ArticlePDF Available
2018
Study Report
Enabling
the Value of Time
Implications for the
interior design of
au
tonomous vehicles
A study in cooperation with:
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Enabling the Value of Time
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Contents
Foreword ...............................................................................................................................................................1
Management summary ....................................................................................................................................2
Background ..........................................................................................................................................................4
The framework of the study and overview of results ............................................................................6
In-depth observations and results ............................................................................................................. 11
Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 24
About us/Contact .......................................................................................................................................... 25
1
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Enabling the Value of Time
1
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Foreword
Dear Readers,
Autonomous driving will change the automotive industry and mobility as we know it. New transport systems and transport
options are being developed, which thanks to intelligent control and complementary sharing concepts can decrease the
volume of traffic. However, traveling alone in one’s own vehicle will also fundamentally change as a result of increasing
automation. The idea that the time spent in a vehicle can be used for a range of activities is causing us to reevaluate what
travel time means. Little by little, it is easy to see the benefits that the vision of a self-driving car offers with regard to working
persons, people who require assistance and children without a drivers license: Mobility on demand and the opportunity to
make efficient use of travel time by working or shopping, or by satisfying basic needs such as sleeping, talking, eating and
drinking.
With this study, our goal was to determine and record the attitudes and requirements of future users of autonomous vehicles
with regard to using travel time for more than just traveling. Central aspects during the process included user requirements
regarding the design of vehicle interiors and the willingness to pay for individual equipment packages. Compared to the 2016
study “The Value of Time Potential for User-Centered Services Offered by Autonomous Driving” the scope of this study
was extended to include five countries and a total of 2,500 participants. The research parameters of this study enable the
responses to be evaluated in accordance with demographic characteristics such as gender, distribution of age and income,
single-person and multi-person households, urban populations and rural populations, or daily travel time.
The survey was carried out in fall 2017 by means of an online questionnaire. In addition to the general level of acceptance
for activities during a journey, we analyzed the use and relevance of associated functions and equipment. The survey follows
the premise that passengers in autonomous vehicles no longer have to fulfill the requirements of driving. The willingness of
participants to use special sharing vehicles” – referred to as themed cabs” – was also investigated. Themed cabs are self-
driving cars that can be ordered by users on demand as sharing vehicles for defined purposes.
We conducted the study in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO and the partners of the
Cordence Worldwide alliance.
I hope you enjoy reading our findings.
Ralf Gaydoul
Partner and
Head of
Competence Center Automotive
Horváth & Partners
Enabling the Value of Time
2
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Management summary
The previous study “The Value of Time Potential for User-
Centered Services Offered by Autonomous Driving” in 2016
was conducted with the aim of determining and recording
users’ interests regarding ancillary activities during auto-
mated driving. This process involved mapping out a range of
different activities that study participants were interested in
doing while undertaking a journey in an autonomous vehi-
cle. The top five usage types
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and fitness
were adopted for the most recent study in order to determine
the functional requirements regarding the layout and design
of the interior of an autonomous vehicle from the perspec-
tive of users. Study participants were asked to evaluate pre-
determined equipment packages for the five usage types
and to specify how much they would be willing to pay for
these.
The user survey the study is based on was carried out as an
online questionnaire in five countries: China, the USA, Ja-
pan, Germany and France. A total of 2500 participants were
selected such that the study covered a representative distri-
bution of demographic characteristics such as age and in-
come distribution, place of residence and household size.
The first part of the survey involved investigating a number
of questions, including the following:
Which usage types do the study participants opt for in
an autonomously driving vehicle?
What distinctions do study participants draw in terms
of evaluating the usage types for different journey pur-
poses or depending on the number of passengers?
What equipment options do the study participants ex-
pect to complement the preferred usage types and how
much are they willing to pay for such options?
How would the respondents configure an autonomous
vehicle of their choice?
The second part of the study involved investigating partici-
pants’ willingness to use autonomous themed cabs. Exam-
ples of these include relaxation vehicles, wellness vehi-
clesand restaurant vehicles” – highly specialized sharing
vehiclesused on demand.
In general, the results of the study indicate considerable cus-
tomer interest regarding the use of autonomous vehicles
across all countries. Almost 50 percent of all respondents are
looking forward to autonomous driving. The more time par-
ticipants spend in a vehicle, the higher the level of ac-
ceptance for the concept. Particular groups of participants
expressed particularly strong interest and represent im-
portant target groups from the perspective of vehicle manu-
facturers and service providers. These groups include, for ex-
ample, people living in big cities, families, younger people
with a higher income or public transport users. When com-
paring countries, China was identified as having a very high
potential.
The usage type sleeping and relaxingis most accepted
across all the countries included in the study compared to
the other four usage types. Furthermore, equipment options
associated with enhancing comfort such as a comfortable
lying position, an external screen or a quiet journey are
valued the most. The usage type working and being produc-
tiveis of particular interest for long business journeys and
the daily commute.
The authors classify the indicated willingness to pay for indi-
vidual equipment options as rather low. In addition to au-
tonomous driving functionality, the respondents are only
willing to pay several hundred euros for each equipment op-
tion, such as a comfortable lying position. It is not surprising
that study participants with a higher income are willing to
pay higher amounts.
Enabling the Value of Time
3
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Aside from the acceptance level for ancillary activities in
one’s own vehicle, the concept of highly specialized sharing
vehicles is very popular: 37 percent of the study participants
really believe in and back the concept. The favorites in this
regard are the relaxation vehicleand sightseeing vehicle”.
With regard to country-specific differences, it is important to
note the following results:
China is the country with the highest level of willing-
ness to use autonomous mobility solutions by a clear
margin
- Highest willingness to pay for automated driving
functionality and individual equipment options
- Highest affinity for innovation, digital services and
products such as virtual assistants
When compared to other countries, Germany has the
lowest acceptance values for the respective usage
types. The critical evaluation of the safety risk seems to
be the predominant discouraging factor for German
participants
U.S. study participants exhibit a disproportionally
strong aversion to the idea of no longer having one’s
own vehicle
Study participants from France exhibit a high level of
acceptance for sharing concepts
Japanese study participants rate a variety of equip-
ment options as far less appealing when compared to
other countries
Enabling the Value of Time
4
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Background
Automated driving functions the status quo
The self-driving car and its future are very prominent in the
media and are pushing other innovations such as alternative
drive and mobility concepts into the background these are
the findings of an analysis of international publications re-
cently carried out by Horváth & Partners.1 The subject is at-
tracting worldwide attention as it is viewed as a (partial) so-
lution for problems such as the increasing volume of traffic,
harmful emissions and road safety. Furthermore, people are
increasingly appreciating the benefits that self-driving vehi-
cles can offer for working persons as well as people who have
not driven a vehicle before, such as people who require as-
sistance and even children. Equally important are the possi-
ble applications in the field of transport logistics especially
in urban areas. It is in these areas that emission-free and
autonomous vehicles can help to significantly reduce noise
pollution and pollutants as well as improve the efficiency of
last-mile delivery”.
In terms of solutions available on the market, tangible con-
cept studies are coming to the forefront of public attention.
The robo taxi” – “Sedric” developed by Volkswagen or the
“Audi Aicon” and “Smart Vision EQ fortwo” studies pre-
sented at the 67th International Motor Show IAA in Frank-
furt in 2017 are examples of this. The first fully automated
taxis are already being trialed in Singapore and the USA.
Similar projects are also being undertaken in Germany, such
as the autonomously driving shuttle service being tested by
German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, in a rural region
of Bavaria. Other fleet tests, such as BVG tests (Berliner
Verkehrsgesellschaft Berlin public transport company) on
the grounds of the Charité hospital will take place soon.
“Those who just consider the technology have
not yet recognized how autonomous driving
will change our society.”2
Dr. Dieter Zetsche, Chairman of the Board of
Management of Daimler AG
Looking back at the “The Value of Time” (2016) study
If technology can take over the task of driving, people will
gain time, which they can then use for a variety of purposes.
New business areas open up because people are willing to
pay for value-added services in autonomous vehicles. This
was the key finding of the first study, “The Value of Time
1 Horváth & Partners (2017): New Business Models for the Automotive In-
dustry
2 Heise Online (2015): Mobiler Lebensraum (only available in German)
Potential for User-Centered Services Offered by Autonomous
Driving”, published by Horváth & Partners and the Fraunho-
fer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO in 2016.
The study centers around a user survey carried out among
1,500 participants from Germany, Japan and California
(USA). Possible concepts for activities during autonomous
driving were considered on the basis of two different scenar-
ios – “highly automated vehicle” (“feet off) and the driver-
less capsule (“brain off).3 The graphic below summarizes
the results of the previous study.
Three-quarters of motorists surveyed are prepared to pay for activities
during autonomous driving
Fig. 1: Results of the “The Value of Time” (2016) study
Equipping the vehicles of the future
Positive feedback and the high level of interest from a very
diverse range of market participants regarding the study re-
sults prompted collaboration partners, Horváth & Partners
and the Fraunhofer Institute IAO, to continue the “The Value
of Time” study. The successor study “Enabling the Value of
Time” deals with the scenario of autonomously driving au-
tomobiles. Many concept studies regarding autonomous ve-
hicles already try to provide an insight into the vehicle inte-
riors of the future. Features such as large screens or groups
of seats facing one another are often considered. However
to what extent do these equipment features actually reflect
customerspersonal tastes? And to what extent can premi-
ums be charged for such equipment packages?
3 Horváth & Partners, Fraunhofer IAO (2016): The Value of Time – Poten-
tial for User-Centered Services Offered by Autonomous Driving
Seventy-five percent (75%) of
users are prepared to pay for
value-added services
Users are most willing to
pay for services that meet
their needs regarding
communication, productivity
and basic requirements
The countries involved in the
study differ greatly in terms
of relevance and ranking of
service groups
Users from Califor nia (USA)
exhibit the greatest
willingness to pay for
services
Even in the case of short
travel times per day, end
customers are prepared to
pay for value-added services
Younger users are prepared
to pay more than their older
counterparts
Willingness to pay is largely
independent of the vehicle
segment
The willingness to pay a
premium for an automated
vehicle is significant across
all vehicle segments it is
highest in the small car
segment
The "Value of Time" varies
according to country, age,
income, and vehicle segment
Enabling the Value of Time
5
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
The relevant markets
In addition to the markets considered in the first part of the
study Germany, Japan and the USA (California) France
and China were also taken into account. The American mar-
ket now takes into account the whole of the USA, as opposed
to just California.
The most important characteristics of the five target markets,
such as the significance of the automotive industry and the
attitudes of end customers towards autonomous driving, are
summarized below.
USA
With 17.5 million passenger car registrations in 2016, the
USA is the second largest sales market in the world after
China.4 U.S. companies such as Tesla, Google, Uber and Lyft
are revolutionizing the automotive sector. Nevertheless, the
assessment of the U.S. citizens surveyed is less positive than
that of citizens in other markets. Only 61 percent of those
surveyed expect automated driving functions to become a
reality.5
Regulations in the USA concerning autonomous driving are
less restrictive than those in Germany. Road traffic law falls
under the jurisdiction of the various states, resulting in re-
gional differences.4 At present, autonomous driving is al-
ready legalized in several US states.
France
With 2.0 million passenger car registrations in 2016, the
French automotive market is the smallest sales market in this
study.4 Nevertheless, it represents an interesting perspective
with globally active automotive manufacturers such as Re-
nault and the PSA Group. Moreover, the French citizens sur-
veyed are an interesting comparison group with regard to
the German participants due to their regional proximity and
cultural similarities.
Support for autonomous driving amongst French users is sim-
ilar to that of the German participants. 67 percent of those
surveyed see autonomous driving as a realistic scenario.5
4 Dr. Wolfers, Benedict (2017): Selbstfahrende Autos: Ist das erlaubt? (In:
RAW, March 2017, only available in German)
5 VDA (Verband der Automobilindustrie German Association of the Auto-
motive Industry) (2017)
6 Commerz Finanz (2016): 2016 Automobile Barometer International
Germany
With 3.4 million passenger cars, the German automotive
market is the fourth biggest sales market in the world
based on passenger car registrations.5 In addition, Germany
takes the world’s leading position in automotive production
and innovative capability thanks to major OEMs such as
Volkswagen, Daimler and BMW, as well as leading automo-
tive suppliers such as Bosch, Continental and ZF.
The technology involved in autonomous driving is increas-
ingly attracting the attention of the German public. 67 per-
cent of those questioned as part of a Commerz-Finanz survey
believe that the self-driving car will become a reality.6
13 percent believe that the technology involved in autono-
mous driving will be the trending topic of the automotive
sector over the next five years.7
The People’s Republic of China
With 23.7 million passenger car registrations in 2016, the
Chinese automotive market is currently the largest single
market in the world. Based on growth of 18 percent in 2016,
it is to be expected that this development will become even
more acute despite a decrease in growth.4 With the produc-
tion of 28.1 million vehicles, China is also the country that
manufactures the most vehicles in the world. 8
The Chinese market is an ideal market to be examined as
part of this study due in particular to the very high level of
acceptance regarding autonomous driving. According to a
survey, 92 percent of Chinese respondents believe that self-
driving cars will become a reality.5
Japan
With 4.2 million passenger car registrations in 2016, Japan
is one of the three biggest sales markets in the world.4 Jap-
anese OEMs such as Toyota, Nissan and Honda are ex-
tremely well-known around the world and drive forward in-
novative vehicle developments.
Support for autonomous driving is higher in Japan than in
the European markets investigated as part of this study,
which was already evident in the previous study.9 In this re-
gard, it was ascertained that the Japanese participants have
the highest acceptance levels with regard to paying for ad-
ditional services.
7 Mobile.de (2016): E-Autos, autonomes Fahren & Co.: Was wollen die
Deutschen wirklich? (only available in German)
8 OICA (2017): 2016 Production Statistics
9 Horváth & Partners, Fraunhofer IAO (2016): The Value of Time
Enabling the Value of Time
6
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
The framework of the study
and overview of results
Demographics of the sample
As part of this survey, 500 users from the five countries men-
tioned above the USA, France, Germany, China and Japan
were surveyed. The average age of the respondents is
46.3 years. Figure 2 represents the apportionment of the
study participants into six different age groups.
25- to 34-year-olds represent the biggest group in the sample
Fig. 2: Age distribution of study participants
Figure 3 gives an overview of where the study participants
live. While there is a similar distribution structure in France,
Germany, Japan and the USA, progressing urbanization is
particularly evident in China, where 98.4 percent of surveyed
participants live in urban areas.
Taking all of the countries into account, the majority of study
participants live in an urban area
Fig. 3: Distribution of the urban and rural populations of the mar-
kets examined in %
10 Specially equipped sharing vehicles
Slightly more than 80 percent of the study participants state
that they use a car more frequently than public transport
and almost 90 percent of the participants have their
own car.
Structure of the study and premises
The study is based on the scenario whereby vehicles can
drive autonomously. The authors of the study are acting on
the assumption that privately used and publicly shared au-
tonomous vehicles will coexist in the future. The first part of
the survey addresses the usage types and the associated
equipment options for privately used vehicles as this concept
is considerably more familiar for most of the respondents.
The second part of the survey focuses on the concept of
shared mobility with autonomous themed cabs10.
For the purposes of evaluating a privately used autonomous
vehicle, it was assumed that vehicles are basically equipped
and are thereby more or less the same as mid-range cars
available on the market in terms of equipment. Basic equip-
ment includes:
Seats
10-Inch display for showing multimedia content and
journey information
Navigation system
Input/operating device for multimedia/navigation
system
Internet and WLAN hotspot
Air-conditioning system
Speakers for multimedia and navigation services
Age distribution
25 -3418 -24 35 -44 45 -54 55 -64 > 65
21.4%
8.8%
19.9% 17.8% 16.6% 15.4%
24
53
23
Major city
Smaller/
medium-sized city
Village/rural area
24
44
32
52
46
2
31
44
25
30
50
21
USA France Germany China Japan
Enabling the Value of Time
7
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Overview of results
Limited willingness to pay for automated driving func-
tions
As in the first “The Value of Time” study, drivers were asked
about their willingness to pay for automated driving func-
tions. The result: 30 percent of all respondents would pay
more than EUR 1,500 for these functions; nevertheless, al-
most 50 percent would still pay more than EUR 500.
Sleeping and relaxingis the most relevant usage type
Five different usage types that can be carried out while trav-
eling in an autonomous vehicle were used for evaluation:
Sleeping and relaxing”: Covers any type of rest from
switching off in a seated position to falling fast asleep
in a lying position
Working and being productive
Covers private and
occupational office work, e. g., writing documents,
deadline planning or activities related to continuing
education and training, such as a language course
Eating and drinking
Covers the consumption of
small snacks and beverages as well as complete meals
that can be cooled or warmed up in the vehicle
Entertainment
Covers a range of activities, includ-
ing watching television, playing video games, listening
to music, reading books or playing board games
Beauty, wellness and fitness
Covers activities such
as personal care or applying make-up, as well as activ-
ities related to wellness and fitness such as fitness ex-
ercises
On the basis of the Technology Acceptance Model11, the
acceptance level for a usage type was determined via the
level of agreement with the following three statements:
I feel enthusiastic about …
I find ... useful.
I would use regularly.
All of the statements are to be evaluated on a five-point
scale from “do not agree” (-2) to “agree” (+2). In line with
the definition, a usage type is deemed to be accepted when
the average agreement value of the respondents across all
three statements is clearly positive (≥ 1).
11 Davis, Fred D. (1989): Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease Of Use, and
User Acceptance of Information Technology.
(In: MIS Quarterly, Sep. 1989, 13/3)
The respective acceptance values are represented as percent-
ages per usage type in Figure 4.
Usage type sleeping and relaxinginterests the participants the most;
whilebeauty, wellness and fitnessinterests the participants the least
Fig. 4: Acceptance values for different usage types in %
Sleeping and relaxingis the most popular usage type by a
margin, while beauty, wellness and fitnessis significantly
less popular. The other three usage types are at a similar
level to one another. It is also interesting to note that there
are no changes regarding this distribution across the various
gender and age groups, even though the level of support
amongst the younger study participants is generally higher.
When comparing results between countries, preferences for
individual usage types are very similar to one another.
Sleeping and relaxingis also the feature of greatest signif-
icance for participants across all of the countries. Only China
stands out: The acceptance values for all of the usage types
are considerably higher than those of all the other countries
(cf. Fig. 5).
Acceptance of usage types highest in China
Fig. 5: Acceptance of usage types depending on country
38.2
36.4
23.2
46.6
39.8
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being
productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and
fitness
025 50 75
Sleeping and relaxing
Acceptance in %
Working and being
productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and
fitness
USA France Germany China Japan
Enabling the Value of Time
8
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
High potential for usage types on long journeys
The extent to which each usage type is suitable for different
types of journeys was also investigated as part of the study.
To do this, the study drew on various journey purposes iden-
tified in other surveys.12
Figure 6 shows the top 3usage types per journey type. The
percentages reflect the proportion of respondents who con-
sider the respective type of journey to be suitable for a usage
type. How suitable a type of journey is with regard to com-
pleting other activities while traveling is determined by
means of the total number of entries across all usage types13
and can be seen in the figure by way of the order of journey
types (the most relevant type appears first).
The potential of the usage types is particularly evident with regard to
long journeys
Fig. 6: Top 3usage types per journey type
First of all, it is clear that usage type sleeping and relaxing
is particularly relevant for long journeys; the three journey
types long journey for leisure purposes, vacation journey
and long business journeys are the most suitable for the
defined usage types. In contrast, usage type working and
being productive is particularly relevant for business jour-
neys and commuting, which, taken alone, is not surprising in
that respect. However, in the future it will be possible to do
much more complex productivity-related activities in vehicles
thanks to automated driving functions. There are no notable
12 BMVB (Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung Fe-
deral Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development) (2008):
Mobilität in Deutschland 2008 (Mobility in Germany 2008).
discrepancies in this regard across the categories of gender,
age and countries.
Suitability of usage types varies depending on the num-
ber of passengers
Which usage types are particularly well-suited for only one
passenger or several passengers? To determine the answer
to this, the respondents were asked to select one to three
usage types the result is presented in Figure 7.
The suitability of the usage types sometimes varies significantly
depending on the number of passengers in a vehicle
Fig. 7: Suitability of usage types depending on the number of pas-
sengers in %
The suitability of the usage types for one person roughly cor-
responds to the general acceptance values already men-
tioned. However, if the suitability of the usage types is con-
sidered for two or more people, eating and drinking and
entertainment surpass sleeping and relaxing the pre-
ferred usage type in the case of one passenger. In turn, this
usage type becomes considerably less popular in the case of
multi-person journeys as is precisely the case with usage
type “beauty, wellness and fitness. Only working and being
productiveis evaluated similarly in both cases, which indi-
cates that respondents can imagine working alone as well
as in a group (e. g., a meeting).
Specific equipment options are considered for each use
case
The second part of the survey determined the relevance of
different functional characteristics of autonomous vehicles
for different usage types. To increase the significance of the
survey, only the equipment options that were identified as
potentially relevant in advance were investigated per usage
type. As a quiet journey, an external screen and a pleasant
atmosphere could play an important role for all usage types,
respondents were asked about these three equipment op-
tions in every case. The option of an intelligent personal as-
sistant was also investigated for each usage type but was
13 One to three entries regarding journey types per usage type (5) and per-
son (2500)
7,511
Long journey
for leisure purposes
> 1 hour
7,120Vacation journey
4,492
Long journey for
business purposes
> 1 hour
2,308Commuting
1,960
Short journey for
business purposes
< 1 hour
1,764
Short journey for
leisure purposes
< 1 hour
1,289Shopping
1,109
Transporting or
collecting people
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being
productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness
and fitness
Number
of entries
Priority 2Priority 1
Usage types
Priority 3
73%
71%
61%
35%
42%
19%
14%
11%
72%
69%
36%
19%
11%
17%
11%
10%
71%
68%
33%
14%
9%
14%
10%
9%
62.0
35.1
35.3
31.1
40.9
64.5
37.7
54.6
20.9
12.0
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment Beauty, wellness
and fitness
1 passenger 2+ passengers
Enabling the Value of Time
9
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
described individually in line with the respective activity.
Each equipment option for a usage type is to be evaluated
by respondents on a five-point scale from “not at all im-
portant” (-2) to “very important” (+2). The relevance of an
equipment option (with regard to the respective usage type)
stems, by definition, from the proportion of clearly positive
evaluations on average (≥ 1). Figure 8 shows the most rele-
vant equipment options for usage type sleeping and relax-
ingas an example.
Equipment options associated with comfort are relevant to sleeping
and relaxing
Fig. 8: Relevant equipment options for sleeping and relaxingin %
How would the study participants configure their own
autonomous vehicle?
As part of the study, participants were able to select their
preferred equipment options from a predefined list, contain-
ing a total of 18 different options. For this purpose, similar
equipment options (such as comfortable seating position
for workingand comfortable seating position for relaxing)
were combined into one equipment option (comfortable
seating position for relaxing or working). Figure 9 presents
the six most relevant equipment options for all of the usage
types.
Equipment options associated with comfort are of interest to
participants across all of the usage types
Fig. 9: Attractiveness of different equipment options presented as a
percentage of respondents who would select these
The figure shows that equipment associated with comfort is
predominantly favored. This is in line with the equipment
options for usage type sleeping and relaxing, which was
evaluated as the most relevant usage type in the case of sin-
gle-person journeys.
Limited willingness to pay for equipment options overall
Willingness to pay was investigated for all of the equipment
options presented on the basis of 15 stages from EUR 0
to “more than EUR 5,000. Figure 10 shows the progression
of the willingness to pay for the equipment option selected
a comfortable lying position in this case. Approximately
five percent of respondents are willing to pay a premium ex-
ceeding EUR 1,000. Overall, the study established a rather
limited willingness to pay for the equipment options in gen-
eral. Nevertheless, is should be noted that the amounts spec-
ified are to be considered as payments in addition to the
cost of the respective equipment provided as standard such
as a drivers seat. From a demand perspective, it is not possi-
ble to verify the significantly increased revenue potential of-
ten desired with regard to specialized equipment required
for automated driving functions.
Willingness to pay varies significantly in the case of a comfortable
lying position as an equipment option
Fig. 10: Willingness to pay expressed as a percentage of the respond-
ents who would pay the respective amount
77.9
83.4
66.8
39.9
49.4
66.4
52.7
Comfortable seating
for relaxation
Quiet journey
External screen
Comfortable lying position
for going to sleep
Sleep/relaxation assistant
Pleasant atmosphere
Full-body massage
38.8
42.3
56.8
56.2
49.6
30.3
Comfortable seating position
for working or relaxing
Quiet journey
Comfortable lying position
Cooling function
Retractable surface
External screen
1.1
63.2
45.4
22.9
11.1
4.0
> EUR 50 > EUR 500> EUR 100 > EUR 300 > EUR 1,000 > EUR 2,500
Comfortable
lying position
Enabling the Value of Time
10
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Participants only find six themed cab concepts attractive
Autonomous themed cabs are sharing vehicles provided for
mobility on demand; the configuration of such vehicles is
optimized for particular usage purposes. As is the case with
today’s well-known ride-hailing services (Uber, Lyft), these ve-
hicles are ordered as required via smartphone and are paid
for once the respective journey is complete. Figure 11 lists
the 12 themed cabs available for selection and how attrac-
tive they are from a user’s perspective.
In keeping with the results regarding usage types in private
vehicles, the quiet caris valued most highly. Almost as pop-
ular is the sightseeing car” – a themed cab that supple-
ments journeys with information on the respective surround-
ings. The wellness car did surprisingly well, even though
usage type beauty, wellness and fitnessreceived a low
level of acceptance prior to this. By contrast, the beauty car
and fitness carwere really not favored by the respondents
as was also the case with the gaming car”.
Participants only find six themed cab concepts attractive
Fig. 11: Acceptance for themed cabs across all of the countries in %
While there are only a small number of differences between
the results for each country, there is an interesting difference
between the results for each age group: Approval for the
wellness carand sightseeing car in particular increases
significantly with the age of the respondents. In total, the
acceptance value for autonomous themed cabs is quite high
across all participants with a value of 37.2 percent.
With regard to paying for themed cab journeys, 39 percent
favor the fee per journeyoption. In second and third place
are time-based fee with 23 percent and flat ratewith
22 percent. Only 16 percent of the respondents favor adis-
tance-based fee”.
60.8
32.3
34.9
52.2
33.7
15.5
31.4
18.1
15.2
12.3
8.9
8.8
Sightseeing
Film
Restaurant
Wellness
Party
Productivity
Pet
Peace and quiet
Fitness
Beauty
Gaming
Conference
Enabling the Value of Time
11
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
In-depth observations
and results
This chapter reviews the ten key results of the study in detail
and subdivides these results into three subject areas: ac-
ceptance and willingness to pay for automated driving func-
tions and country-specific and demographic particularities.
The respective analysis results of this study are reviewed in
detail for each of these subject areas.
Acceptance and willingness to pay for automated driv-
ing functions
1) The more time study participants spend in a vehicle, the
more eager they are for automated driving functions.
2) Virtual assistants as specialized digital extras are already
attracting interest among users. In particular, these extras
support the favored usage types.
3) Willingness to pay for automated driving functions does
not depend on participants’ eagerness for such driving func-
tions.
Country-specific particularities
4) Participants from the USA show a high level of interest
with regard to working in their own autonomous vehicle if
the interior is configured accordingly.
5) A high number of participants from France are willing to
use sharing options. In line with this, many French partici-
pants can forgo having their own vehicle.
6) Participants from Germany show the lowest level of inter-
est in the usage types. However, German respondents are
willing to spend more for equipment options than respond-
ents from other countries.
7) China attaches a comparatively high value to usage types
for single-person or multi-person journeys. There is a high
level of interest in innovative equipment options.
8) Japan has a comparatively low level of interest in usage
type working and being productivein an autonomous ve-
hicle. Compared to the results from other countries, equip-
ment options are evaluated less positively.
Demographic particularities
9) A large number of families are very accepting of autono-
mous vehicles.
10) Residents in large cities and younger people are very
accepting of automated driving functions.
Enabling the Value of Time
12
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Acceptance and willingness to pay for auto-
mated driving functions
The more time study participants spend in a vehicle, the
more eager they are for automated driving functions
“I generally spend too much time in my vehicle!” this is a
sentiment shared by 24.7 percent of study participants
across all of the countries. This statement is especially true
amongst participants in age groups 25 - 34 and 35 - 44.
Often, this evaluation is also linked to a higher daily travel
time. The participants in this group state that they spend
95 minutes in a vehicle each day, which is significantly
longer than the comparative value of the average of all the
respondents (70 minutes).
The statement “I spend too much time in my vehicle” correlates
positively with higher acceptance values
Fig. 12: Acceptance values for different usage types in %
Study participants who generally spend a lot of time in their
vehicles exhibit significantly higher acceptance values for all
of the usage purposes considered.
Figure 13 illustrates the analysis of participants’ eagerness
regarding automated driving functions as well as ac-
ceptance for individual transport options for goods and per-
sons as well as themed cabs in relation to the too much
time in vehiclescomparison group.
Participants who believe they spend too much time in a car are very
eager for autonomous themed cabs as well as autonomous transport
options for goods and persons
Fig. 13: Eagerness regarding automated driving functions in %
Willingness to pay is also higher amongst the group of par-
ticipants who state they spend too much time in cars. Fig-
ure 14 illustrates this using the example of a comfortable
seating position as an equipment option, which receives the
highest level of approval. Willingness to pay is considerably
higher amongst the aforementioned participants compared
to the other participants, whereby approximately 15 percent
of this group is willing to pay more than EUR 500 for this
equipment option. In comparison, only 7 percent of the
other study participants are willing to pay this amount.
Increased willingness to pay for equipment options in the participant
group that spends too much time in cars
Fig. 14: Willingness to pay for a comfortable seating position ex-
pressed as a percentage of respondents who would pay the
respective amount
Virtual assistants as specialized digital extras are al-
ready attracting interest among users. In particular,
these extras support the favored usage types
Study participants were asked about their level of interest in
different equipment options for the specified usage pur-
poses. The virtual assistant could be selected as an equip-
ment option. Virtual assistants are digital service providers
that help vehicle passengers perform certain tasks; for exam-
ple, virtual assistants can optimize document management
or record speech for usage type working and being produc-
tive.
On average, 40 percent of respondents rate virtual assistants
as interesting. Virtual assistants receive the highest level of
interest, more than three-quarters of respondents, in terms
of being a supporting feature for usage types sleeping and
relaxingand working and being productive”.
Figure 15 shows the distribution of customer interest in cor-
responding virtual assistants for the activities considered
with values averaged over all the markets examined.
39.2
28.4
31.1
32.4
16.4
Other
69.4
60.8
60.1
62.4
44.1
Comparison group “Too much Time in Vehicles”
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being
productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and
fitness
High acceptance
of usage type
Automated driving
function
Goods transport
Passenger
transportation
Themed cab
40.1
30.3
30.1
29.7
74.2
65.2
62.9
60.3
Other Comparison group “Too much Time in Vehicles”
High eagerness
regarding …
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
mehr als
50
mehr als 100
mehr als 300
mehr als 500
mehr als
1 000
mehr als
2 500
Zu viel Zeit im Auto Sonstige
> EUR 50 > EUR 100 > EUR 300 > EUR 500 > EUR 1,000 > EUR 2,500
0
20
40
60
80
100%
Too much time in the car Other
Enabling the Value of Time
13
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
A virtual assistant is deemed most attractive for usage types sleeping
and relaxingand working and being productive
Fig. 15: Attractiveness of virtual assistants
It is surprising that customers are least interested in services
related to beauty, wellness and fitness, particularly as such
functions the automated monitoring of body functions to
determine a fitness plan, for example are regularly dis-
cussed at the moment as part of innovation plans developed
by automotive manufacturers and suppliers. In contrast, cus-
tomers are extremely interested in usage type sleeping and
relaxing: Half of respondents express a general or very
strong interest in the corresponding equipment options. Re-
gardless of the activity, around a third of consumers are un-
decided with regard to rejecting or supporting the idea of
virtual assistants. It can be assumed that a primary reason
for this is that a large proportion of the respondents can only
imagine the functions and benefits of virtual assistants with
difficulty.
On the other hand, an analysis of study participants who al-
ready use virtual assistants in other areas of their lives shows
that these respondents are more willing to pay than others.
All in all across the countries examined, around 60 percent
of respondents are willing to pay for virtual assistants (cf.
Fig. 16).
Willingness to pay for virtual assistants is highest in China
Fig. 16: Willingness to pay for virtual assistants
China was identified as the country with the highest willing-
ness to pay by a margin, whereby 80 percent of respondents
would pay for virtual assistants (up to EUR 100 and higher).
In Japan and Germany, willingness to pay is similarly high
and is the same as the overall average.
The results of the French market are very interesting as
French respondents demonstrate the lowest willingness to
pay, with only 50 percent saying they would pay for virtual
assistants. By contrast however, French respondents show an
above-average level of interest in virtual assistants in the
case of working and being productiveand eating and
drinking.
Willingness to pay for automated driving functions does
not depend on participants’ eagerness for such driving
functions
Prior to observing country-specific levels of willingness to
pay, analyzing the acceptance values for the various usage
types provides some interesting insights, as shown in Fig-
ure 17 below.
Significant differences between acceptance values for usage types
across the countries surveyed Chinese consumers exhibit the highest
acceptance values
Fig. 17: Acceptance values for usage types depending on country
in %
It is striking that Chinese study participants exhibit the high-
est acceptance values in comparative terms irrespective of
the usage type. Particularly noteworthy in this respect is the
acceptance value for usage type sleeping and relaxing,
which represents the highest measured value at around
60 percent.
When examining the markets in the USA, France, Germany
and Japan, similar acceptance values are noted, with Ger-
man participants demonstrating the lowest acceptance val-
ues for almost every usage type. Usage type entertainment
is valued least by Japanese users.
80020 40 100%60
Total
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being
productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and
fitness
Very
important
UnimportantImportant Not important
at all
Somewhat
important
08020 40 60 100%
> EUR 500 EUR 100 -500 EUR 0< EUR 100
Total
USA
France
Germany
China
Japan
42.6 44.2 39.2
32.8 32.4 32.4
37.2 35.4 32.6
38.2 37.0 35.4
20.0 21.4 16.2
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness
and fitness
USA France Germany
61.6 45.6
50.6 33.8
46.6 39.4
55.2 33.4
39.2 19.4
China Japan
Enabling the Value of Time
14
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
With regard to analyzing willingness to pay for automated
driving functions, China is once again at the forefront when
compared to the other countries. Almost 65 percent of re-
spondents would pay more than EUR 500 for such functions.
In line with the analysis of acceptance values for usage
types, it is clear that Chinese participants have a particularly
high affinity for autonomous driving. Nearly three out of four
study participants from China state that they are looking for-
ward to automated driving functions.
Being very eager to attain automated driving functions does
not necessarily correlate with a high willingness to pay, as
Figure 18 shows.
Willingness to pay for automated driving functions is independent of
general eagerness regarding these functions
Fig. 18: Country comparison regarding eagerness and willingness to
pay in relation to automated driving functions
This is particularly clear when comparing results with the
Asian countries China and Japan. While Chinese users back
up their special position with a comparatively high willing-
ness to pay, Japanese participants demonstrate the lowest
willingness to pay despite being very eager for automated
driving functions.
When analyzing the group of Japanese respondents in de-
tail, there is an explanation for this striking divergence. Only
approximately 14 percent believe that they spend too much
time in their vehicles as a general rule. This assessment tal-
lies with the specified daily journey time of 44 minutes per
day, which is significantly lower than the overall average of
70 minutes. This appraisal suggests that participants do not
view automated driving functions as offering high added
value because they do not spend much time in their vehicles.
“The most popular cars in Japan are com-
pact/small economic cars. Approximately 60%
of respondents own a compact car, a city car or
a small car. And people are not usually inter-
ested in paying extra for options beyond safety
features and basic functionalities. This may ex-
plain the low willingness to pay for autono-
mous driving as an additional function.”
Rika Kasamatsu, Business Development Partner,
Genex Partners
In contrast to this, study participants from Germany and the
USA exhibit a comparatively high willingness to pay despite
not being very eager to attain automated driving functions.
In view of the specified driving time, it is particularly clear in
the context of the USA that added value with regard to au-
tonomous driving can be explained on the basis of spending
the highest amount of time in vehicles by a margin
(91 minutes as opposed to 70 minutes for the sample
overall).
“Americans are not anxiously awaiting auton-
omous vehicles, but they are willing to pay
more for the service when it is available. If so,
I believe that most Americans are used to
spending a decent amount of time behind the
wheel in order to get anywhere.”
Mike Kelso, Principal, Northhighland
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
mehr als
50
mehr als
100
mehr als
300
mehr als
500
mehr als
1000
mehr als
2500
USA Frankreich Deutschland China Japan
73.2
37.8
35.0 38.2
58.4
Eagerness
regarding
automated
driving function
in %
0
20
40
60
80
100%
> EUR 50 > EUR 100 > EUR 300 > EUR 500 > EUR 1,000 > EUR 2,500
USA France Germany China Japan
Enabling the Value of Time
15
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Country-specific particularities
Participants from the USA show a high level of interest
with regard to working in their own autonomous vehicle
if the interior is configured accordingly
Country-specific particularities are analyzed by means of
a standardized procedure and are categorized into three sub-
ject areas:
Suitability of different usage types depending on the
number of persons in a vehicle
Assessment of equipment options
Country-specific particularities
In the USA, usage type working and being productiveis of interest to
users regardless of the number of passengers
Fig. 19: Suitability of usage types based on the number of passengers
in the USA in %
Figure 19 provides an overview of the suitability of the us-
age types investigated. Usage type sleeping and relaxing
is deemed most suitable in the case of a journey with one
passenger. In the case of two or more passengers, usage
types eating and drinkingand entertainmentare of par-
ticular interest.
Usage type entertainmentis a very interesting case due to
the high discrepancy regarding its suitability depending on
the number of passengers. In the USA, entertainment is
deemed least suitable for a journey involving one passenger
(30.6 percent). As soon as two or more people are traveling
in a vehicle, suitability increases to 74 percent in the USA
the second highest value compared to results from the other
countries.
It is also striking that when comparing results from the vari-
ous countries involved, usage type beauty, wellness and fit-
nessreceives a high acceptance value of 33 percent for jour-
neys involving one person, but this value decreases
significantly for journeys involving multiple people.
If suitability is assessed across both categories (one or more
passengers), respondents from the USA support usage type
eating and drinking the most. With regard to evaluating
themed cabs, US participants’ interest in the restaurant car
is comparatively high, reaching third place with 34.4 per-
cent.
When cross-compared with all of the other countries, the
USA is noticeably different with regard to usage type work-
ing and being productive: it is valued most highly by US
participants. By contrast, interest in a productivity vehicle
as a themed cab is relatively low at 27 percent. Mike Kelso
gives a possible reason for this:
“If a person or persons were in an autonomous
vehicle, they would probably use the time to
do some work (e.g. if they were stuck in traffic
in an autonomous vehicle home from work).
However, if they were to hire an autonomous
car for a particular purpose, they would rather
use their time to do something more enjoyable,
such as relaxing, sightseeing, eating or enjoy-
ing some entertainment.”
Mike Kelso, Principal, Northhighland
Figure 20 below gives an overview of the equipment
options chosen by US participants for a car used for
personal purposes.
54.6
32.8
69.2
33.0
45.2
6.6
37.4
41.4
74.0
30.6
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment Beauty, wellness
and fitness
1 passenger 2+ passengers
Enabling the Value of Time
16
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
In the USA, the high suitability of usage type working and being
productiveis reflected in the assessment of equipment options
Fig. 20: Assessment of equipment options in the USA in %
The assessment shows that equipment options associated
with usage types working and being productiveand eat-
ing and drinkingare valued more highly than other options.
Examples of such equipment options include a comfortable
seating position for working and relaxing, a quiet journey, a
retractable surface or cooling function. On the other hand,
high earners are less willing to pay for these special equip-
ment options when compared to the average value across
the other countries. This might be related to a number of
factors, including the fact that certain items of equipment
are already provided in expensive vehicle segments in partic-
ular.
Although American respondents spend significantly more
time in vehicles than the respondents from the other coun-
tries due to an average daily journey time of over
90 minutes, 60 percent reject the assumption that they
would spend too much time in a vehicle more than in any
other country. Approximately only one in every five people
would agree with this assumption. It can also be assumed
that American respondents are quite skeptical of innovation.
Roughly only four out of ten Americans are looking forward
to autonomous driving almost 50 percent of respondents
across all of the countries. In terms of sharing vehicles, Amer-
icans are also much more skeptical than respondents from
the other countries: 60 percent of Americans stated that
they cannot imagine forgoing their own vehicle even if suit-
able sharing options are available.
A high number of participants from France are willing to
use sharing options. In line with this, many French par-
ticipants can forgo having their own vehicle
Figure 21 gives an overview of the suitability of the various
usage types with regard to the number of passengers pre-
sent. It is clear that French participants deem usage type
sleeping and relaxing to be most relevant in the case of
journeys involving one passenger. Nearly three out of four
respondents consider the activity useful, which is also the
highest value for a journey with one passenger across the
countries and usage types examined. When comparing the
results across the countries, the usage type is also deemed
very suitable for journeys involving two or more passengers.
As such, French participants deem sleeping and relaxing
as the most relevant. This result is also backed-up by partici-
pants’ support for the quiet caras a special sharing vehicle.
In this case, French respondents exhibit the second-highest
acceptance value at 64 percent.
In France, usage types sleeping and relaxingand eating and
drinkingreceive the highest acceptance values
Fig. 21: Suitability of usage types depending on the number of pas-
sengers in France in %
In the case of two or more persons, usage type entertain-
mentis deemed most suitable. On the other hand, usage
type beauty, wellness and fitnessis markedly further down
the scale; it exhibits the lowest acceptance values and
thereby follows the distribution pattern observed across the
countries.
Figure 22 shows the result of the different equipment op-
tions. Compared with the results of participants from other
countries, French participants value a comfortable lying po-
sition much more highly. This result is consistent with the
high level of support for usage type sleeping and relaxing.
Appropriate display
of digital screens
60.2
Comfortable seating position
for working or relaxing
39.8
67.0
38.0
6.4
45.0
26.0
18.8
16.4
45.6
24.2
16.0
11.4
13.0
9.6
6.0
13.2
9.4
Quiet journey
Comfortable lying position
Cooling function
External screen
Retractable surface
Full-body massage
Pleasant atmosphere
Heating/warming function
Storage space
Opposing seats
Washing/refreshment function
Virtual assistance
Medical check-up
Suitable VR screen
Suitable VR screen
Make-up surface
73.2
44.4
52.0
39.0 33.2
67.6
13.2
58.8
41.4
8.8
1 passenger 2+ passengers
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment Beauty, wellness
and fitness
Enabling the Value of Time
17
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
This link is also apparent with regard to the equipment op-
tions, cooling function, retractable surface and opposing
seats, in relation to usage type eating and drinking.
In France, equipment options linked to usage type eating and
drinkingare rated as important
Fig. 22: Evaluation of equipment options in France in %
Attention has already been drawn to the result of low will-
ingness to pay for automated driving functions amongst
French participants above and it is the same situation with
regard to analyzing the willingness to pay for individual
equipment options, whereby willingness to pay is lower
when compared to other countries even for preferred op-
tions.
A particular characteristic of French study participants is the
fact that this group is very willing to use sharing options and
would therefore forgo having private vehicles.
“Vehicle sharing options (carpooling espe-
cially, but also short-term private vehicle
rental) are already common practices in
France. This is why autonomous vehicles can
be seen as an opportunity to further develop
these existing offers, and French people would
be likely to use them.”
Hervé de Perthuis, Partner, Oresys
In view of this, assessing themed cabs is another focal point
of this study. The high level of acceptance for the quiet car
determined when comparing results from all of the countries
has already been mentioned. At 67 percent, the sightseeing
carhas the highest rate of acceptance amongst French par-
ticipants. Compared to the results from Germany, China and
Japan, this type of themed cab is rated more highly by
more than 20 percent to be exact.
The restaurant carhas a low acceptance value, which does
not tally with the high evaluation of usage type eating and
drinking. This would indicate that French participants can
imagine consuming meals and beverages in their own vehi-
cles but are not convinced by the idea of doing this in a
shared vehicle.
Lastly, is it important to note that many French participants
are willing to transport family members, children, friends or
goods in their own autonomous vehicles scenarios in which
the respondents would not need to be within the vehicle
themselves.
Participants from Germany show the lowest level of in-
terest in the usage types. However, German respondents
are willing to spend more for equipment options than re-
spondents from other countries
When compared with the results from other countries, the
acceptance values of German study participants with regard
to the usage types are lagging behind, which has already
been addressed above.
In Germany, entertainmentis the favored usage type in the case of
two or more passengers
Fig. 23: Suitability of usage types based on the number of passengers
in Germany in %
Figure 23 gives a differentiated picture of acceptance values
in Germany. Usage type sleeping and relaxingis deemed
most suitable in the case of a single-person journey; however,
in the case of two or more passengers, this accolade goes to
entertainment”.
Cooling function
Appropriate display
of digital screens
Medical check-up
External screen
Comfortable seating position
for working or relaxing
Comfortable lying position
Quiet journey
Retractable surface
Full-body massage
Pleasant atmosphere
Heating/warming function
Storage space
Opposing seats
Virtual assistance
Washing/refreshment function
Suitable VR screen
Space for fitness exercises
Make-up surface
18.6
58.0
39.2
55.8
52.0
22.4
22.4
15.4
21.6
9.6
5.8
10.2
10.6
18.0
14.0
37.0
48.4
3.2
39.0
48.4
38.4
24.4 27.4 26.8
59.2
76.6
18.2
11.0
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment Beauty, wellness
and fitness
1 passenger 2+ passengers
Enabling the Value of Time
18
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
The biggest discrepancies between single-person and multi-
person journeys are clear with regard to usage types eating
and drinkingand entertainment.
When comparing results between the countries, Germany
only adopts a high value for multi-person journeys in the
case of usage types eating and drinkingand entertain-
ment. With regard to usage type sleeping and relaxing,
German respondents give significantly lower values.
This trend is confirmed when analyzing German acceptance
values for themed cabs. Although the quiet cartakes first
place with 55 percent, it is not valued as much as it is by
respondents from other countries. With 37 percent, the
productivity cartakes the next place; the restaurant car
follows with 25 percent and the conference carfollows on
with 18 percent.
In Germany, the comfortable seating position is valued most
Fig. 24: Evaluation of equipment options in Germany in %
A connection with the acceptance values for the usage types
is also apparent with regard to equipment options for the
perfect interior of an autonomous vehicle. There is a high
level of interest in the comfortable seating position, quiet
journey and comfortable lying position equipment options,
which are closely linked to usage types sleeping and relax-
ingand working and being productive. Nevertheless, with
nearly 12 percent, the lying position option compares unfa-
vorably with the results from the other countries.
Despite the generally low level of support for the different
usage types and automated driving functions, German study
participants exhibit a relatively high level of willingness to
pay for automated driving functions when compared with
the other countries. This insight also applies to willingness
to pay with regard to equipment options particularly in the
case of functions in which German participants are very in-
terested. An example is the lying position equipment option:
Despite exhibiting a lower level of support when compared
to the other countries, German respondents are the second
group of respondents most willing to pay for this equipment
option.
China attaches a comparatively high value to usage
types for single-person or multi-person journeys. There is
a high level of interest in innovative equipment options
This study report has referred to the fact that Chinese partic-
ipants are very willing to pay for automated driving func-
tions many times. Chinese study participants are the most
accepting of each usage type, are the most eager for auton-
omous driving and are more willing to pay than respondents
from the other countries.
“China’s consumers are immersed in a world-
leading, digitally savvy environment with re-
gard to activities such as paying, taking taxis,
chatting, working etc. An increasing number of
start-ups and tech-giants such as Alibaba, Te-
cent and Baidu are competing for consumers’
fragmented time with numerous product and
technology innovations and business model
developments. As a result, Chinese consumers
are more likely to accept the latest innova-
tions. Besides, online respondents usually
have a higher level of exposure to digital envi-
ronments than others so this may have im-
pacted the results.”
Yiming Jiang, Vice President, S-Point
.
Retractable surface
Quiet journey
Heating/warming function
Comfortable seating position
for working or relaxing
Appropriate display
of digital screens
External screen
Comfortable lying position
Full-body massage
Cooling function
60.2
Pleasant atmosphere
Storage space
Opposing seats
Washing/refreshment function
Virtual assistance
Medical check-up
Suitable VR screen
Space for fitness exercises
Make-up surface
57.4
27.2
52.0
45.4
28.8
20.4
19.2
20.4
38.0
25.4
21.0
18.0
14.8
9.8
10.2
2.6
4.8
Enabling the Value of Time
19
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
In China, there are no significant differences between acceptance
values regarding single-person and multi-person journeys
Fig. 25: Suitability of usage types based on the number of passengers
in China in %
Figure 25 illustrates the result of the country-specific evalu-
ation of usage types for China. The subtle differences regard-
ing the evaluation of usage types based on different num-
bers of passengers being present are striking and result in a
very different scenario compared to the results of the other
countries. However, what is the reason for there being such
subtle differences in the results regarding Chinese traveling
alone or with several people?
“A significant number of China’s consumers
live with three generations of family members.
It is normal for them to look for bigger cars
(such as SUVs) and to use their cars for a range
of purposes. It therefore makes sense there is
only a small distinction between their re-
sponses regarding the number of passengers.”
Georgios Marketakis, Managing Director, S-Point
In China as is the case with all of the other countries
usage type sleeping and relaxingis deemed most suitable
for a journey with one passenger. In the case of two or more
passengers and when compared with the results from the
other countries, the value is the highest a distinguishing
characteristic for China. The attitude towards this usage type
is also reflected in the fact that, in the case of themed cabs,
the quiet carhas the highest rating in China with 57 per-
cent.
Usage type working and being productive takes second
place. In turn, the suitability of this usage type is higher than
the comparative value of the other countries. This also tallies
with the highest level of interest for the productivity car
38 percentwhen compared to the results from the other
countries.
The fact that usage type eating and drinkingis deemed to
be not very suitable is striking. Interest in usage type enter-
tainmentis also relatively low across the countries.
Chinese respondents are interested in equipment options for usage
type sleeping and relaxingmost
Fig. 26: Evaluation of equipment options in China in %
With regard to assessing equipment options for the perfect
interior (cf. Fig. 26), there are high acceptance values for
equipment options associated with usage type sleeping
and relaxing. These options include equipment to ensure a
comfortable seating position, a quiet journey and a comfort-
able lying position. However, the values for these are signif-
icantly lower than the country average (cf. red deviations).
The positive deviations from the overall average highlighted
green in Figure 26 show that Chinese participants have a
broader scope of interest in equipment options than the
other study participants. This is particularly true for lower-
ranked equipment options, such as the full-body massage
option or storage space.
The high level of willingness of Chinese study participants to
pay for automated driving functions has been presented
above. This result can also be seen with regard to the high
willingness to pay for equipment options. It is interesting
that there are hardly any differences between income groups
in this regard. To some extent, even participants with lower
incomes exhibit a higher willingness to pay than Chinese
participants with higher incomes. This applies to digital
equipment options such as virtual assistants.
20.2
62.0
41.0
69.6
37.4
26.4 27.4
35.0 38.6
24.8
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment Beauty, wellness
and fitness
1 passenger 2+ passengers
Full-body massage
26.8
Comfortable seating position
for working or relaxing
Appropriate display
of digital screens
Quiet journey
Storage space
Cooling function
Comfortable lying position
External screen
Retractable surface
Pleasant atmosphere
Heating/warming function
Opposing seats
15.4
Washing/refreshment function
Space for fitness exercises
Virtual assistance
Medical check-up
11.4
51.8
Suitable VR screen
Make-up surface
35.4
25.8
24.2
27.2
17.2
16.0
11.4
9.8
23.6
10.8
30.4
47.4
24.2
46.6
Enabling the Value of Time
20
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Japan has a low level of interest in usage type working
and being productivein an autonomous vehicle. Com-
pared to the results from other countries, equipment op-
tions are evaluated less positively
As explained above, Japanese users are very eager for auto-
mated driving functions, which is also reflected in the ac-
ceptance values for individual usage types.
Japan has a comparatively low level of interest in usage type working
and being productivein an autonomous vehicle
Fig. 27: Suitability of usage types depending on the number of pas-
sengers in Japan in %
What is striking is the fact that Japanese study participants
deem usage type working and being productiveas not very
suitable, irrespective of the number of passengers
(cf. Fig. 27).
This result is backed up by the low acceptance values for the
productivity carand conference carsharing vehicles. The
values of 24 percent and 9 percent respectively are the low-
est values across all of the countries.
“Working remotely is not common practice in
Japan yet. Japanese usually commute and
work at their office or workplace. Japanese
also use more public transportation (for com-
muting) than driving their own vehicles, and
even in the case of those who drive on week-
days, 50% spend less than one hour in a car.
Japanese people are therefore less likely to
consider driving time being used for work.”
Rika Kasamatsu,
Business Development Manager, Genex Partners
Usage type sleeping and relaxinghas the highest level of
interest in Japan too. With 69 percent, the quiet careven
has the highest value when compared to the other countries.
The high level of support for usage types entertainment
and eating and drinkingis also striking. This high level of
support is backed up by the high rankings for the relevant
themed cab concepts, such as film carwith an acceptance
value of 42 percent and the restaurant carwith 46 per-
cent.
If the selection of equipment options for the perfect interior
is considered in this context, it is notable that Japanese par-
ticipants consider almost every equipment option as less rel-
evant than the average value across the other countries.
The equipment options rated more positively in Japan than
the average value across the other countries can be assigned
to usage type sleeping and relaxing, with the exception of
the medical check-upoption. A quiet journey, comfortable
lying position and an external screen are examples of these.
The positive assessment is also reflected in the willingness
to pay. With regard to a quiet journey, the full-body massage
and the option of a medical check-up, Japanese study partic-
ipants display a disproportionately high willingness to pay.
In Japan, participants rank a large proportion of the equipment
options as less relevant than the average value
Fig. 28: Evaluation of equipment options in Japan in %
Regardless of this, the Japanese display the lowest willing-
ness to pay for automated driving functions when compared
to respondents from the other countries as already men-
tioned above. The main reason for this is the daily travel time
of respondents in Japan, which is significantly lower than
that of respondents from other countries.
27.4
37.4
69.6
35.0
26.4
62.0
41.0 38.6
20.2 24.8
Sleeping and
relaxing
Working and
being productive
Eating and
drinking
Entertainment Beauty, wellness
and fitness
1 passenger 2+ passengers
Quiet journey
Comfortable seating position
for working or relaxing
Comfortable lying position
Cooling function
External screen
Medical check-up
Retractable surface
Suitable VR screen
Full-body massage
Appropriate display
of digital screens
26.6
Pleasant atmosphere
Heating/warming function
Storage space
56.6
Opposing seats
Washing/refreshment function
Virtual assistance
Space for fitness exercises
Make-up surface
67.6
41.2
14.6
6.8
3.4
14.8
14.8
17.4
38.2
25.4
52.0
8.6
12.6
14.0
13.6
9.0
Enabling the Value of Time
21
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Demographic particularities
A large number of families are very accepting of autono-
mous vehicles
When specifying the size of their household, study partici-
pants could opt to describe themselves as a family, couple
or single. 42 percent of users specified living in a family (cou-
ples: 34 percent, single: 24 percent).
As a group observed in this study, the family...
is 41 years old on average and thereby younger than
the other participants (46 years old across the entire
sample)
is more likely to live in large cities (38 percent as op-
posed to the average of 32 percent) and
believes that it spends too much time in cars (33 per-
cent of family respondents as opposed to 24 percent
of the other respondents)
Families evidently see time spent in vehicles more negatively
than the rest of the study participants at present. This sug-
gests that a higher level of support for automated driving
functions and the associated services is to be expected
amongst families, which is also supported by the results in
Figure 29.
Study participants living in a family see the greatest added value in
automated driving functions
Fig. 29: Eagerness regarding automated driving functions in families
in %
Across all of the countries surveyed, the observed group is
most eager for automated driving functions and the auton-
omous transport of goods and persons.
Compared to single and couple households, families are also
prepared to forgo having their own vehicle in future and
make use of sharing options. The analysis of the acceptance
values for the five usage types also backs up the high
level of support for autonomous driving. Significantly higher
values are assigned to each of the usage types.
For the most part, this observation is not dependent on the
nationality of the study participants. Figure 30 shows that,
with the exception of the Japanese study participants, the
family participant group exhibits the highest acceptance val-
ues in each case.
Except for in Japan, the familyparticipant group exhibits the highest
level of acceptance regarding the usage types
Fig. 30: Acceptance of usage types depending on the respective
household size in %
With regard to income, this study also shows that the family
participant group has a higher income than average. As
such, this group drives more expensive vehicles. 56 percent
of the vehicles are to be categorized as compact executive
cars. Vehicles categorized as minivansand SUVsare dis-
proportionately represented within the family group.
Residents in large cities and younger people are very ac-
cepting of automated driving functions
City residents represent another important group that is
characterized by a high level of eagerness as well as a high
willingness to pay: They are more likely to have a higher in-
come and are part of the two youngest age groups.
Furthermore, study participants who predominantly use pub-
lic transport are very eager for automated driving functions
across all of the countries examined.
Automated
driving function
Goods
transport
Passenger
transportation
42.4
Eagerness
regarding …
59.7
Family
45.0
46.5
Ø 48.6
Ø 38.2
Ø 38.9
0 10 30 50 70
USA France Germany China Japan
Acceptance of usage types in %
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and fitness
Family Couple Single
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and fitness
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and fitness
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and fitness
Sleeping and relaxing
Working and being productive
Eating and drinking
Entertainment
Beauty, wellness and fitness
Enabling the Value of Time
22
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
With this in mind, the living situation and age are important
criteria in terms of accepting innovative mobility solutions.
Residents of large cities display the highest levels of ac-
ceptance across all of the mobility solutions, followed by res-
idents of smaller cities. In contrast, the rural population ex-
hibits the lowest acceptance values.
Figure 31 illustrates the acceptance level for autonomous
driving from respondents living in a large city compared to
participants from a rural area. Acceptance is measured on
the basis of these three criteria:
Eagerness regarding automated driving functions
Interest in themed cabs
Interest in sharing options
Study participants from a large city see the new mobility concepts as
more relevant
Fig. 31: Acceptance for new mobility concepts
There is a significant difference amongst the respondents
with regard to eagerness and interest depending on where
they live. This is particularly evident with regard to interest
in sharing options. Nearly 80 percent of participants from a
rural area clearly do not wish to forgo having their own ve-
hicle. The fact that approval decreases as the distance from
a large city increases is also linked to age distribution.
Predominantly younger people live in large cities, while predominantly
older people live in rural areas
Fig. 32: Distribution of age depending on place of residence in %
In large cities, the group of participants from 25 to 34 years
old represent the biggest group in the panel. In comparison,
the group of participants over 65 years are represented in
rural areas most (cf. Fig. 33). Analyzing eagerness for auto-
mated driving functions according to age groups proves that
the group of 25- to 34-year-old participants exhibit the high-
est level of acceptance for autonomous mobility solutions.
In turn, opposition to autonomous driving increases as the
age of study participants increases.
Eagerness for automated driving functions is primarily seen amongst
younger study participants
Fig. 33: Eagerness for and opposition to automated driving functions
according to age in %
It is also possible to determine differences regarding equip-
ment options depending on where respondents live. In gen-
eral, residents of rural areas attach a comparatively high
level of relevance to a comfortable seating position and
seats that face one another. On the other hand, residents of
large cities attach more value to a pleasant atmosphere and
functions that support virtual and augmented reality appli-
cations.
Eagerness
regarding …
Automated
driving function
22.7
45.4
27.8
56.9
37.4
41.2
Themed cab
Sharing options
Major city
Rural area
45 -5435 -4418 -24 25 -34 55 -64 > 65
15.7
7.6
15.1 18.8 20.5 22.3
9.6
30.2
22.5
15.2 12.9 9.6
Age distribution
Major city
Rural area
35 -4425 -3418 -24 > 65
8.3
45 -54 55 -64
13.8 17.8 19.0 21.1 20.0
16.6
9.4
29.6
22.1
10.4
11.9
Eagerness
regarding
automated
driving function
Rejection of
automated
driving function
Age distribution
Enabling the Value of Time
23
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Enabling the Value of Time
24
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Conclusion
A marketing approach specific to each target
group
With a view to the development of automotive markets,
China can become a leading market for automotive innova-
tion. This is supported by users’ high level of interest in au-
tonomous vehicles and regulatory framework conditions.
Both with regard to private vehicles and sharing fleets, com-
panies operating in the market have the opportunity to
adapt their range of products and services to the specific de-
mands of the Chinese market.
In addition to China, the USA is another important target
market. Due to the size of the market, long travel times and
the high level of importance attached to having a private
vehicle, the authors anticipate a large demand for vehicles
with automated driving functions.
Regardless of country-specific observations, a high level of
acceptance and willingness to pay were identified amongst
the following target groups:
Residents of large cities
Younger age groups up to 45 years old
Households with higher incomes
It is advisable for companies to develop an entry strategy for
vehicles that are equipped such that they are ideal for usage
types sleeping and relaxingor working and being produc-
tive. In particular, seemingly trivial equipment options, such
as a cooling function, are only attractive to these target
groups, however, if they are inexpensive.
With regard to future mobility solutions in the case of shared
themed cabs, companies can position themselves on the
market with use-specific services. The quiet carand sight-
seeing carin particular seem suitable for preliminary pilot
projects.
Modular vehicle design
In the same way that there are modular wardrobes that can
be individually adjusted, a modular principle could be ap-
plied to interior concepts for autonomous vehicles, thereby
accommodating individual demand for use-specific configu-
rations. For example: it is possible to develop interchangea-
ble vehicle cabins with preconfigured interiors that optimally
support the various usage types and are offered on de-
mandif necessary, be it for sleeping and relaxingor work-
ing and being productive. Initial concept proposals have al-
ready been presented by automotive manufacturers.
Toyota, for instance, has presented customized self-driving
e-cars for industry customers at the 2018 CES conference;
Toyotas design enables individual systems to be installed
for shuttle services or parcel deliveries. During the develop-
ment process, the enterprise is collaborating with a number
of companies, including Mazda and Amazon, as well as ride-
sharing services, such as Didi Chuxing and Uber. The vehi-
cles are to be tested in a range of countries including the
USA from early 2020.
The prospect of imminent changes being made to transport
systems promises a high level of demand for mobility solu-
tions involving autonomous vehicles and customer-oriented
services in the supply sector. Sharing vehicles has the great-
est power to sustainably reduce the volume of traffic and
alleviate the extreme lack of parking spaces. Pilot projects in
the P2P sector or ride-poolingsegment are paving the way
towards a reduced number of vehicles on our roads. Intelli-
gently networked autonomous vehicles can become an inte-
gral part of intermodal transport systems in smart cities” –
for private transport as well as transport logistics. New busi-
ness models and services related to autonomous mobility
services, such as robo-taxis, will also emerge. There are no
limits when it comes to creativity.
25
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
About us/Contact
Editors
Horváth & Partner GmbH
Phoenixbau | Koenigstrasse 5
70173 Stuttgart, Germany
Tel.: +49 711 66919-0
automotive@horvath-partners.com
The authors
Dr. Thomas Becker
Head of the Study
TBecker@horvath
-partners.com
Sebastian Stegmüller
Sebastian.Stegmueller@
iao.fraunhofer.de
Dr. Florian Herrmann
Head of the Study
Florian.Herrmann@
iao.fraunhofer.de
Felix Röckle
Felix.Roeckle@
iao.fraunhofer.de
Daniel Duwe
Daniel.Duwe@iao.fraunhofer.de
Niko Unger
NUnger@horvath
-partners.com
Enabling the Value of Time
26
© Fraunhofer IAO | Cordence Worldwide | Horváth & Partners 2018
Study partners
Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO
The Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO helps
companies and institutions to develop new business models
and efficient processes as well as achieve economic success.
With an in-depth understanding of organizational structures
and technology, we turn applied research into reality.
Integrated into international networks, we research and
shape the topics of the future relevant to Germany operating
as a business location. We aim to systematically optimize the
interaction of people, organizations and technology.
Cordence Worldwide
Cordence Worldwide is a global management consulting
partnership with more than 2,700 consultants worldwide. Its
Member Firms are the leading independent consultancies
in the Americas, Asia-Pacific, and Europe and have more
than 60 offices worldwide. Combining global delivery,
focused accountability, and an uncommon dedication to
clients, Cordence Worldwide Member Firms help organiza-
tions all over the world achieve remarkable business results.
It’s a uniquely agile consulting model that creates strong,
responsive partnerships with clients and produces powerful
business solutions all over the world.
Horváth & Partners Management Consultants
Horváth & Partners are independent, international manage-
ment consultants with over 800 highly qualified employees.
Founded in 1981 and headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany,
we have offices at locations in Germany, Austria, Hungary,
Romania, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland and the United Arab
Emirates. Moreover, Horváth & Partners are a proud member
of the Cordence Worldwide global management consulting
partnership, which strengthens our ability to undertake con-
sulting projects in important economic regions of the world
with the highest professional expertise and precise
knowledge of local circumstances.
Our core competences lie in the fields of Corporate Perfor-
mance Management and Performance Optimization both
for the entire company and for the business and functional
areas of Strategy, Innovation, Organization, Sales, Opera-
tions, Controlling, Finance and IT. Horváth & Partners stand
for project results which create sustainable benefit, which is
why we accompany our clients through the entire process
from developing the business concept through to anchoring
via integration into processes and systems.
www.iao.fraunhofer.de
www.cordenceworldwide.com
www.horvath-partners.com
... A recent survey by Becker and colleagues [3] found that potential users had most interest in spending their automated drive with "sleeping and relaxing" followed by "working and being productive", "eating and drinking", "entertainment" and "beauty, wellness and fitness". The most desired type of usage "sleeping and relaxing" is only allowed in L4 automation. ...
... Stated NDRAs were similar for both ADSs, drivers of the L4 condition only stated the activities "Sleeping" and "Watching movies" more frequently. This results corresponds to findings of surveys on potential usage of AD [2,3]. Especially the NDRA "Sleeping" is expected to occur more often in L4 than L3 AD since it is clearly forbidden in L3. ...
Chapter
The development of driving automation is one of the major topics in automotive engineering and is progressing at a fast pace. One key to the success of these systems is the acceptance by users and the actual usage. Surveys on the potential usage and acceptance have shown that the higher the automation level, the higher the acceptance and willingness to engage in side-activities. A driving simulator study with N = 61 was conducted with a between-subject design to compare the acceptance and usage of a conditionally (L3) and a highly (L4) automated driving system (ADS). Drivers were free to use the ADS as they liked. Results show that when using the L3 ADS, drivers spent more time on non-driving related activities and drivers using the L4 ADS spent more time with their eyes closed. The overall acceptance of the L4 ADS was higher.
... Nowadays, sleeping as a car driver is still a vision of future mobility. Previous studies found relaxing, napping and sleeping as very popular non-driving related task (Becker et al., 2018;Kyriakidis, Happee & de Winter, 2015). Whereas in today's cars it is neither possible nor legal to sleep as a car driver, this scenario could become real with the advancing automation of vehicles. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In highly automated driving (SAE Level 4), the driver will be no longer responsible for driving and can sleep during the ride. This opportunity is likely to change user needs. Our work focuses on the first phase of the user-centred design approach and aims to identify the target groups who are willing to use the sleep function and the relevant use cases. First, we conducted an online survey with N = 264 participants to investigate the characteristics that describe the future users of the sleep function. To derive relevant use cases, N = 7 participants of the online survey with a high intention to sleep during automated driving were invited to a subsequent interview study. The online survey identified predictors for a high intention to use a sleep function, such as young age as well as a high frequency and duration of sleeping as a passenger in public transport or cars. However, the results showed that there is no distinct target group. The interviews revealed that the wish to sleep during automated driving is related to the individual’s current mobility behaviour and the personal desire to enhance comfort during inconvenient trips. We derived exemplary use cases. Future research should identify requirements for comfortable sleep during highly automated driving.
... Main research constructs are for example level of autonomy, loss of control, uncertainty, trust, acceptance, and driving fun [37]. Some attempts have also been made to capture people's visions of self-driving cars and activities they might want to engage in during a car ride [3,27,31,45]. These studies do, however, only identify certain activities and do not examine or propose any guidelines on how the design of the car can actually facilitate these activities. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autonomous driving provides new opportunities for the use of time during a car ride. One such important scenario is working. We conducted a neuroergonomical study to compare three configurations of a car interior (based on lighting, visual stimulation, sound) regarding their potential to support productive work. We assessed participants? concentration, performance and workload with subjective, behavioral and EEG measures while they carried out two different concentration tasks during simulated autonomous driving. Our results show that a configuration with a large-area, bright light with high blue components, and reduced visual and auditory stimuli promote performance, quality, efficiency, increased concentration and lower cognitive workload. Increased visual and auditory stimulation paired with linear, darker light with very few blue components resulted in lower performance, reduced subjective concentration, and higher cognitive workload, but did not differ from a normal car configuration. Our multi-method approach thus reveals possible car interior configurations for an ideal workspace.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.