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You are Cancelled: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Emergence of Cancel Culture as Ideological Purging

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You are Cancelled: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Emergence of Cancel Culture as Ideological Purging

Abstract

Social networking platforms were originally conceived to enable individuals to engage in various forms of online interactions. As social networking sites robustly permeated different facets of society, they have been commonly grouped under the more generic term "social media." Social media has become a powerful force in contemporary life, paving the way for the rise of digital participatory cultures and social movements. More recently, the culture of cancellation has entered the vernacular of digital culture, primarily targeted at public figures who break the loose norms of social acceptability. Specifically, cancel culture is a form of public shaming initiated on social media to deprive someone of their usual clout or attention with the aim of making public discourse more diffused and less monopolized by those in positions of privilege. Conversely, cancel culture has also been framed as a form of intolerance against opposing views. In this essay, I unpack the nuances and implications of cancel culture through Neil Alperstein's concept of "virtual collective consciousness." In Southeast Asia, particularly the Philippines, cancel culture has become more demonstrable on social media. I will use a case study of a public figure from the Philippines who has been subjected to cancel culture in order to examine the complexity of this social phenomenon.
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You are Cancelled: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the
Emergence of Cancel Culture as Ideological Purging
Joseph Ching Velasco
De La Salle University. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7098-8216.
Email: josephchingvelasco@gmail.com
Abstract
Social networking platforms were originally conceived to enable individuals to engage in various forms of
online interactions. As social networking sites robustly permeated different facets of society, they have been
commonly grouped under the more generic term “social media.” Social media has become a powerful force
in contemporary life, paving the way for the rise of digital participatory cultures and social movements.
More recently, the culture of cancellation has entered the vernacular of digital culture, primarily targeted at
public figures who break the loose norms of social acceptability. Specifically, cancel culture is a form of
public shaming initiated on social media to deprive someone of their usual clout or attention with the aim
of making public discourse more diffused and less monopolized by those in positions of privilege.
Conversely, cancel culture has also been framed as a form of intolerance against opposing views. In this
essay, I unpack the nuances and implications of cancel culture through Neil Alperstein’s concept of “virtual
collective consciousness.” In Southeast Asia, particularly the Philippines, cancel culture has become more
demonstrable on social media. I will use a case study of a public figure from the Philippines who has been
subjected to cancel culture in order to examine the complexity of this social phenomenon.
Keywords: Cancel Culture, Social Media, Public Shaming, Cancelledt, Celebrity, woke, wokeism, influencer
Introduction
Social networking platforms were originally conceived to allow individuals to engage in different
forms of online interactions. This technology robustly permeated different facets of society, it has
morphed into a generic term called social media. Such has become a powerful force in
contemporary life, paving the way for the rise of digital participatory cultures and social
movements. Social media has certainly brought forth boons and banes in modern life, from the
convenience of shopping online to the pervasiveness of deliberate networked disinformation.
Social media has allowed individuals to be constantly connected despite distance and other
physical limitations. However, it also ushered in an always-on digital persona and continuous
communication (Velasco, 2020). Everyone is glued to their devices and the online and real-life
divide has been blurred. Sociologist Manuel Castells posits important terminologies to critically
describe the way interaction has been shaped in the digital age. More specifically, he coined the
term hypersociality, which is a transformation of sociability. He argues:
The network society is a hypersocial society, not a society of isolation. People, by and
large, do not fake their identity in the Internet, except for some teenagers experimenting
with their lives. People fold the technology into their lives, link up virtual reality and real
Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities (ISSN 0975-2935)
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Special Conference Issue (Vol. 12, No. 5, 2020. 1-7) from
1st Rupkatha International Open Conference on Recent Advances in Interdisciplinary Humanities (rioc.rupkatha.com)
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DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.21659/rupkatha.v12n5.rioc1s21n2
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Rupkatha Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2020
virtuality, they live in various technological forms of communication, articulating them as
they need it. (Castells, 2005, p. 11)
With the existence of hypersociality, the emergence of networked individualism has become more
palpable. Castells (2005) argue that “the emergence of networked individualism, as social
structure and historical evolution induce the emergence of individualism as the dominant culture
of our societies, and the new communication technologies perfectly fit into the mode of building
sociability along self-selected communication networks” (p. 12).
With this development in the intersection of society and technology, new forms of
collectivities have been formed. Social media has not only become a prism for information
exchange, it also paved the way for the rise of digital participatory cultures and social movements.
It has become a contested site for competing forms of knowledge, culture, and ideology. The act
of cancelling someone, thus, is one of those spontaneous collective practices initiated by social
media users, without consideration for its possible ramifications. Undeniably, the culture of
cancellation has become part and parcel of the vernacular of digital culture, primarily targeted
against public figures who break the loose norms of social acceptability.
Scholarly discussions on cancel culture have been limited, which can possibly be
attributed to the fear of being cancelled should arguments go against the dominant currents of
certain social movements. Cancel culture is a manifestation of wokeism” which is “an ideology
that views reality as socially constructed and defined by power, oppression and group identity”
(Beiner, 2020). Anyone can be cancelled, no one is spared, even myself.
In this essay, I will unpack the nuances and implications of cancel culture through Neil
Alperstein’s concept of “virtual collective consciousness.” Particularly, I will delineate cancel
culture as a sporadic collective social movement leveled against individuals who infringe on the
loose norms of social acceptability. Celebrity culture has evolved along with the new
developments in social technologies. Consequently, the public has deployed new ways of policing
misbehavior through social media. Who, then, is the yardstick for acceptable behavior in today’s
hypersocial reality? Simply put, on social media, any user can be the judge, jury, and executioner
of any individual. Cancellation spreads like wildfire on social media and it is virulently
uncontrollable” (Lu, 2019).
Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Transformation of Celebrity Culture
Alperstein (2019) traced the cultural shifts that occurred as social media became more pervasive.
He also posits the concept of virtual collective consciousness, where thoughts and beliefs are
merged on social media. When thoughts and beliefs coalesce, it becomes the collective
consciousness of similarly minded individuals. He further explains:
One’s inner world is turned outward to become part of a network, including membership
in a cluster or crowd. To a degree the virtual collective consciousness represents the
expression of our inner mind wandering, stream of consciousness, daydreams and
nocturnal dreams, turned outward in a spontaneous, synchronous manner within a social
network, based partially on mediated social connections with celebrities and other people
who are present and active on the social network. (Alperstein, 2019, p. 204)
As elegant as it may sound, it bears similarity to an echo chamber, where similarly minded
individuals only hear what they wish to hear. Anything that might be contrary to their line of
thinking and preferences is deemed undesirable. Social media users follow pages that are aligned
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You are Cancelled: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Emergence of Cancel Culture as
Ideological Purging
with their views and unfollow those which seem to be inconsistent with their inclinations. As
one’s thoughts and ideas become in sync with other mediated connections on social media, it
becomes more challenging to accommodate ideas contrary to the dominant ideological climate.
This is the current digital social environment where everyone is subjected to. Celebrities,
influencers, public figures, as individuals who wield influence on their respective networks, are
strictly held against the loose standard of current social acceptability. Celebrities, before, are a
production of media institutions. Hearn and Schoenhoff (2015) argue that the concept of celebrity
is a highly complex entity; they are a form of “constructed subjectivity consisting of distinct sets of
self-referential, attention-seeking, market-aware practices.” (p. 196) Celebrities are spectacles that
are constantly blasted on different media that allows for sustained interest by the public.
However, that has all changed when social media became a platform for self-publishing.
Traditional media institutions as gatekeepers have been cut off from the process and celebrities
can now directly access the public through the digital networks that they have cultivated. Equally,
the public can directly reach out to these individuals mediated through technology. Celebrities
who use social media can now be considered influencers. In a similar vein, social media
influencers have also become a form of celebrity.
As mentioned earlier, there seems to be a vague yardstick of social acceptability which
public figures are held against. When public figures such as celebrities and influencers are subject
of scandals, there are usually four possible public reactions: condemnation, indifference,
resentment, and approval (Cashmore, 2006). However, events or behaviors that are deemed
scandalous are also constantly evolving. It is, therefore, difficult to assess which types of
transgression will result in approval or condemnation. As consumers of media, scandals do appeal
to the public. Nayar (2006) argues celebrities appeal to us because they make two contradictory
moves, that is, humanize larger than life figures and “enhance the envied celebrity’s larger-than-
life stature as one who can indulge in behavior, situations and acts that we ordinary people
cannot” (p. 113).
A few decades ago, public figures can weather scandals gracefully and come out
unscathed. But with the direct link of these figures to the public through technology, escaping the
scrutinizing public gaze is impossible. One wrong word in a post, a statement contrary to the
dominant narrative, an “insensitive” joke, or even a “problematic” essay will open the floodgates of
vitriol from social media users. A public shaming ensues, and you become cancelledt.
What it Means to Be Cancelled: The Expurgation from Public Discourse
At this point, “almost everyone worth knowing has been cancelled by someone” (Bromwich, 2018).
Those who were cancelled have breached the line of social acceptability, according to unmarked
and entirely ambiguous norm of today’s social media climate. “It is an act of withdrawing from
someone whose expression whether political, artistic, or otherwise was once welcome or at
least tolerated, but no longer is” (Bromwich, 2018). In addition, it is a tactic of “trying to erase
someone from public discourse either through publicly shaming, deplatforming, or demanding
that they be fired” (Beiner, 2020). There is no clear-cut parameter that someone merits
cancellation. With the ambiguous nature cancel culture, a person who undergoes this form of
public shaming likewise has an extremely vague and unclear path to redemption. Some
individuals tout cancel culture as a manifestation of agency. Professor Lisa Nakamura from the
University of Virginia claims that cancel culture is the “ultimate expression of agency” (Bromwich,
2018). In a similar vein, Professor Lisa Nakamura from the University of Michigan notes that
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Rupkatha Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2020
cancelling someone is a form of “cultural boycott” (Bromwich, 2018). This phenomenon is
probably one of the greatest displays of the democratization of discourse. Natalie Pang from the
National University of Singapore argues that marginalized voices are now heard, and discourse is
less dominated by individuals who are in positions power and privilege (Lim, 2020).
Despite the provocative notions that cancel culture brings forth, it is also simultaneously a
complicated social movement. Not everyone is in agreement of the greater purpose of cancel
culture. Walid Jumblatt Abdullah from Nanyang Technological University opines that “cancelling
someone is ultimately a power play: that power can be deprived from institutions and formal
authority, or just popular opinion” (Lim, 2020). The problem lies with the “lack of understanding
on how to engage with it on its own terms” (Beiner, 2020).
One of the most recent figures who got cancelled is J.K. Rowling. On June 6, 2020, J.K.
Rowling tweeted, “If sex isn’t real, there’s no same-sex attraction. If sex isn’t real, the lived reality
of women globally is erased. I know and love trans people, but erasing the concept of sex removes
the ability of many to meaningfully discuss their lives. It isn’t hate to speak the truth.” This seems
to have offended the transgender community, which led to her cancellation. Consequently, fan
sites dedicated to Harry Potter such as Mugglenet and The Leaky Cauldron have cut ties with J.K
Rowling because of her trans-offensive tweet (Luu, 2020).
Her case is not unique as other renowned public figures have been subjected to cancel
culture. There is now a push back against the powerful force emanating from the culture of
cancellation. In a collective response, 150 writers and academics, including J.K. Rowling, Noam
Chomsky, and Salman Rushdie, wrote an open letter to Harper’s Magazine (2020) calling
attention to the rising intolerant climate emanating from the political left. An excerpt from the
letter reads:
While we have come to expect this on the radical right, censoriousness is also spreading
more widely in our culture: an intolerance of opposing views, a vogue for public shaming
and ostracism, and the tendency to dissolve complex policy issues in a blinding moral
certainty. We uphold the value of robust and even caustic counter-speech from all
quarters. But it is now all too common to hear calls for swift and severe retribution in
response to perceived transgressions of speech and thought.
An invitation to open discussion seems to be the way forward in this extremely complicated
cultural movement. Walid Jumblatt Abdullah cautions that the growing trend of cancellation is
stifling open debate and intensifies self-censorship among public figures (Lim, 2020). Essentially,
the culture of cancellation has become an apparatus to enact an ideological purge.
The Emergence of Cancel Culture in Southeast Asia: A Case from the Philippines
Cancel culture has also reached the shores of Southeast Asia. Lim (2020) reveals that this social
movement may have originated from the West but it has become a force for social change among
the youth of Asia. In the section, I will use a case study of a celebrity from the Philippines who
was cancelled because of a social media infraction. Cat Arambulo-Antonio is an “outspoken
blogger, social media personality, and entrepreneur” (Williams, 2019). She also has been a judge in
the reality TV show The Apartment. At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic in the Philippines,
she posted an Instagram story disparaging individuals who were stuck at security checkpoints. In
the Instagram story that she posted on March 16, 2020, it shows a news report of CNN showing a
man who was handcuffed and being led to a police vehicle. She then unleashed a profanity-laden
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You are Cancelled: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Emergence of Cancel Culture as
Ideological Purging
commentary on why people should stay at home. Specifically, she said, “my god, why don’t you
mother******s just stay at home? Stay at home! Don’t you guys get it? Tigas ng ulo [Hard headed],
this is exactly why they need the military because you f*****s won’t stay at home. Guy’s come on.”
The following day, she became one of the Twitter trending topics in the Philippines. It should be
noted that the deficiency of government response to the pandemic has forced workers to go out
and continue their livelihoods despite the risks.
Figure 1: A tweet calling for Cat Arambulo-
Antonio’s cancellation
Due to the immense backlash that her Instagram story has garnered, calls for her
cancellation have become evident on Twitter. As an example, Figure 1 shows a Twitter user
seeking to cancel her, which reads, “Cat Arambulo is so cancelled.” Another tweet on Figure 2
reads, “Cat Arambulo, you’re cancelled.” Subsequently, other users have started to tag brands
affiliated with Cat Arambulo-Antonio to call attention toward her remarks.
Figure 3: A tweet calling attention to the brands
that Cat Arambulo-Antonio is associated with
Figure 2: The brand Organique distancing itself
from Cat-Arambulo Antonio
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Rupkatha Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2020
Figure 3 depicts a twitter user tagging the different brands that Cat Arambulo-Antonio
have work with. In addition, Figure 4 is an official statement from Organique distancing itself
from Cat Arambulo-Antonio. She was taken to the court of public opinion, which is Twitter, and
was deemed cancelledt. Should anyone defend or attempt to give her a path to redemption, they
might suffer a comparable consequence. She now serves as a vivid reminder for public figures,
celebrities, influencers to consistently censor themselves, their content, and ensure that it
complies with the dominant ideological climate.
Conclusion and Future Directions
This essay unpacked and examined the culture of cancellation in today’s social media
environment. The culture of cancellation is a highly complicated social movement. On one hand,
it is one of the highest displays of the democratization of discourse. On the other hand, it is also a
force for censoriousness and an intolerance for ideas that run contrary to the dominant
acceptable social norms. Some contemplate that there is a better way to go about this form of
calling attention to inappropriate behavior. In this essay, I used the case of Cat Arambulo-Antonio
as a celebrity who was cancelled on social media because of inappropriate remarks directed to the
public. In the Philippine context, there seems to be no push back against this form of public
shaming. Additionally, it is gaining strength since it has become an apparatus for the modification
of online behavior.
Public humiliation is not new and has existed for centuries. History has shown that
humanity has devised a multitude of creative yet gruesome ways of shaming an individual for
alleged social and legal infractions e.g. public flogging, wearing a dunce cap, forced public
exposure, and public caning. The concept of cancelling someone is similar to those mentioned but
is specifically designed for the digital age in the midst of hypersociality. As such, the pervasiveness
of the culture of cancellation is disobliging of open debate; it is a form of critique that is
destructive. Perhaps, it may further evolve toward a more constructive form of critique, focused
on the action instead of the person. As they say, everyone has skeletons in their closets; anyone,
therefore, can be subjected to the culture of cancellation.
References
Alperstein, N. M. (2019). Celebrity and Mediated Social Connections. Cham: Springer.
Beiner, A. (2020, July 17). Sleeping woke: Cancel culture and simulated religion. Medium. Retrieved from:
https://medium.com/rebel-wisdom/sleeping-woke-cancel-culture-and-simulated-religion-
5f96af2cc107
Bromwich, J. E. (2019, June 28). Everyone is cancelled. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/28/style/is-it-canceled.html
Cashmore, E. (2006). Celebrity/Culture. New York: Routledge.
Castells, M. (2005). The networked society: From knowledge to policy. In M. Castells & G. Cardoso (Eds.),
The Network Society: From Knowledge to Policy (pp. 3-22). Washington: Center for Transatlantic
Relations.
Harper’s Magazine. (2020, July 7). A letter and justice on open debate. Retrieved from: https://harpers.org/a-
letter-on-justice-and-open-debate/
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Ideological Purging
Hearn, A., & Schoenhoff, S. (2016). From celebrity to influencer: Tracing the diffusion of celebrity value
across the data stream. In P. D. Marshall & S. Redmond (Eds.), A Companion to Celebrity (pp. 194-
211). West Sussex: Wiley.
Lim, K. (2020, July 19). Cancel culture: How Asia’s ‘woke brigade’ became a political force. South China
Morning Post. Retrieved from: https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/lifestyle-
culture/article/3093736/cancel-culture-how-asias-woke-brigade-became-political
Lu, C. (2019, December 18). Cancel culture is chaotic good. Jstor Daily. Retrieved from:
https://daily.jstor.org/cancel-culture-is-chaotic-good/
Luu, C. (2020, July 2). The Harry Potter fandom officially cancelled J.K. Rowling. In Style.
https://www.instyle.com/celebrity/jk-rowling/harry-potter-fansites-no-longer-support-jk-rowling
Nayar, P. K. (2009). Seeing Stars: Spectacle, Society, and Celebrity Culture. New Delhi: Sage.
Velasco, J. C. (2020). Millennials as digital natives: Examining the social media activities of the Y-
generation. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 28(3).
Williams, S. J. P. (2019, July 12). Entrepreneur & social media personality Cat Arambulo-Antonio reveals her
life mantra: Strong mind, active body, happy heart. Tatler Philippines. Retrieved from
https://ph.asiatatler.com/society/entrepreneur-social-media-personality-cat-arambulo-antonio-
reveals-her-life-mantra-strong-mind-activ
Joseph Ching Velasco is a PhD candidate in sociology at De La Salle University, Manila. He
also attended short courses on global health at Hokkaido University under the Sakura
Exchange Program in Science administered by Japan Science and Technology Agency.
Currently, he is the Managing Editor of the Asia-Pacific Social Science Review. His works
have appeared in journals such as Kritika Kultura, Pertanika Journal of Social Science and
Humanities, and Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. He does research on the areas of
generational sociology, digital cultures, work ethic, burnout, and Chinese-Filipino culture.
... На сегодняшний день редкие научные исследования рассматривают феномен кенселлинга с точки зрения разных подходов: как один из подвидов остракизма [9], в качестве метода социального давления, как форму нетерпимости к противоположным взглядам, сквозь призму концепции Н. Альперштайна (Alperstein N. , 2019) о «виртуальном массовом сознании» [28]. Однако приходится констатировать тот факт, что устойчивого интереса со стороны академических исследований в области психологических наук, которые бы изучали собственно механизмы данного явления, пока не наблюдается. ...
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On October 2021, Kim Seon Ho was on peak of his career when faced a wave of backlash after an anonymous post circulated in online communities saying that an unnamed actor “manipulated her into getting an abortion under false pretenses” and being cancelled. Researchers will use a case study of a Kim Seon Ho from South Korea who has been subjected to cancel culture in order to examine the complexity of this social phenomenon. This research tries to understand the cancel culture phenomenon that is not only happened in South Korea, but also USA, or other countries. Using FGD and also literature for data collection, this study explores how the responses from the participants’ expected to give meaning about regarding cancel culture. The result is some of participants agree with the cancel culture to be implemented, and some of them disagree. The conclusion is cancel culture can be a good thing when we want to make those who can be role model are those with positive attitudes. But on the other hand, cancel culture can be a bad thing when we place celebrity as a material commodity and get cancelled easily.
... He added that scholarly discussions of cancel culture are rare, and that this is due to the possible fear of cancellation itself. In terms of what manners are considered acceptable in relation to brands and influencers, Velasco (2020) summarises that each participant in a social network judges the rule of thumb in terms of appropriate online behaviour, and that this is where the complexity of cancel culture lies. ...
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Колективна монографія присвячена актуальним питаням розвитку сучасного суспільства. Досліджуються сучасні проблеми в сфері педагогіки, соціології, філософії, психології, соціальних комунікацій, спорту, фізичної культури, туризму, мистецтвознавства, культурології, філології, історії, економіки, управління, права. Монографія буде корисною науковцям, викладачам, здобувачам вищої освіти, а також широкому колу осіб, які цікавляться питаннями сучасного розвитку соціально-гуманітарної сфери.
Book
Full-text available
Колективна монографія присвячена актуальним питаням розвитку сучасного суспільства. Досліджуються сучасні проблеми в сфері педагогіки, соціології, філософії, психології, соціальних комунікацій, спорту, фізичної культури, туризму, мистецтвознавства, культурології, філології, історії, економіки, управління, права. Монографія буде корисною науковцям, викладачам, здобувачам вищої освіти, а також широкому колу осіб, які цікавляться питаннями сучасного розвитку соціально-гуманітарної сфери.
Article
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There has been an increasing interest in the millennial generation and scholars have embarked on different enquiries to understand their desired career projections, work ethic, and consumption practices. Typically, millennials are individuals born from 1981 to 2000 and the said generation has also been identified as digital natives. Consumer insight organizations illumined that millennials have a predisposition toward living a public life through social media. More specifically, millennials have the proclivity to technologically document different facets of their lives and share it on digital social networks. The present enquiry, therefore, determined the themes of what millennials from Metro Manila, Philippines shared on social media. QDA-assisted thematic content analysis on 5,000 social media posts was conducted and three life areas were delineated: culture, social relations, and work. In terms of culture, the participants most frequently tended to share posts about the self, specifically self-disclosures and selfies. Likewise, popular media such as memes tended to be circulated on the feeds of Filipino millennials. In terms of social relations, family and friends were recurrently featured on their feed most notably on special occasions or holidays. In terms of work, Filipino millennials seemingly shared their contentment and dissatisfaction with their professional and educational engagements.
Book
Celebrity and Mediated Social Connections is a critical examination of the multiple realities of the mediated culture we traverse, extending from our imaginary inner worlds to the imagined communities of digital media. Chapters explore the dialogic at work when we connect with celebrities and internalize aspects of their personas due to the various social roles they serve within our everyday lives. What might begin as strong identification and internalization within our imaginary worlds, in this digital age, sometimes seeps out as we connect to celebrities, their fans, friends and followers in ways that were not formerly possible. The book contains topics that range from the degradation of micro-celebrities, the role of celebrities in promoting prescription drugs and their role in contemporary social movements. The common thread that runs through the book presents a mediated world that paradoxically allows if not encourages people to daydream, engage in stream of consciousness thinking and fantasize about celebrities, all while concurrently compelling us to engage in a digitally based objective world. The possibility of interaction on and through digital media intensifies the emotional connection between celebrity and fan. The more personal details one gives up, the closer we feel we become—digital intimacy based on the excessive self. Digital media entice us to engage and remain tethered to technology, staying continuously connected so as not miss the latest post or meme. To suggest we should build a proverbial wall between the two—imaginary and objective worlds—runs counter to the reality of an always on, always connected culture in which we presently live. Neil M. Alperstein is a Professor in the Communication Department at Loyola University Maryland, USA. He is the founding director of its graduate program in Emerging Media. He is author of Advertising in Everyday Life and co-author of two books on online education, in addition to numerous book chapters and scholarly articles.
Chapter
While several critics have analyzed the rise of the ?micro-celebrity? in the online era, few have worked to historicize the developments. Assessments of ?micro-celebrity? also tend to ignore the central role played by celebrity/brand measurement mechanisms, in and through which celebrity value is identified and determined. This chapter attempts to fill these gaps by providing a historical sketch of expressions of celebrity value in the twentieth century: as product, industry, property, endorser and brand. It traces these processes as they appear in the phenomenon of the reality television participant in the 1990s and 2000s and the internet micro-celebrity, specifically the social media influencer (SMI), in the twenty-first century. The chapter then focuses on contemporary ?influence? measurement metrics. Finally, it critically assesses how and in what ways celebrity value may have changed, and who really benefits from the dispersal of the logics of celebrity value-production in the age of social media.
Book
Celebrity Culture explores the ways in which celebrities are ‘manufactured’, how they establish their hold on the public imagination, and how social responses enable them to be what they are. Celebrity culture is marked by three main responses: adulation, identification, and emulation. The book proposes that these responses are generated as a result of media constructions of celebrities. Therefore, celebrity culture is something that must be studied as a consequence of new forms of media representation and mass culture.
Sleeping woke: Cancel culture and simulated religion
  • A Beiner
Beiner, A. (2020, July 17). Sleeping woke: Cancel culture and simulated religion. Medium. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/rebel-wisdom/sleeping-woke-cancel-culture-and-simulated-religion-5f96af2cc107
Everyone is cancelled. The New York Times
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