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The Inhibitory and Antibacterial Effects of Peppermint Essential Oil on Periodontal Photogenes

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  • Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
Article

The Inhibitory and Antibacterial Effects of Peppermint Essential Oil on Periodontal Photogenes

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The chemical composition of the essential oils was influenced by many factors including extraction methods. In this study, the effect of extraction methods; hydrodistillation, microwave assisted hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction of Mentha piperita L. growing in Taif, KSA, on the yield and chemical composition of their essential oils were investigated. Furthermore, the oils were in vitro investigated as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. The results showed no great difference between the oil yields obtained by the three different methods but the methods which used microwave were rapid, saving time and energy than classical hydrodistillation. The qualitative chemical compositions of the oils were similar with little quantitative differences of some compounds between the three methods. All oils consists mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in which carvone is the main component of M. piperita (carvone chemotype). All essential oils showed moderate in vitro anticancer activity and high antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, this considered to be the first study represented the effect of microwave extraction on the essential oil chemical composition of M. piperita growing in Taif, KSA. The authors recommended the usage of microwave method in the extraction of essential oils because it is energy and time saving, in addition to environment friendly. © 2018 Oriental Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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Background: With the increasing incidence of periodontal diseases and development of antibiotic resistance, the global need for alternative treatment modalities, safe, effective, and economical products is the need of time. Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing oral diseases disease. Aim: The aim of the study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque and gingivitis and comparing it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo. Material and methods: 345 healthy subjects were randomly allocated in 3 groups to the test group (n=115) - mouthwash containing Aloe vera, Control group (n=115) -chlorhexidene group, Distilled water - Placebo (n=115) . Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were assessed at days 0, 15 and 30. Subjects were asked to rinse their mouth with the stated mouthwash, twice a day, during a 30-day period. Results: Our result showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to placebo group. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects as seen with chlorhexidine. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Aloe vera may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in reducing periodontal indices.
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The effects of the, essential oils of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), spearmint Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (Mentha, arvensis L.), of four major constituents of the esssential oil of peppermint, and of three major constituents of the essential oil of spearmint, on the proliferation of Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococccus aureus (MSSA) were examined. The essential oils and the various constituents inhibited the proliferation of each strain in liquid culture in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, they exhibited bactericidal activity in phosphate-buffered saline. The antibacterial activities varied among the bacterial species tested but were almost the same against antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive strains of Helicobacter pylori and S. aureus. Thus, the essential oils and their constituents may be useful as potential antibacterial agents for inhibition of the growth of pathogens.
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The interaction between saliva-coated tooth surfaces and pathogenic bacteria is partly governed by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, providing a solid rationale for using chemical agents as part of a plaque-control routine. Chlorhexidine works in several ways. For example, it binds to salivary mucins on the bacterial cell membrane, and penetrates the plaque biofilm. Essential oil (EO) mouthwashes kill micro-organisms by disrupting their cell walls and inhibiting their enzymic activity. They prevent bacterial aggregation, slow multiplication and extract endotoxins. Recent studies have shown that bacterial phenotypes are altered when organisms change from a planktonic to a sessile state. This suggests that an effective mouthwash must also penetrate the plaque biofilm. Two studies have demonstrated the ability of an EO mouthwash to penetrate the plaque biofilm.
Between 3-12 weeks after the beginning of supragingival plaque formation, a distinctive subgingival microflora predominantly made up of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria and including some motile species, becomes established. In order to establish in a periodontal site, a species must be able to attach to one of several surfaces including the tooth (or host derived substances adhering to the tooth), the sulcular or pocket epithelium, or other bacterial species that are attached to these surfaces (Socransky and Haffajee 1991). Bacterial adhesion has demonstrated specificity in the mechanisms involved and studies have shown that there is a diversity of receptors on tooth surfaces, epithelial or other host cells and other bacteria. Recent studies have described bacterial complexes that are present in subgingival plaque and these studies are likely to help in current understanding of the complex ecology observed in dental plaque biofilm (Socransky, Haffajee et al. 1998). Bacterial interactions play important roles in species survival. Some interspecies relationships are favourable, in that one species produces growth factors for, or facilitates attachment of, another species. Other relationships are antagonistic due to competition for nutrients and binding sites, or to the production of substances that limit or prevent the growth of another species (Socransky and Haffajee 1991). A number of different bacterial interactions within plaque biofilm have been discussed. In the last 30-40 years, a vast amount of evidence has been published to suggest that bacteria are the primary aetiological agents of periodontal diseases. In the 1950s and early 1960s, periodontal treatment was based on the non-specific plaque hypothesis. However, the non-specific plaque hypothesis gave way after studies suggested that not all organisms in plaque are equally capable of causing destructive periodontal disease. Thus the concept of specificity re-emerged. Criteria for defining periodontal pathogens have been developed and include association, elimination, host response, virulence factors, animal studies and risk assessment (Haffajee and Socransky 1994). Until recently there were few consensus periodontal pathogens and trying to discriminate pathogenic from non-pathogenic species has been a difficult task for dental researchers for a variety of reasons. A discussion of the specific microbiota associated with gingivitis, chronic and aggressive periodontitis, NUG, HIV-associated periodontitis and implantitis has been presented. The bacteria associated with periodontal diseases are predominantly gram-negative anaerobic bacteria and may include A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, B. forsythus, C. rectus, E. nodatum, P. micros, S. intermedius and Treponema sp. The bacterial numbers associated with disease are up to 10(5) times larger than those associated with health.
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The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the worldwide population. Gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease, is caused by the bacterial biofilm (dental plaque) that accumulates on teeth adjacent to the gingiva (gums). However, gingivitis does not affect the underlying supporting structures of the teeth and is reversible. Periodontitis results in loss of connective tissue and bone support and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. In addition to pathogenic microorganisms in the biofilm, genetic and environmental factors, especially tobacco use, contribute to the cause of these diseases. Genetic, dermatological, haematological, granulomatous, immunosuppressive, and neoplastic disorders can also have periodontal manifestations. Common forms of periodontal disease have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, pulmonary disease, and diabetes, but the causal relations have not been established. Prevention and treatment are aimed at controlling the bacterial biofilm and other risk factors, arresting progressive disease, and restoring lost tooth support.