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Abstract

Camel milk has unique benefits for human health. Protein is the main component which gives special properties to camel milk and effectively influences its nutritional value. Due to lack of β-lactoglobulin in the camel milk, it may be as a proper alternative for human milk. Camel milk is rich in vitamins C, manganese and iron. There are high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, immunoglobulin's, insulin like protein and protective enzymes like lactoferrin and lysozyme in the camel milk. The lactoferrin has the effects or properties of antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatorry. Also, it has been proven that camel milk has beneficial application in disorders of stomach and intestinal, food allergy, diabetes mellitus, cancer, autism, and viral hepatitis. Camel milk containing insulin like protein and may help to heal diabetes of Type 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes. It contains small size immunoglobulins which strengthens the immune system. In addition, camel milk reduces blood cholesterol amount, avoiding of psoriasis disease, healing of inflammation and improving of tuberculosis patients. Camel milk may be effective as unique miracle in many healthy issues of human and especially cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is not only food, but also it is as amazing remedy for treatment and healthy issues.
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Abstract: Camel milk has unique benefits for human health. Protein is the main
component which gives special properties to camel milk and effectively influences its
nutritional value. Due to lack of β-lactoglobulin in the camel milk, it may be as a proper
alternative for human milk. Camel milk is rich in vitamins C, manganese and iron. There
are high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, immunoglobulin’s, insulin like protein and
protective enzymes like lactoferrin and lysozyme in the camel milk. The lactoferrin has the
effects or properties of antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatorry. Also, it has been
proven that camel milk has beneficial application in disorders of stomach and intestinal,
food allergy, diabetes mellitus, cancer, autism, and viral hepatitis. Camel milk containing
insulin like protein and may help to heal diabetes of Type 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes.
It contains small size immunoglobulins which strengthens the immune system. In addition,
camel milk reduces blood cholesterol amount, avoiding of psoriasis disease, healing of
inflammation and improving of tuberculosis patients. Camel milk may be effective as
unique miracle in many healthy issues of human and especially cardiovascular system.
Therefore, it is not only food, but also it is as amazing remedy for treatment and healthy
issues.
Key words: Camel milk, Health, Lactoferrin, Medicinal values.
Introduction
Camel milk as a unique source of nutrients and
vitamin C, prepares about 30% of the annual
calorie in the diet of pastoral community (Farah
et al., 1993). Camel milk contains fat,
cholesterol, and lactose of camel milk is lower
than bovine milk, but minerals such as calcium,
magnesium, iron, copper and zinc, and vitamins
A and C are greater than bovine milk. It
containsno β-lactoglobulin and low β-casein
which are theallergic proteins in cow’s milk
(Shabo & Yagil, 2005). Protective proteins of
camel milk including lactoferrin,
lactoperoxidase, lysozymes, immunoglobulins,
N-acetyl-§-glycosaminidases and peptidoglycan
recognition protein have therapeutic properties
(Shabo & Yagil, 2005). Smaller size of
nanobodies of camel milk prevent food allergy
and enhance the immune system and
inflammations (Shabo & Yagil, 2005).
Available online at http://bjas.bajas.edu.iq
https://doi.org/10.37077/25200860.2020.33.2.11
College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
Basrah Journal
of Agricultural
Sciences
ISSN 1814 5868
Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2):125-137, 2020
E-ISSN: 2520-0860
Article Review: Camel Milk as an Amazing Remedy for Health
Complications: A Review
Tahereh Mohammadabadi
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology, Agricultural
Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran
mohammadabadi@asnrukh.ac.ir
Received 30 March 2020; Accepted 18 June 2020; Available online  October 2020
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
126
Lactoperoxidase of camel milk acts against
gram-positive and negative strains (Galali &
Al-Dmoor, 2019). Camel milk also contains
higher amount of zinc that is important in the
development and maintenance of normal
function of immune system (Habib et al.,
2013). Scientists believe in antibodies of camel
milk could be effective against cancer cells,
HIV, Alzheimer’s and hepatitis C (Shabo &
Yagil, 2005; Habib et al., 2013). Camel milk
has properties of regulatory and
immunomodulatory on pancreases β cells.
Furthermore, camel milk has anti-malignant,
antiplatelet and anti-thrombotic properties in
addition to anti-bacterial and anti-viral
properties (Elagamy et al., 2009).
Due to presence of insulin/insulin like
protein, camel milk exhibits hypoglycemic
effects, which can be beneficial in the healing
of diabetic cases. Currently, it is proved that
camel milk is effective against diabetes
complications and heart failures (Shori, 2015).
Also currently, it was intensively explored on
antimicrobial effects of camel milk lactoferrin
(Al-Majali et al., 2007). Furthermore, lactic
acid bacteria of camel milk as probiotic are
important for the gut health (Yateem et al.,
2008). Camel milk has been cured partially
autism subjects, food allergies, and crohn’s
problem (Shabo & Yagil, 2005).
The current review presents therapeutic
properties of camel milk according to the
scientific documents and researches.
Camel milk effects on diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common
metabolic disorders that linked with
cardiovascular diseases and kidney and liver
failures (Wild et al., 2004). Camel milk
contains insulin like proteins, which does not
form coagulum in the acidic media of stomach
that can be an effective alternative for insulin
(Mohamad et al., 2009). In India the incidence
risk of diabetes in people who use camel milk
regularly, is much lower compared to others
who don’t use camel milk. Camel milk
improves the glycemic control and decrease
insulin resistance in diabetes patients (Sboui et
al., 2010). It is detected high amount of insulin
in camel milk (about 52 unit.litre-1), and using
of camel milk in diabetes patients causes to
reduce blood sugar and required insulin
(Agrawal et al., 2003). Camel milk improves
obesity, inflammation, wounds, and oxidative
stress damages as diabetes complications
(Agrawal et al., 2007).
Therefore, camel milk and some its active
matters influence pancreatic β-cells and insulin
receptors function in the insulin-sensitive
tissues, therefore increase insulin secretion
(Ayoub et al., 2018).
Camel milk contains insulin like protein and
amino acids is enriched with half-cysteine same
with insulin, can be absorbed from intestine
without destroying in the stomach (Shori,
2015). The reason is presence of fat micelles in
camel milk that cover insulin, and transfer to
circulatory system in the diabetic patients
(Shamsia, 2009). Therefore; camel milk can
control diabetes mellitus 1, high cholesterol
level, liver and kidney disease, and wound
healing. Daily drinking of camel milk may meet
about 60% of the insulin in diabetic patients
(Shori, 2015). Raw Camel milk has immune-
modulatory effects on beta-cells of the
pancreas, insulin receptor function and insulin
secretion, and reduces insulin amount required
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
127
in diabetes 1 patients (Agrawal et al., 2011;
Ayoub et al., 2018).
Many recent researches revealed that
consuming of whey proteins or peptides of
camel milk enhanced healing of wounds in
diabetic animals. The whey proteins of camel
milk with anti-oxidative activity enhances the
of immune cells proliferation and diabetic
wounds healing (Ebaid et al., 2015; Aqiba et
al., 2019)
The camel milk can normalize renal and liver
failures in diabetic patients, that the alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate
aminotransferase (AST) may recover 41 and
48%, respectively (Hamad et al., 2011).
Hypoglycemia effects of camel milk
improved kidney and liver function in
nephropathy; proteinuria and cardiovascular
challenge appear to be major complications in
type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (Molitch et al.,
2004).
Therefore, camel milk is safe in long-term
control of glycemic that significantly reduce the
required insulin doses in diabetic patients of
type 1 (Aqiba et al., 2019). In India, diabetic
juvenile treated with camel milk significantly
reduced blood sugar (Agrawel et al., 2003).
It is concluded, camel milk can be utilized to
cure type 2 diabetes and reduce the required
insulin (in some cases the required insulin dose
was zero), blood glucose and haemoglobin
(Shori, 2015).
Therefore even if camel milk has significant
effect in decreasing of blood glucose and
required insulin, and improve diabetes
problems, but it appears that more scientific
studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness
of camel milk for the treatment of diabetes.
Camel milk on autism cases
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a sever
malfunctions of neurodevelopment that are
accompanied by failures in interactions of
communication and social. In addition, high
prevalence of gastrointestinal disease and
mental retardation happens in autism cases
(Bölte & Poustka, 2002).
The increased production of reactive oxygen
species and oxidative stress may lead to
reduction of injury of brain cell, apoptosis and
autism (Russo, 2009). Thus, the control of
reactive oxygen production is important for cell
function and they should be removed by
antioxidants such as enzymes of glutathione
peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase
(Al-Ayadhi & Elamin, 2013).
Autistic children who using camel milk have
had amazing improvements in their behavior
(Al-Ayadhi & Elamin, 2013). Camel milk
decreases oxidative stress by alteration of
antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic
antioxidant, and improve autistic behaviors.
The consumption of camel milk in autistic
cases improved motor skills, language and
social communication (Panwar et al., 2015).
Researchers reported possibly camel milk
cause to immune system recovering, due to the
immunoglobulins of camel milk; therefore
brain damage would be prevented at early age
by consumption of camel milk (Alavi et al.,
2017). Wernery & Yagil (2012) reported that
the autism cases (children) have a better social
condition and improve gut function after the
consumption of camel milk.
Camel milk contains high vitamin C, copper,
zinc, iron and magnesium as strong
antioxidants against free radicals (Kaskous,
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
128
2016). Al-Ayadhi & Elamin (2013) reported
autism healing by camel milk could contribute
to decreasing oxidative stress due to
antioxidants such as vitamin C, magnesium and
zinc, where are essential for activities of
antioxidant enzymes. In autism subjects, due to
camel milk containing inflammation-inhibiting
and hypoallergenic properties, also smaller size
of antibodies can treat gastrointestinal problems
and improve some autistic behaviors (Rasheed,
2011).
Lack of β-lactoglobulin, lower content of β-
casein, and presence of protective proteins of
camel milk enhance immune system and brain
development (Galali & Al-Dmoor, 2019).
Anti-microbial effects of camel milk
Camel immune system is different and stronger
from all other mammalians. Camel milk IgGs
do not have light chains (Gizachew et al.,
2014). Due to specificity of camel
immunoglobulins with having two heavy
chains, they interact with active sites of tissues
(Gizachew et al., 2014). As camel milk Igs are
found in throughout lactation, combat
autoimmune diseases by strengthen the immune
system (Muylderman et al., 2001).
Immunoglobulins of the camel milk are against
tuberculosis bacteria and protect the body from
infections of viral (Galali & Al-Dmoor, 2019).
Therefore, camel milk contains various
protective proteins and enzymes which have
antibacterial and immunological properties
(Farah, 1993). These protective proteins of
camel milk including lysozymes that participate
in immune system, and invade pathogens
(Conesa et al., 2008). Immunoglobulins that
protect body against infections; Lactoferrin that
prevents undesirable microbial growth in
gastrointestinal and alleviate primary immune
system (Gizachew et al., 2014). Camel milk
apparently contains much more lactoferrin than
other ruminant milk. Camel milk lactoferrin is
from 95 to 250 ml.dl-1 which can inhibit the
infectious microbe’s growth (Morin et al.,
1995). Lactoperoxidase can contribute to the
defense system and has bactericidal activity on
gram negatives. Activity of camel milk
lactoperoxidase is about 2.23 ± 0.01 U.ml-1 of
milk (Galali & Al-Dmoor, 2019).
Peptidoglycan recognition protein in camel
milk by controlling metastasis and stimulating
the host‘s immune response influences breast
cancer; the highest amount of this enzyme
found in camel milk (Gizachew et al., 2014).
N-acetyl-§-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in the
camel milk that enhances the activity of
antibacterial-antiviral (Hoelzer et al., 1998).
Researchers have concluded that camel milk
has beneficial effects on tuberculosis cases that
resist to multidrugs (Alwan & Tarhuni, 2000).
The camel milk has antimicrobial activity
against foodborne pathogens such as Listeria
monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7. But
pasteurization of camel milk had no effect on
antimicrobial activity (Ayyash, 2016).
Lactoferrin of camel milk has anti-viral activity
and inhibits the virus into the cells. The camel
milk lactoferrin is very strong and inhibit
Schistosoma mansoni (Redwan & Tabll, 2007).
Camel milk inhibits growth of E. coli,
Klebsiella pneumonia, Clostridium species,
Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus,
and Candida albicans. Also it acts against
human immunodeficiency virus, infections of
hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes
simplex virus-1 (Rasheed, 2017). Therefore
according to studies, the most therapeutic
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
129
effects of camel milk are due to lactoferrin and
Immunogloloulins (Rasheed, 2017).
Camel milk effects on food allergies
Camel milk lacks β−lactoglobulin and a low
and different β-casein, which is two powerful
allergens in cow milk, makes the camel milk
proper children suffering from milk allergies.
Camel milk rapidly improved children who
suffering severe food allergies (Restani et al.,
1999). Also it is new protein source for allergic
children to cow’s milk (Panwar et al., 2015).
But still it needs more researches to be clearer.
Additionally, immunoglobulin’s camel milk
is same to human milk, which improves allergic
reactions to foods. Katz et al. (2008) revealed
that 25% of allergic cases to cow milk, had
allergies to camel milk.
Elagamy et al. (2009) found that IgE of
children with allergy to cow’s milk didn’t react
to camel milk (Stahl, 2005). Shabo & Yagil
(2005) investigated the camel milk effect on
eight children with severe food allergies. The
children consumed camel milk for two weeks,
after 24 hours they have showed fewer
symptoms and after four days all the symptoms
disappeared. In all subjects, camel milk leads to
rapid improvement in digestion of other foods.
It is proved that camel milk immunoglobulin’s
have effective role in reducing allergic
symptoms of children.
Eighty % of the children with allergy to
foods, improved by using camel milk. These
allergic children to cow’s milk could safely
consume camel milk. Children with severe
allergies to food and milk, who no responded to
any therapies, could improve after the
consumption of camel milk, daily (Shabo &
Yagil, 2005).
Additional scientific researchers are needed
to confirm the effectiveness of camel milk in
healing of food allergies.
Camel milk effects on skin health and
treating psoriasis
Camel milk contains α-hydroxyl acids and is
anti-aging which shed skin dead cells. Alpha-
hydroxyl acids have important role to eliminate
wrinkles and spots and improve dryness
(Panwar et al., 2015). These acids are used by
cosmetic industries for wrinkles and soften of
skin (Babilas et al., 2012). In addition,
liposomes of camel milk are beneficial for
cosmetic ingredient (Choi et al., 2013). The
application of camel milk crème containing
40% raw camel milk showed very good results
in psoriasis patients. Itching, skin redness and
dryness reduced when 20 patients with psoriasis
were treated with 2 x camel milk crème for four
weeks, daily (Wernery, 2006).
Presence of high vitamin C in the camel milk
as strong antioxidant has protective activity on
skin tissue against free radicals and heals skin
issues; wrinkles and dryness. Vitamin C has a
key important in collagen synthesis, the growth
of cells and blood vessels and strengthens skin
firmness (Jilo & Tegegne, 2016). Furthermore,
following to camel milk consumption, some
bioactive peptides that produced from digestion
of camel milk protein are act as natural anti-
oxidants and ACE inhibitors (Salami et al.,
2011; Yagil, 2017).
Camel milk against Hepatitis C and B
It is reported that the high lactoferrin of camel
milk is as a primary drug against HCV infection
and leads to complete inhibition of virus entry
(Redwan & Tabll, 2007). In addition to
lactoferrin, camel milk IgG can recognize
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
130
peptides of Hepatitis C virus in comparison
with human IgG (El-Fakharany et al., 2012). In
addition, camel milk can enhance the cellular
immune responses, inhibits the replication of
virus DNA and recovers chronic hepatitis B
patients (Saltanat et al., 2009).
Redwan & Tabll (2007) observed 88%
improvement in enzymes of alanine and
aspartate aminotransferase in eighteen HCV
patients who were fed with camel milk. About
50% of the patients noticeably showed
improvement in fatigue. El-Fakharany et al.
(2013) demonstrated that the camel milk
lactoferrin effectively stop HCV entry and
replication in infected HepG2 cells was more
than lactoferrin of human, bovine, and sheep
milk.
The protective and therapeutic effects of
camel milk on liver induced injury of rats by
ethanol explored by Darwish et al. (2012).
Using of camel milk normalize liver enzymes,
improved liver function, reduced serum
triglycerides, hepatic malondealdehyde and
TNF-α and apoptosis, as well as enhancement
of total antioxidant capacity and the antioxidant
defense system (Darwish et al., 2012).
The camel milk consumption for eight weeks
recovered liver function, reduced hepatic fat
and inflammatory infiltration and increased the
activity of glutathione and catalase enzymes
(Korish & Arafah, 2013).
According to research, camel’s milk was
more effective than mare’s milk in improving
and normalizing of patient’s status with chronic
active hepatitis. It is proved that camel milk
lactoferrin is stronger anti-viral than human
and bovine milk lactoferrins (Redwan & Tabll,
2007).
Camel milk contains casein that begins the
apoptosis of HCV cells (Almahdy et al., 2011).
High vitamin C of camel milk improves liver
function (Gul et al., 2015). Also the antibodies
in camel milk selectively control virus systems.
Therefore, camel milk antibodies are about
tenth of human antibodies size that makes more
affinity to penetrate to the targeted antigens
(Muyldermans et al., 2001).
Camel milk as anti-cancer factor or nutrient
Studies have proven that camel milk stop
cancer cells through the activation of apoptotic
pathways (Galali & Al-Dmoor, 2019). High
amounts of camel milk immunoglobulins,
lactoferrins and iron - binding glycoprotein are
antitumor matters, due to increasing RNA
synthesis and the inhibition of protein kinases.
Also camel milk lactoperoxidase possess anti-
tumor activity. Peptidoglycan recognition
protein in camel milk combat breast cancer by
take over metastasis (Galali & Al-Dmoor,
2019).
Camel milk markedly inhibited the cancer
cells proliferation by 50% by activation of
caspase-3 mRNA (Korashy et al., 2012), and
exerts antioxidant with activity of DNA damage
inhibitory (Habib et al., 2013). According to
study of Gader & Alhaider (2016); camel milk
can remove cancer cells of hepatic, colon, lung,
glioma cells and leukemia The active antibodies
of camel milk are able to destroy cells of tumor
(Levy et al., 2013). Additionally, camel milk
have thrombolytic activity which inhibits fibrin
formation, consequently inhibit the of tumor
cells growth (Jilo & Tegegne, 2016).
Also camel milk lactoferrin inhibit the in
vitro proliferation of colon cancer cells and the
DNA damage (Habib et al., 2013).
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
131
Anti-tumor properties of camel milk are due
to strong antimicrobial and anti-oxidative
activities that reduce liver inflammation. The
effects of antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic of
camel milk inhibit micronucleated
polychromatic erythrocytes (Salwa & Lina,
2010). Although, camel milk lactoferrin,
reduced cancer growth by 56%, but further
researches is needed to confirm camel milk
lactoferrin on stopping cancer (Habib et al.,
2013).
Camel milk as anti-inflammatory and anti-
arthritis agent
Higher amount of camel milk lactoferrin has
that removes free iron from joints of arthritic
patients, therefore improves arthritic (Panwar et
al., 2015). Camel milk lactoferrin activity has
properties of cartilage protective, anti-arthritic
and anti-inflammatory (Rasheed, 2017).
Camel milk has anti-inflammatory effects
against infectious diseases. Furthermore, high
level vitamin C, zinc and magnesium are very
essential to decrease oxidative stress (Al-Wabel
et al., 2012).
Camel milk effects on gastrointestinal
failures
Diarrhea
High concentration of anti-inflammatory
proteins of camel milk have proper effects on
the stomach and intestinal issues. The high
content of unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins
of camel milk improve carbohydrates
metabolism. Moreover, the presence of
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme in fermented
camel milk improves the digestibility of the
camel milk proteins (Alhaj et al., 2006; Quan et
al., 2008). Recent reports on the beneficial
effects of camel milk on the digestive system
health confirmed that camel milk has properties
of anti-diarrhea in the children (Yagil, 2013).
Camel milk is rich in anti-rotavirus antibodies,
may be used to treat diarrhea by rotavirus
contamination in children (Yagil, 2013).
Lactose intolerance
Studies on 25 patients with lactose intolerance
that consumed camel milk have showed good
results that camel milk is a suitable option for
the lactose intolerant people (Cardoso et al.,
2010). Lactose-intolerant patients easily digest
camel milk (Mullaicharam, 2014). The reason
is high concentration L-Lactate in camel milk
in compared to cow milk that is rich in D-
Lactate (Baubekova et al., 2015).
Camel milk effects on blood cholesterol and
cardiovascular diseases
The fermented camel milk has
hypocholesterolemic effects in rats, that
mechanism is still unrecognized well (Elayan et
al., 2008). But maybe, the interaction between
bioactive peptides of camel milk and
cholesterol decrease cholesterol (Li &
Papadopoulos, 1998). According to other
researches, the presence of orotic acid produced
from the nucleic acid metabolism is responsible
for the lowering of cholesterol amount in rats
and humans consumed camel milk (Kaskos,
2016).
The administration of camel milk for five
weeks showed a significant decrease in the total
cholesterol from 6.17 to 4.35 m mol. l-1 (Shori,
2015). Al-Numair (2010) concluded that the
administration of camel milk for 45 days
significantly decreased hyperlipidemia; total
cholesterol, triacylglycerol’s, free fatty acid,
LDL, and VLDL in plasma, liver, heart and
kidney towards normal levels. Also after
Mohammadabadi/ Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 33(2): 125-137, 2020
132
consumption of camel milk, the content of HDL
significantly improved. Other researcher’s
recently reported the hypocholesterolemic
effect of fermented camel milk or Gariss (Ali et
al., 2013). After using of camel milk for 6
months, the amounts of LDL and
triacylglycerol’s reduced in type 1 diabetic
cases (Agrawal et al., 2009).
Camel milk effects on tuberculosis and
crohn patients
There is a significant improvement of
symptoms of tuberculosis through consumption
of camel milk by drug-resistant patients. By
administering of camel milk by 1 litre per day,
consequently these patients didn’t show cough,
sputum and chest pain (Wernery & Yagil,
2012). In addition, immunoglobulins of camel
milk restore the immune system and can be
effective on Crohn's disease (Kaskous et al.,
2016).
The camel milk effects on toxic metals
Camel milk high content of antioxidant
vitamins, magnesium, zinc and possible
chelating effects on cadmium; reduced free
radicals and oxidative stress in the red blood
cells and improved toxic effects of cadmium
(Dallak, 2009). Also, using of camel milk for
30 days improved toxic effects of aluminium by
high increase in total erythrocytes, haemoglobin
and haematocrit (Al-Hashem, 2009).
Treatment of lead acetate poisoned rats with
camel milk recovered liver enzymes function
(Al-Humaid et al., 2010). According to Al-
Asmari et al. (2014), the inhibiting effect of
camel milk on oxidative stress and
inflammation protect the structural integrity of
hepatocyte membranes and regenerate
destroyed hepatocytes.
The consumption of camel milk after
irradiation could restore the liver function and
content of alanine and aspartate
aminotransferase and glutathione in rats
(Mohamed & Ali, 2008).
Conclusions
Due to camel milk containing vitamin C and
protective proteins such as lactoferrin,
immunoglobulins and lactoperoxidase, it has an
important role in the healing of human serious
diseases. Camel milk as raw, fresh and free of
pathogens is effective on diabetes, food
allergies, cancer, hepatitis, autism and enhances
the immune system. However, about the
medicinal effects of camel milk, still it needs to
do more studies to prove these properties.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict
of interests.
Ethical approval
All applicable institutional, national and
international guidelines for the care and use of
animals were followed.
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... Moreover, different camel milk peptides such as Lf, casocidin-I and isracidin have also antibacterial activities because they are conjugated and release the liposaccharide molecules located in the outer cell membrane of the Gramnegative bacteria [80]. Wang et al. [81] cleared that the hydrolysis mechanism of camel milk was improving its antimicrobial activity; through releasing bioactive peptides, antimicrobial substances that have high resistance of antibacterial proteins to pepsin and trypsin.Scientists promoted fermented camel milk is high in lactic acid bacteria, which are effective against pathogens; include Staphylococcus, Salmonella, and Escherichia anti-bacillus microorganisms [7]. The few published studies on camel milk have shown that camel milk is considered a niche of lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins , Table 3). ...
... The unique milk structure can penetrate lower layers of the skin and provide everything that is needed for healthy, younger, and brighter looking skin. Products from camel milk are already hitting the shelves of shops such as soaps and yogurts [7]. ...
... The peculiar composition of CM was associated with beneficial effects in NAFLD including decreased appetite, diminished cholesterol absorption from the gut, and reduced fat accumulation in the liver. Additionally, CM treatment counteracted hyperglycemia, IR, oxidative stress, and inflammation in experimental models of DM [22][23][24][25]. ...
... The Effects of CM Treatment. The beneficial effects of CM treatment were reported in numerous acute and chronic health problems including acute paracetamol hepatotoxicity, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver failure, NAFLD, foodinduced allergy, DM, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, and autism [22,23]. Using the size exclusion chromatography (SEC), our research group recently separated small peptide fractions (SEC-1 and SEC-2) of the papain-hydrolyzed camel whey protein. ...
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Camel milk (CM) has a unique composition rich in antioxidants, trace elements, immunoglobulins, insulin, and insulin-like proteins. Treatment by CM demonstrated protective effects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat cholesterol-rich diet (HFD-C) in rats. CM dampened the steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of the hepatocytes. It also counteracted hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, and oxidative stress. The commencement of NAFLD triggered the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1A), and fatty acid-binding protein-1 (FABP1) and decreased the PPAR-γ expression in the tissues of the animals on HFD-C. This was associated with increased levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and leptin and declined levels of the anti-inflammatory adiponectin. Camel milk treatment to the NAFLD animals remarkably upregulated PPARs (α, γ) and the downstream enzyme CPT1A in the metabolically active tissues involved in cellular uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The enhanced lipid metabolism in the CM-treated animals was linked with decreased expression of FABP1 and suppression of IL-6, TNF-α, and leptin release with augmented adiponectin production. The protective effects of CM against the histological and biochemical features of NAFLD are at least in part related to the activation of the hepatic and extrahepatic PPARs (α, γ) with consequent activation of the downstream enzymes involved in fat metabolism. Camel milk treatment carries a promising therapeutic potential to NAFLD through stimulating PPARs actions on fat metabolism and glucose homeostasis. This can protect against hepatic steatosis, IR, and diabetes mellitus in high-risk obese patients.
... Researchers have demonstrated the therapeutic value of camel milk in managing diabetes [5][6][7], hepatitis B [8], hepatitis C [9], Helicobacter pylori infections, enterocolitis, lactase deficiency in children [10,11], pulmonary tuberculosis [12], liver cirrhosis [13], and cancer [14]. Furthermore, the unique composition of camel milk includes multiple protective proteins such as lysozymes, immunoglobulins, and lactoperoxidase, making it similar to human breast milk and serving to protect against infection and bolster immunological responses [15,16]. ...
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Camel milk is better tolerated than the milk of other ruminants, potentially expanding its consumer appeal. It also contains essential vitamins, minerals, and immunoglobulins, providing the milk with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. These properties may reduce oxidative stress in camel milk consumers, ameliorating many conditions, including those of the CNS, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which camel milk administration (boiled or raw) was examined as an ASD treatment intervention. The primary endpoint was participants’ total autism scores, determined using the Childhood Autistic Responsiveness Scale (CARS). A comparison of the responsiveness in these ASD intervention groups yielded a mean difference (MD) of 1.99 (0.89, 3.08) in those consuming boiled camel milk, MD = 2.77 (1.92, 3.61) in raw camel milk consumers, and MD = −1.02 (−0.10, 2.13) in cow milk consumers. Heterogeneity was notably low among the examined studies. Treatment of ASD with raw and boiled camel milk resulted in significantly lower CARS scores than the placebo. Our findings support the development of larger, more populated RCTs to establish camel milk’s overall potential as a therapeutic intervention for CNS disorders.
... The momentum for camel dairy products has been slowly gaining popularity across the world, mainly due to the growing interest in the medical properties camel milk is alleged to have. There is a strong belief, widely spread, that the milk of camels has a very significant positive medical impact on a variety of diseases including autism, diabetes, liver disease, jaundice, and even cancer (Mohammadabadi, 2020). Demands are growing and so is the price. ...
Chapter
As in other livestock, the respiratory disease complex has a multifactorial etiology and develops because of complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. Two respiratory viruses namely influenza A and MERS-CoV have been detected in camels with obvious clinical signs in Bactrian and dromedary camels. Several other viruses including parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVD) have been detected in camels. The most widely recognized organisms associated with pneumonia in camels are opportunistic bacteria originating from the surrounding environment including Manhaemiya haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pneumococcus spp., Enterobacteria spp., Micrococcus spp., Haemophilus spp., Actinomyces spp., Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and Mycoplasma arginine. Clinical signs include pyrexia, cough, serous nasal and lacrimal discharge, increased respiratory rate, and increased breath sounds. Upper respiratory tract symptoms include rhinitis or nasal discharge sometimes accompanied by submandibular lymphadenopathy or anorexia. PCR is a useful and rapid method commonly used to detect virus infection. Antigen-ELISA for bovine respiratory viruses including PI-3, RSV, BHV-1, PPRV, and BVDV have been successfully used to detect these viruses in nasal swabs and lung tissues. As there is no specific treatment for viral respiratory infections in animals, treatment should focus on the antimicrobial therapy directed toward bacterial pneumonia.
... The momentum for camel dairy products has been slowly gaining popularity across the world, mainly due to the growing interest in the medical properties camel milk is alleged to have. There is a strong belief, widely spread, that the milk of camels has a very significant positive medical impact on a variety of diseases including autism, diabetes, liver disease, jaundice, and even cancer (Mohammadabadi, 2020). Demands are growing and so is the price. ...
Chapter
The first report of cutaneous papillomatosis in dromedaries was reported in Somalia in 1990. After that, cases of papillomatosis in young dromedaries have also been reported from Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Kenya, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and India. The disease is fairly well known by herders and given different local names revolving around the meaning benign tumor. Camel papillomatosis in dromedary camels is caused by Camelus dromedarius papilloma virus (CdPV). Transmission of PVs is usually horizontal and occurs via contact, abrasions, or micro-lesions of the skin and mucosa, but vertical and iatrogenic transmissions have also been reported, as well as mechanical transmission by arthropods. Camelpapillomatosis is characterized by round, cauliflower-like horny masses (warts) on the skin of the lips, legs, eyelids, nostrils, and mandible. Most of the reported cases of papillomatosis in the camel are commonly found in young animals and occur in the late rainy season, matching with episodes of camel contagious ecthyma and camel pox. Camel papillomatosis can be diagnosed clinically. PCR, electron microscopy, and histopathology were previously used to confirm the infection. Camel papillomatosis is a species-specific disease and there is no evidence that camels with papillomatosis can spread the condition to people or any other animal species. The camel papilloma lesions are painless and self-limiting being dropped off within 2–5 months without any specific treatment and recovered animals seem to develop long-lasting immunity.
... The momentum for camel dairy products has been slowly gaining popularity across the world, mainly due to the growing interest in the medical properties camel milk is alleged to have. There is a strong belief, widely spread, that the milk of camels has a very significant positive medical impact on a variety of diseases including autism, diabetes, liver disease, jaundice, and even cancer (Mohammadabadi, 2020). Demands are growing and so is the price. ...
Chapter
Theileria equi, Theileria mutans, Theileria annulate, Theileria ovis, Babesia caballi, and Babesia behnkei have been detected in dromedary camels. Despite the detection of these blood parasites, it is still not clear whether the detection result from the proliferation of these parasites in camels or the transmission of blood parasites at the time of a tick bite. Therefore, these blood parasites are currently regarded as benign or moderately pathogenic to camels. Clinical examination of naturally infected camels showed fever, superficial lymph node swelling, loss of appetite, emaciation, and lacrimation. The morbidity rate was high with no lethal cases. Biochemical analysis reveals a pathological profile marked by lymphopenia, anemia, hypoproteinemia, increased GGT, AST, ALT, Total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, LDH, and cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 blood level were also found. Like other blood parasites, parasitological examination of Giemsa-stained blood films is used to demonstrates the pleomorphic intraerythrocytic Theileria piroplasms. Gel-based and quantitative Polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) have been used for the diagnosis of these parasites in camels. Successful treatment with buparvaquone in camels affected by Theileria piroplasm was reported.
... The momentum for camel dairy products has been slowly gaining popularity across the world, mainly due to the growing interest in the medical properties camel milk is alleged to have. There is a strong belief, widely spread, that the milk of camels has a very significant positive medical impact on a variety of diseases including autism, diabetes, liver disease, jaundice, and even cancer (Mohammadabadi, 2020). Demands are growing and so is the price. ...
Chapter
Camel pox is the only species-specific camel disease included in the OIE's list of reportable diseases. Camel pox is a highly contagious skin disease and the most frequent infectious viral disease of the Old World camelids that occurs in almost every country in which camel husbandry is practiced except Australia. Camel pox is caused by the camel pox virus (CMLV) an enveloped DNA virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) of the subfamily Poxvirinae in the family Poxviridae. The disease spread mainly by direct skin contact or inhalations from sick animals, particularly at watering or grazing places. Camel pox is characterized by fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and skin lesions. Affected animals may develop localized or generalized pox lesions of varying severity. The disease is endemic in most countries, and a pattern of sporadic or widespread epidemics occurs every 2–4 years. Routine diagnosis of camel pox is based on clinical signs. Various laboratory techniques are available for the diagnosis of camel pox including, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and cell culture, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunohistochemistry. Suitable samples include swab of ruptured vesicles, biopsy of skin nodules, skin scabs, blood during the viremia stage, and pox lesion on internal organs upon postmortem. The virus can be transmitted to humans, but no human-to-human spread was reported.
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Lactoferrin is one glycoprotein detected in the livestock milk such as cow, buffalo and camel, as camel milk containing highest amount in compared to other livestock species. Lactoferrin boosts the immune system by protecting the cells against bacterial and viral infections and inflammations. Activation, proliferation and regulation of the phagocytic action of immune cells are also facilitated by the lactoferrin. The antiviral actions of lactoferrin are against both DNA and RNA viruses such as hepatitis, herpes simplex viruses, HIV, rotavirus and respiratory viruses by binding viral particles, inhibit viral adhesion and entry into target cells. Also, lactoferrin may directly interact with viral receptor such as heparan sulfate on the cell surfaces and prevent the virus attachment and infection. The boosting of host immune system by nutritional supplements such as lactoferrin may be effective against virus's entry and infection into the host cells. Camel milk lactoferrin may be a novel promising supplement and preventative treatment for severe viral infections as well as COVID-19. However, it needs more researches to confirm proper dosage on prevention and treatment.
Chapter
Among the Old World Camels (OWC), the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) living in the hot, arid lands, from northern Africa and the Middle East to the western and central parts of Asia and the Bactrian camels (C. bactrianus) in the hot and cold steppes and deserts in Central Asia, have been of great importance as domestic animals. The evolutionary history of the OWCs goes back to the middle Eocene when their ancestors emerged on the North American continent. Camels were the most common transporters of goods on the famous Old Silk Routes connecting East Asia with South Asia, Persia, the Middle East, and Southern Europe from the second century BC to the eighteenth century. The one-humped camels (C. dromedarius) were introduced to many other regions outside its traditional areas of distribution in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today with the emerging climate crisis with increasing aridity in vast areas we see the migration of dromedaries to areas that are less affected. The official number of camels present in the world is estimated by FAO to be about 35.5 million. However, the population of camels globally is probably more than 40 million and could reach 60 million within 25 years if the current trend of increase is continuous. Camels not only survive and reproduce, utilizing the meager and sparse vegetation and the scarce water resources in dry arid zones, but also provide us with milk, meat, wool, hair, hides, dung, and bone as well as with transport of various kinds including racing and beauty contests, work in agriculture and small industries and tourism. Camels play a vital role in the livelihood, food security, economy, and cultural identity of many communities.
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Camel has been mentioned in Quran in different places and described a miracle of almighty God. Also, prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has recommend camel in his speech (hadith). The prophet (PBUH) has recommended camel milk for some diseases such as skin disease as remedy. Camel plays in important livestock which produced milk longer than any other ruminant under harsh condition of desert ecosystem. Camel milk is different from other ruminant milk different ways. Camel milk is rich in vitamin C and protective proteins such as lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulins and lysozyme. Camel milk lacks β-lactoglobulin and used as an option for the individuals intolerant to lactose of cow's milk. Camel milk is extraordinary in terms of antioxidative agents, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-hepatitis, anti-arthritis, treatment for paratuberculosis, preventing aging, remedy for autoimmune diseases and cosmetics. Insulin in camel milk is safe and efficacious in improving long-term glycemic control in diabetic patient. Camel milk reduces autism symptoms in children. Lactoferrin has ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell. Camel milk is rich in magnesium and zinc thus could act as antiulcer. Therefore, this review focuses on the composition of camel milk and miraculous and medicinal aspect of camel milk in treating some diseases.
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Out of 25.89 million camel populations on the world 89% are one-humped camels and the remaining 11% are the two-humped. More than 60% of the dromedary camel population is concentrated in the arid areas of North East African countries. Ethiopia ranks third by the number of camel population and second by camel milk production from the globe. Camel milk, white gold of the desert is more similar to human milk. It differs from other mammals milk as its chemical composition is low cholesterol, low sugar, high minerals, high vitamin C and higher protective proteins like lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulins and lysozyme, lacks B-lactoglobulin. β-lactoglobulin camel milk is unique in terms of antioxidative factors, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-hepatitis, anti arthritis, treatment for paratuberculosis, preventies aging, remedy for autoimmune diseases and it has cosmetic values. Insulin in camel milk is safe and efficacious in improving long-term glycemic control in diabetic patient. Camel milk reduces autism symptoms in children. Lactoferrin has ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell. Camel milk is rich in magnesium and zinc thus endowed antiulcer properties. Camel milk has high α-hydroxyl acids which are known to plump and smoothies the skin and also used to treat skin disorders such as dermatitis, Acne, Psoriasis and Eczema. Although camel milk has such values, it’s less appreciated thus its consumption is restricted to pastoral area so further studies should be conducted on the chemical composition and medicinal value of camel milk.
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استُخدمت ألبان وأبوال الإبل كأدوية في مناطق معينة من آسيا وأفريقيا منذ أزمنة قديمة٬ ولكن حديثا فقط أبدى العلماء اهتماما باستكشاف تلك المزاعم العلاجية لمنتجات الإبل. يشير عدد من الأدلة المخبرية وبعض الدراسات السريرية إلى أن ألبان الإبل وحدها٬ وفي بعض الحالات ممزوجة مع أبوال الإبل٬ فعالة في علاج حالات سريرية متنوعة مثل داء السكري٬ والسرطان٬ والحساسية للأطعمة٬ ومرض التوحد٬ والتهاب الكبد الفيروسي ومجموعة أخرى من الإصابات الفيروسية والبكتيرية والطفيلية. بالإضافة إلى ذلك٬ تم اكتشاف عدد من الآثار العلاجية المحتملة لألبان وأبوال الإبل على جهاز القلب والأوعية الدموية٬ وبخاصة عملها المضاد للصفائح الدموية والمذيب للفايبرين. العرض الحالي يمثل ملخصا موجزا للأدلة العلمية المساندة لهذه الآثار العلاجية.
Chapter
This chapter will deal with delivering of a substance in a natural product, milk, via the skin – cosmeceuticals, from a variety of sources, camels, equine, ruminant and breast milk. The large quantities of bacteria on the normal skin, both friendly and “bad” bacteria provide skin and body health. The activity of cosmeceuticals of camel milk is due to the specific milk components, whose efficacy is retained in skin preparations which have not been destroyed in their preparation. By using camel milk which is pathogen-free the preparations are probiotic by definition and rapidly penetrate the outer skin layers to be active in the deeper layers. Massage therapy has been shown to improve flexibility and range of motion and strengthen the immune system. A list of the organic substances used for making the cosmeceuticals is provided.
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In steroid-synthesizing cells, like the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells, the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein involved in the regulation of cholesterol transport from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-determining step in steroid biosynthesis. Expression of PBR in Escherichia coli DE3 cells, which have no PBR, no cholesterol, and do not make steroids, induced the ability to take up cholesterol in a time-dependent, temperature-sensitive, and energy- independent manner. These cells took up no other steroids tested. Addition of the high affinity PBR ligand PK 11195 to cholesterol-loaded membranes, obtained from cells transfected with PBR, resulted in the release of the uptaken cholesterol. Expression in DE3 cells of mutant PBRs demonstrated that deletions in the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminus dramatically reduced the cholesterol uptake function of PBR, although it retained full capacity to bind PK 11195. Site-directed mutagenesis in th...
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Camel milk is known in Asia and Africa for 5000 years for its benefits for human health. Therefore, it is not only consumed as food, but also as remedy. Many studies have reported, that camel milk has very high concentration of mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids, serum albumin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulin's, vitamins C, and E, lysozyme, manganese and iron, as well as the hormone insulin. Therefore, camel milk can be prescribed as remedy in many human illnesses. It has been proven as a useful application in stomach and intestinal disorders, Diabetes-1, food allergy. In addition camel milk has been used to reduce cholesterol levels in the blood, to avoid psoriasis disease, to heal inflammation in the body, to assist patients with tuberculosis, helping to strengthen the human immune system, to reduce the growth of cancer cells and to cure autism. Even the patient can benefit from the biological factors in camel milk, it must be consumed raw, fresh and free of pathogens after a good machine milking. These potential health benefits of camel milk should be further study.