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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Afla-Guard®, commercially available non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus

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Abstract

Afla-GuardVR is a commercial non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain used to decrease aflatoxin contamination level in field. Its mitochondrial genome was sequenced, showing that its length is 29,208 bp with typical configuration of Aspergillus mitochondrial genome. 17 SNPs and 27 INDELs were identified by comparing with previous A. flavus mitochondrial genome. Phylogenetic trees present that A. flavus of Afla-Guard® was clustered with the previous A. flavus mitochondrial genome.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of
Afla-Guard®, commercially available non-toxigenic
Aspergillus flavus
Jongsun Park , Mi-Kyung Lee , Jae-Hyuk Yu , Jong-Hwa Kim & Kap-Hoon Han
To cite this article: Jongsun Park , Mi-Kyung Lee , Jae-Hyuk Yu , Jong-Hwa Kim & Kap-
Hoon Han (2020) Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Afla-Guard®, commercially
available non-toxigenic Aspergillus�flavus , Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 5:3, 3590-3592, DOI:
10.1080/23802359.2020.1825129
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1825129
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa
UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis
Group.
Published online: 21 Oct 2020.
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MITOGENOME ANNOUNCEMENT
Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Afla-Guard
V
R
, commercially
available non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus
Jongsun Park
a,b
, Mi-Kyung Lee
c,d
, Jae-Hyuk Yu
c
, Jong-Hwa Kim
e
and Kap-Hoon Han
e
a
InfoBoss Co., Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea;
b
InfoBoss Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea;
c
Department of Bacteriology, The
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA;
d
Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology,
Jeongeup, Republic of Korea;
e
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Woosuk University, Wanju, Republic of Korea
ABSTRACT
Afla-Guard
V
R
is a commercial non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain used to decrease aflatoxin contamin-
ation level in field. Its mitochondrial genome was sequenced, showing that its length is 29,208 bp with
typical configuration of Aspergillus mitochondrial genome. 17 SNPs and 27 INDELs were identified by
comparing with previous A. flavus mitochondrial genome. Phylogenetic trees present that A. flavus of
Afla-Guard
V
R
was clustered with the previous A. flavus mitochondrial genome.
ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 20 April 2020
Accepted 26 April 2020
KEYWORDS
Aspergillus flavus; Afla-
Guard
V
R
; mitochondrial
genome; Aspergillus;
Ascomycota
Afla-Guard
V
R
is a commercial product to decrease aflatoxin
contamination level for improving quality of corns and pea-
nuts (Wu et al. 2008; Durham et al. 2010; Dorner and Lamb
2006). This product contains Aspergillus flavus without afla-
toxin gene cluster usually found in A. flavus (Abdel-Hadi et al.
2012). It can be used to understand phylogenetic position of
nontoxic A. flavus. In addition, two mitochondrial genomes
of A. flavus present that two genomes show different
phylogenetic positions (data not shown), requiring additional
mitochondrial genomes of A. flavus for clarifying
this problem.
DNA of Afla-Guard
V
R
purchased from Syngenta was
extracted using the optimized protocol (Lee et al. 2017). It
was originally isolated from peanut seed at the USDA
National Peanut Research Laboratory (Georgia, USA) in 1991
(NRRL 21882 in Agricultural Research Service Culture
Collection). Raw data generated by HiSeq2500 and de novo
assembly was conducted by Velvet 1.2.10 (Zerbino and
Birney 2008). Gap filling was done by SOAPGapCloser 1.12
(Zhao et al. 2011) after confirming each base using BWA
0.7.17 and SAMtools 1.9 (Li et al. 2009;Li2013). Geneious
R11 11.0.5 (Biomatters Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) was used
to annotate its mitogenome by comparing with those of A.
flavus (JQ355000; Joardar et al. 2012).
The length of Afla-Guard
V
R
A. flavus mitogenome (GenBank
accession is MT335777) is 29,208 bp, which is 3 bp longer
than that of previously reported A. flavus (JQ355000). It is the
8th shortest mitogenome among 23 available Aspergillus
mitogenomes (Park et al., in preparation). Numbers of PCGs,
tRNAs, and rRNAs are 17, 27, and 2, respectively a typical
configuration of Aspergillus mitogenomes.
Seventeen SNPs and 27 INDELs were identified as intra-
specific variation on two A. flavus mitochondrial genomes.
Two non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) were identified in NAD1,
two nsSNPs and three INDELs were found in hypothetical
protein, and one nsSNP was in NAD4. Two synonymous SNPs
(sSNPs) were found in COX1 and another two sSNPs were in
NAD5. The remaining SNPs and INDELs were in intergenic
space. Numbers of intraspecific variations are relatively large
in comparison to those of Aspergillus oryzae,Aspergillus terrus,
and Penicillium digitatum (Park et al., in preparation).
Sequence alignments of ten conserved genes from twelve
Aspergillus and one Penicillium mitogenomes (Juh
asz et al.
2008; Futagami et al. 2011; Sun et al. 2011; Joardar et al.
2012; Zhao et al. 2012; Park, Kwon, Huang, et al. 2019; Park,
Kwon, Zhu, Mageswari, Heo, Han, et al. 2019; Park, Kwon,
Zhu, Mageswari, Heo, Kim, et al. 2019) including that of Afla-
Guard
V
R
and one Podospora mitochondrial genome
(Cummings et al. 1990) as an outgroup were calculated by
MAFFT 7.450 (Katoh and Standley 2013) and concatenated.
The neighbour-joining (10,000 bootstrap repeats) and max-
imum-likelihood (1,000 bootstrap repeats) phylogenetic trees
were constructed using MEGA X (Kumar et al. 2018).
Phylogenetic trees showed that two A. flavus mitochondrial
genomes were clustered in one clade together with A. oryzae
(Figure 1). In addition, another A. flavus mitochondrial gen-
ome (NC_026920) was clustered with A. nidulans (Figure 1),
addressing its species identification.
CONTACT Kap-Hoon Han khhan@woosuk.ac.kr; Jong-Hwa Kim jhkim@woosuk.ac.kr Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Woosuk University,
Wanju, Republic of Korea
ß2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits
unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
MITOCHONDRIAL DNA PART B
2020, VOL. 5, NO. 3, 35903592
https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1825129
Disclosure statement
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Funding
This research was supported by a grant [20162MDF007-3] from Ministry
of Food and Drug Safety (2020), and the National Research Foundation
of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korea government to JHK
[2017R1D1A3B03031326] and to KHH [2017R1D1A3B06035312].
ORCID
Jongsun Park http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0786-4701
Mi-Kyung Lee http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3209-6708
Data availability statement
The sequence can be accessed via accession number MT335777 in NCBI
GenBank. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/.
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