development and economic success. Propelled by a combination of science, economics,
parental demand, new champions and common sense, we are witnessing a revolution in
thinking about the importance of the period from pre-conception to the early primary grades.
One of the most exciting examples of this growing early childhood movement was the
announcement by the World Bank and UNICEF, on 14 April this year, ofa joint effort to urge
greater investment in early childhood development: The two organizations announced the
establishment of a new alliance that aims to make ECD a global policy, programming and
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public spendingpriority, to give all young children access to quality services that improve
their health, nutrition, learning ability and emotional well-being. (World Bank and UNICEF,
2016) From the emergence of early childhood in the Sustainable Development Goals, to
increasing research, to the growing number of local, national and regionalearly childhood
networks, there is a sense that early childhood has finally „come of age‟ and is on the move.
Education in early childhood development;
The terminology of Pedagogy-
Different approaches to early childhood practice are informed by different educational
philosophies, values and theories about how young children learn and develop. Consequently,
early childhood practice is informed by a variety of approaches to curriculum. It is not
surprising then to learn that there are a variety of approaches to pedagogical or teaching
practice as well. Differences in pedagogical practice mainly refer to the degree of influence
that adults should have over the early childhood curriculum. Although most early childhood
settings offer a play based curriculum, this does not mean that there is pedagogical uniformity
in the balance of involvement between children and educators.
What is Pedagogy?
Pedagogy refers to that set of instructional techniques and strategies which enable learning to
take place and provide opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes and
dispositions within a particular social and material context‟. In other words, Pedagogy (or
teaching) is the interactive process that takes place between the educator and thechild to
enable learning to take place.Pedagogy is distinct from and complementary to
curriculum. In other words, curriculum describes the ‘what’, that is, the learning
opportunities on offer and pedagogy describes the ‘how’, that is, how the educator can
assist the child to learn. The pedagogical interactions between the educator and the child
will be greatly influenced by the early childhood curriculummodel in place within the early
childhood service.Pedagogical practice can be defined through three main types:
- Structured Approach
- Open Framework Approach
- Child-led Approach
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All children deserve excellent teaching. Teaching in early childhood is a highly skilled
process where there is no single correct way to respond to children in order to optimize
learning. It is the teaching skills and practices of the early childhood educator that make
interactions educational. Skilful educators draw on a wide repertoire of pedagogical
techniques and strategies during their interactions with children. This section will explore
some of the common techniques by explaining what the technique is and how it enhances
children‟s learning and development, how the technique is used and what the technique looks
like in practice. The following eight techniques are discussed:
Positioning
Empowering
Scaffolding
Co-constructing
Modeling
Questioning
Encouraging and Praising
Problem Solving
Document
Well-being as a Cornerstone for Learning and Development
When the early childhood curriculum pays attention to the development of positive
dispositions towards learning, a solid emotional foundation for all future academic, skills and
knowledge based learning will have been created. Children who have successfully developed
positive dispositions have conquered the most fundamental component of learning for life
they have learned how to learn. Social competence and emotional well-being are central to
children‟s educational achievements. Regardless of the learning opportunities presented, a
child who feels emotionally insecure, afraid or anxious will struggle to reach their optimal
stage of learning and development. Children develop social competence through stable,
caring and responsive relationships with adults. These relationships form the foundation for
learning and development. It is essential that the early childhood educator has a highly
developed awareness of the following five emotional building blocks, how to support the
child in these areas and their importance for the development of positive dispositions towards
lifelong learn.
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Health and physical activity in early childhood development; Immunization protects
people against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
Immunization uses the body‟s natural defense mechanism the immune response to build
resistance to specific infections and helps children (and adults) stay healthy by preventing
serious infections. It copies the body‟s protective response to diseases, helping the immune
system detect and destroy the infection when it is encountered in the future before significant
symptoms or complications can occur. This booklet focuses on the vaccines for young
children funded under the National Immunization Program. The routine childhood
immunizations given through this program currently provide protection against13 diseases:
• Diphtheria;
• Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib);
• Hepatitis B;
• Measles;
• Meningococcal C;
• Mumps;
• Whooping cough (pertussis);
• Pneumococcal;
• Polio (poliomyelitis);
• Rotavirus;
• Rubella (German measles);
• Tetanus; and
• Chickenpox (varicella).
Physical activity is important to many aspects of child health and development. In young
children, lack of physical activity is a risk factor for many health problems such as high blood
pressure, weight gain, excess body fat, bad cholesterol, respiratory difficulties, cardiovascular
ular diseases and bone health problems. Moreover, the health benefits of physical activity
extend well beyond physical health, having a positive impact on the domains of motor skills,
psychological well-being, cognitive development, social competence and emotional
maturity1-7. Early childhood that is, 0 to 5 years is also a critical time for establishing healthy
behaviors and patterns that will carry over into later childhood, adolescence and adulthood1-
4.Until recently; it was generally assumed that young children were naturally physically
active. In the last 10 years or so, it has become evident that many young children do not
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participate in sufficient physical activity to remain healthy4. According to the Canadian
National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), only 36% of 2 to 3-year-olds
and 44% of 4 to 5-year-olds engage in unorganized sport and physical activity each week8.
Alarming trends in childhood obesity among preschool children have refocused attention on
the importance of physical activity in this age group9. In Canada, national data show that
15% of 2 to 5-year-olds are overweight and 6.3% are obese8. In this context, various
initiatives are underway to develop guidelines for physical activity in the early years.
Physical activity is typically categorized into different intensities2. Light intensity physical
activities for young children include dressing up in costumes, standing And painting, and
slow walking. Moderate to- vigorous physical activities include running, jumping and playing
ball games. These activities happen through structured physical activities, which include any
planned programs like gymnastics or swimming lessons, or through Unstructured physical
activities like playing at a playground, dancing or going to the park. Guidelines for physical
activity in the early years focus particularly on facilitated unstructured play and the
importance of April 2011 • Parenting Series • Physical Activity.
Early childhood development basic concepts;
EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND ITS BENEFITS DEFINITION
OF EARLY CHILDHOOD
Generally, early childhood is defined as a time that “spans the prenatal period to eight years
of age and it is the most intensive period of brain development throughout the lifespan”
(WHO & UNICEF, 2012). This period is the most critical time for the growth and
development of the child and needs the utmost attention and appropriate care.This guide
describes only the early childhood development of children from birth tofive years of
age.Early childhood development is defined with many different terminologies by different
programs or institutions. Here is how the ECD policy documents of the governments of
Malawi, Kenya, and Zambia define early childhood.
THE BENEFITS OF INVESTING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
DEVELOPMENT;
The early childhood period is the basis for later success in life. It is the time when achild‟s
brain develops at a rapid rate creating plenty of opportunities for children‟learning and
development. A child can have a good start in life when he/she growsup in a nurturing and
stimulating environment that meets his/her essential needssuch as nutrition, health, and
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safety, as well as the psychological, social, spiritual, andintellectual needs. This also means
that the child has a greater chance of reachinghis/her full potential later in life. Therefore, it is
important to address children‟s needsholistically because the absence of one or more essential
needs can lead to negativedevelopmental outcomes for children.Each and every child has a
right to early childhood development. The United NationsConvention on the Rights of the
Child Article 6 (Article 6, UNICEF) highlights thatthe child has “a right to live…and develop
healthy” and that every child has “the rightto a standard of living that is good enough to meet
their physical and mental needs” (Article 27, UNICEF) The ECD policies of Kenya, Malawi,
and Zambia recognize that investment in theearly years of life has multiple return values to
the development of both children andsociety. For example, Kenya‟s national ECD policy
document (June, 2006, pp. 2-4)states the benefits of investing in early childhood development
as follows:Brain development: The development of the brain is most rapid during the first
threeyears of life. Quality early childhood stimulation, nutritional support, and nurturance
EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENTBASIC CONCEPTS;
Enhances the development of the brain. Lack of a responsive and sensitive care giving can
seriously affect the child‟s development, and cause failure to thrive.Early identification and
intervention: Investment will be spent not only to deliveroutcomes but to also reach the
children who need it most. Therefore, children withdisabilities and vulnerable children who
are socially marginalized and discriminatedagainst will have opportunities for early detection
and intervention which ensureschild‟s survival, health, growth, and psycho-social and
intellectual development.School readiness: All children, regardless of their sociocultural
background, will haveequal opportunity to enter school at their appropriate age. The
opportunity to helpdisadvantaged children attain an equal start in schooling is in the early
years of life.The experiences of early years help young children to build their competence
inall areas of development; the physical-motor, the social-emotional, the cognitive
languageand the moral-spiritual, including a positive attitude towards learning.Cost savings
for society:A quality early childhood environment and education willtranslate into better
health, fewer illnesses, good academic skills, and fewer schooldrop outs and repetition,
preparing the child to become a productive citizen. Familiesand social services will have less
cost in child care and intervention and invest in otherfamily or national development
programs.Poverty reduction: Quality early childhood development experiences and
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educationlead to better success in school, which in turn prepares the child to become an
adultwith higher employment and earnings, better health, and lower levels of dependencyon
families and society as well as lower crime rates compared to children who don‟thave these
opportunities.
Childhood Implications for Policy and Practice;
Policy initiatives that promote supportive relationships and richlearning opportunities for
young children create a strong foundationfor higher school achievement followed by greater
productivityin the workplace and solid citizenship in the community.
Substantial progress toward this goal can be achieved by assuringgrowth-promoting
experiences both at home and in communitybasedsettings, through a range of parent
education, family support,early care and education, preschool, and intervention services.
When parents, informal community programs, and professionallystaffed early childhood
services pay attention to young children‟semotional and social needs, as well as to their
mastery of literacy andcognitive skills, they have maximum impact on the development
ofsturdy brain architecture and preparation for success in school.
When basic health and early childhood programs monitor the developmentof all children,
problems that require attention can beidentified in a timely fashion and intervention can be
provided.
The basic principles of neuroscience and the technology of humanskill formation indicate
that later remediation for highly vulnerablechildren will produce less favorable outcomes and
cost morethan appropriate intervention at a younger age.
• The essence of quality in early childhood services is embodied in the expertise and skills of
the staffand in their capacity to build positive relationships with young children. The striking
shortage of well trainedpersonnel in the field today indicates that substantial investments in
training, recruiting, compensating,and retaining a high quality workforce must be a top
priority.
• Responsible investments in services for young children and their families focus on benefits
relativeto cost. Inexpensive services that do not meet quality standards are a waste of money.
Stated simply,sound policies seek maximum value rather than minimal cost.
The need to address significant inequalities in opportunity, beginning in the earliest years of
life, is both a fundamental moral responsibility and a critical investment in our nation‟s social
and economic future. Thus, the time has come to close the gap between what we know (from
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systematic scientific inquiry across a broad range of disciplines) and what we do (through
both public and private sector policies and practices) to promote the healthy development of
all young children. The science of early childhood development can provide a powerful
framework for informing sound choices among alternative priorities and for building
consensus around a shared plan of action. The well-being of our nation‟s children and the
security of its future would be well-served by such wise choices and concerted commitment.
Findingsand Suggestion;
Early childhood development programmes to be implemented by various actors,
whether governmental, non-governmental or local organizations. UNESCO Beirut is
working with a group of NGOs in Lebanon to enhance their delivery mechanisms and
build their capacity to offer quality education, health, Scio-condition, family
averment, phycical and society in the most difficult circumstances training
teachers and education personnel on innovative solutions that ensure the right to
quality early education and relevant learning ina manner that is inclusive and
respectful to the needs of learners.
We encourage early childhood education and care programmes to be designed to fit
the context and environment of the Syrian child and his or her family. They should be
implemented in a safe and friendly space and must include activities that stimulate the
child‟s cognitive, social-emotional and language development. In addition to
providing literacy and numeracy activities, there should be recreational opportunities
for learning, including play, art, music, drama and sport. It is of the utmost
importance to deliver programmes, as far as possible, in the mother-tongue language
of the child.
Conclusion:
If early-life conditions have lasting effects on human capital formation and adult economic
success, the United States‟ disadvantage in infant health relative to other wealthy countries
could have far-reaching implications. The link between early-life conditions and outcomes
throughout the life course. Studies on this topic vary substantially in empirical methods, data,
and context. Despite this variation, the research provides overwhelming evidence that early-
life conditions affect the population‟s wellbeing, measured by health, educational attainment,
adult earnings, and other indicators throughout life. This article also reviewed the effective-
ness of interventions targeting the early-life environment. WIC, medical interventions such as
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vaccinations and center-based early childhood care and education programs have all been
shown to improve early-life conditions. Moreover, these programs are quite cost-effective,
with benefit-cost ratios generally exceeding one. Of course, an important caveat is that cost-
benefit analyses rely on many assumptions (for example, they must generally assume a
discount rate) and don‟t take into account some costs and benefits that are difficult to put a
price on. Nevertheless, the calculations suggest that public spending on these programs is
more than justified by their benefits. The research thus points to a critical window of
opportunity for improving children‟s life chances through evidence-based early-life
interventions. However, all is not lost if we don‟t successfully intervene in early childhood.
Indeed, many policies that impact children‟s health and development later in life are
described in other articles in this issue.
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Understanding childhood immunization
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... According to Manas (2019), Early Childhood Development is the term used to describe a child's physical, cognitive, linguistic, and socioemotional development from conception until age eight. This development occurs in various settings (households, schools, health facilities, and community-based centres). ...
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Introduction: The pandemic of COVID-19 imposed the elaboration and dissemination of content about protection and prevention of the disease for dif- ferent audiences. Objective: Analyze videos released by government institutions related to COVID-19 protection and prevention for people with disabilities (PWD) in light of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML). Methods: Docu- mentary research, carried out on the official websites of the governmental spheres of Brazil and on the YouTube video sharing platform. Results: Identified 33 videos produced in 2020 and their contents presented understandable language, clear and varied colors, devoid of figures or animations. Of these, 29 videos included the Libras interpreter and one used audio description of the images. Two categories were identified: Protective Measures of COVID-19 in PWD and Preventive Mea- sures of COVID-19 in PWD. According to the principles of the Theory it was observed adequacy in the conveying of information on the protective measures regarding the principles of coherence, signaling, spatial and temporal contiguity, pre-training, modality, multimedia and customization in the language on individ- ual and collective protection measures, educational inclusion and accessibility to rehabilitation assistance by telehealth. In the preventive measures, the principles of multimedia, personalization, voice, image, signaling, and personalization are attended to, as hand washing, respiratory etiquette, correct use of the face mask and with lip visor, facing COVID-19 for intellectual PWD, hygiene of support equip- ment, and protocols used in inclusive residences were explained. Conclusions: The principles of CTML contributed satisfactorily to the visual materials pub- lished about COVID-19 for PWD, however, this communication modality needs a greater reach to the interested public.
Article
Full-text available
Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this study a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets "under the skin." The study begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain development, and then proceeds to the ways experience interacts with and modifies the structures and functions of the developing brain. Much of the attention is focused on early experience and sensitive periods, although it is made clear that later experience also plays an important role in maintaining and elaborating this early wiring diagram, which is critical to establishing a solid footing for development beyond the early years.
Levels of habitual physical activity in early childhood
  • D P -Cliff
  • X Janssen
2011:1-6. Available at: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/Cardon-van_ Cauwenberghe-de_BourdeaudhuijANGxp1.pdf. Accessed April 15, 2011. 2-Cliff DP, Janssen X. Levels of habitual physical activity in early childhood. Reilly JJ, topic ed. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, Barr RG, eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online].
Understanding childhood immunization
  • Quebec Montreal
Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 2011:1-6. Available at: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/Cliff-JanssenANGxp1.pdf. Accessed April 15,2011. Understanding childhood immunization
How Children's Brains Develop
  • P R Britto
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