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AYURVEDA ABHYANGA (MASSAGE) PROCEDURE - A REVIEW

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Ayurveda science deals with treating the diseases and maintaining the health of the healthy. The prime aspiration of Ayurveda is to maintain health of healthy person and cures the disease of the patient. Nowadays, stress in the workplace has such a devastating effect on the individual, that it can lead to the manifestation of many diseases. It has been mentioned in Ayurvedic texts that to maintain health certain techniques and remedies in everyday activities can be followed, this is referred to as Dinacharya. The number one procedure in Dinacharya is Abhyanga (Oil massage), which can treat many diseases and for maintenance of health it heals and rejuvenates the individual. It is an important treatment modality and especially so, in maintenance of health in the healthy. Worthy to note here that Abhyanga controls the Vata Dosha, which is the causative factor for a host of diseases. In this review article, collection of materials that expound the significance and functionality of Abyanga in everyday activities has been made.
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AYURVEDA ABHYANGA (MASSAGE) PROCEDURE - A REVIEW
Dr. Dinesh Sharma*1, Dr. Gopesh Mangal2 and Dr. Rajendra Garg3
1PG Scholar, Department of Panchakarma, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
2Associate Professor, Department of Panchakarma, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur,
Rajasthan. PG Scholar.
3PG Scholar, Department of Panchakarma, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
ABSTRACT
Ayurveda science deals with treating the diseases and maintaining the
health of the healthy. The prime aspiration of Ayurveda is to maintain
health of healthy person and cures the disease of the patient.
Nowadays, stress in the workplace has such a devastating effect on the
individual, that it can lead to the manifestation of many diseases. It has
been mentioned in Ayurvedic texts that to maintain health certain
techniques and remedies in everyday activities can be followed, this is
referred to as Dinacharya. The number one procedure in Dinacharya is
Abhyanga (Oil massage), which can treat many diseases and for
maintenance of health it heals and rejuvenates the individual. It is an
important treatment modality and especially so, in maintenance of health in the healthy.
Worthy to note here that Abhyanga controls the Vata Dosha, which is the causative factor for
a host of diseases. In this review article, collection of materials that expound the significance
and functionality of Abyanga in everyday activities has been made.
KEYWORDS: Abhyanga, Dinacharya, Oil massage, Stress.
INTRODUCTION
Ayurveda proclaims that those individuals who are desirous of being healthy and happy
should perform Abhyanga as part of Dinacharya. Abhyanga is adopted for healing, relaxation
and as a treatment modality in many diseases. According to Dinacharya, it is one of the most
important therapy of the daily routines.[1] In this article an attempt has been made to gather
thoughts on how Abhyanga can aid to avoid stress and create a healthy lifestyle.
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
SJIF Impact Factor 8.084
Volume 9, Issue 13, 16-28. Review Article ISSN 2277 7105
*Corresponding Author
Dr. Dinesh Sharma
PG Scholar, Department of
Panchakarma, National
Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur,
Rajasthan.
Article Received on
25 August 2020,
Revised on 15 Sept. 2020,
Accepted on 05 October 2020
DOI: 10.20959/wjpr202013-18963
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Dinesh et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
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Massage is not a new concept, almost every culture has employed massage; including
Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Japanese, Chinese and the Ayurvedic managed by Indians. But
the oldest and most scientific scripture is Ayurveda only. Massage is a systematic rubbing
and manipulation of the body to prevent stiffness, promoting circulation and positive health.
Massage is one of the most valuable of remedial measures. Basis of massage is touch, and
there is increasing medical evidence to show the great value of touch.
Ayurveda is to maintain health of healthy person and cures the disease of the patient, so to
avert ailments, massage of whole body is required to improve blood circulation and strength.
According to season and climate condition on skin vasodilatation and vasoconstriction take
place and by these two ways skin also effect inner tissues i.e. in very scientific elaborated
manner with definition to timing, its effects on the body, its indications and contra indications
to body. Abhyanga is said to be an external therapy described and also in Sneha Vicharana
i.e. roots of administration of unctuousness.
The word Abhyanga is derived from Abhi+Anjana Abhyanjana.
Abhi- towards, into, upon etc.
Anjana - to smear, to anoint Rubbing with unctuous substance, smearing the body with oil.
Abhyanga means massage of whole-body including head with oil.
Abhyanga means applying oil and lightly massaging the body. Often medicated and usually
warm, the oil is massaged into the entire body before bathing. It can be beneficial for
maintaining health and used as a medicine for certain disorders. It can be incorporated into a
routine appropriate for almost everyone. Abhyanga therapy is an ancient practice which
predates the Vedic period. Early humans practiced life-sustaining ways for manipulating the
body to produce strength, mobility, flexibility and memory which interlaced with the cosmos.
Application of oil to the skin followed by massage in specific directions is well known by the
name Abhyanga in Ayurveda. Massage in specific direction improves blood circulation,
facilitates removal of the toxins from the tissues, relieves physical and mental fatigue,
improves the functioning of musculoskeletal system, clears stiffness and heaviness of the
body and leads to feeling of lightness. It assists development of healthy body, helps in
improvement of body figure, recuperates the body tissues and reduces body weight as well as
fat.
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Added to this in a plethora of diseases Abhyanga has curative effect by the pharmacological
action of the drugs used in the processing of the oil. The Sanskrit word Sneha means both
“oil” and “love,” and the effects of Abhyanga are similar to the effect of saturation with love.
Both experiences can give a deep feeling of stability, warmth and comfort. All the Ayurvedic
classics have described the various benefits of Abhyanga along with its contra indications.
There is no such description about the procedure of Abhyanga except the commentary of
Dalhana, who mentioned that Abhyanga should be applied in Anuloma (downward)
direction. Again, in later period, the specific movements of Abhyanga in limbs and joints has
been described. He told that in the limbs, Abhyanga should be practiced in the direction of
hair growth. This is probably because, if Abhyanga is applied in opposite direction of the hair
growth, then it may cause breaking of the hairs as well as it will do discomfort to the
receivers. The logic behind circular movements over the joints may be the presence of lymph
nodes and co-lateral venous networks around the areas. Massaging these areas may be
improving the lymphatic drainage as well as venous drainage of the respected areas.
Considering these advantageous effects of this special maneuver, in the promotion and
maintenance of health in the healthy, as well as cure of illness in diseased, this procedure has
gained ample importance in the clinical practice. This process of manipulating skin and
muscles is highly recommended in Ayurveda for routine practice even for a healthy person
who has the conscious of happy healthy life. This is also reckoned to be an effective
therapeutic procedure in abating and eliminating the pathological process playing havoc in
the body tissues.
Indications of Abhyanga
1. Abhyanga in daily routine: Abhyanga is included in the daily routines to promote the
health in hale and healthy. Regular practice of Abhyanga is advised to maintain the
physical fitness
2. Abhyanga in different seasons: Abhyanga is advised to protect the body from the biting
cold of Hemant Ritu. Similarly, extreme cold as well as dry weather is characteristic of
Shishira Ritu. Abhyanga is beneficial in this season to counteract the detrimental effect of
the cold weather.
3. Abhyanga in trivial manifestations: Natural urges have to be cleared as and when they
manifest, lest they will cause imbalance of Dosha and produce symptoms. Holding or
suppressing these urges produces certain symptoms. Abhyanga is advised for the
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treatment of symptoms caused by holding or suppressing the urges of Adhovata, Shakrit,
Mutra, Kshut, Nidra, Shramaswasa, Vamathu, Shukra etc.
4. Abhyanga in different diseases: Sneha used for Paana, Nasya, Anuvasana and Abhyanga
at the proper time, quickly brings down the aggravated Vata. Abhyanga is indicated
mainly in Vata predominant states of diseases. Oleation along with sudation brings down
the disfigured and painful body parts due to aggravated Vata into normalcy. The analogy
given by Vagbhata about Abhyanga is worth explaining here. Vagbhata says that proper
Snehana and Swedana given to an inanimate dry stick will help to regain its original
condition, then what to say about the living body. Some of the diseases in which
Abhyanga is indicated in Ayurveda are as follows:
1. Vata Vyadhi 2. Shwayathu 3. Kushta Vata Rakta 4. Switra Hidma 5. Rajayakshma 6.
Twagasrita Jeernajwar 7. Dahajwar Madatyaya (Vatika) 8. Mutrakricha (Vatika) 9. Vriddhi
(Vatika) 10. Gulma (Vatika) 11. Vatika Kasa 12. Kshataj Kasa and Shwasa 13. Sheetajwar
14. Rakta Pitta
Importance of Abhyanga
Abyanjana and Snehana are synonyms of Abhyang.[2]. According to Ayurvedic Dinacharya,
Abhyanga should be performed daily and if this is not possible, at least oil should be applied
to the head, ears, feet to maintain a healthy lifestyle.[3] Abhyanga is done by massaging the
body with any Sneha in the direction of the hair follicles. By performing Abhyanga daily, the
body becomes strong and resistance is built up against stressful situations. Application of Tila
Taila (Sesame oil) on the head daily prevents headaches, greying of the hairs and induces a
sound sleep. It has a very soothing effect on the nervous system, which is controlled by Vata
Dosha. Hence it is of utmost importance for those people in stressful job situations, to
perform Abhyanga daily.
In most situations, Tila Taila (Sesame oil) is recommended, as it can be applied to all Prakriti
persons and it is one of the best Taila mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.[4] It is Tridoshaghana
(Subsides all the three Doshas) and gives nourishment to the body. Tila Taila unique property
is that it is a polyunsaturated fat which contains large amounts of linoleic acid.[5] Linoleic
acids are a well-known anti-inflammatory agent and is also known to inhibit pathogenic
bacteria. Generally, many medicated oils are utilized in Abhyanga some in specific diseases
of the head. Some oils are Ksheerbala Taila,[6] Narayana Taila,[7] and Chandanadi Taila are
used for ShiroAbhyanga (Head massage).
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Abhyanga should be done daily before physical exercise. It should be done specially to the
head, ears and feet. As a pitcher, a dry skin and an axis (of a cart) become strong and resistant
by application of oil. So, by massage of oil human body become strong and smoothed
skinned, it is not susceptible to the diseases due to Vata, it is resistant to exhaustions and
exertions. The body is compared to tree, if the roots of trees are given water regularly, then it
lives for long time. In the same way by Abhyanga the persons Dhatu becomes healthy. The
intelligent person should make use of either medicated oil or ghee for oil bath and anointing,
considering the nature of the body, constitution, habituation, season, habitat and aggravated
Dosha etc.
Procedure of Abhyanga
Initially, one should commence the procedure with ShiroAbhyanga and then continue to the
rest of the body doing Mardana. According to Chikitsa Manjari and Chikitsa Sangraha,
generally Abhyanga should be performed in Anulomana Gati. They have also mentioned the
specific direction of movement depending on Pratiloma Gati in Kapha Dushti and alternate
Anuloma and Pratiloma Gati in Pitta Dusthi.[8]
The oil (prescribed by Ayurvedic Physician) with optimum temperature should be applied to
the head first in the anterior frontanelle and then the whole scalp. Then oil massage of the
Ear, Palm and Feet should be done prior to the main procedure. The heated oil should be
applied uniformly to the body, by the two therapists standing on both sides of the Droni table.
Then, massage of the scalp, head is done and subsequently moves down to the neck, upper
back, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, chest, abdomen, lower back and lower limbs.
The proper procedure of Abhyanga is that it should be performed in seven (7) postures which
are: sitting, supine, left lateral, prone, right lateral, supine and sitting. Alternative postures
are: 1. Sitting upright with knees extended 2. Supine position 3. Left lateral position 4. Right
lateral position 5. Prone position. Prone positioning should be avoided as much as possible in
patients with chronic diseases of heart, lungs and GIT. It is important to note that massage of
limb joints should be done in a circular manner and muscles in a linear manner while the
umbilicus region is massaged in a circular motion.
Time and duration-As the procedure of Abhyanga is done in seven (7) postures and each
posture takes approximately five minutes. So, the whole procedure should take place in
approximately 35 to 45 minutes.
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Basis of Classification of Abhyanga (Massage): Principles & practice of therapeutic
massage.
Application of touch and pressure in various manners constitute the maneuvers of massage.
The effects produced by a technique entirely depend upon the type of tissue approached
during a particular technique and the character of the technique governs this. Magnitude of
the applied force depends upon:
Direction of force
Duration of force
Means of application of force.
Character of techniques
Stroking
Pressure
Percussion
Vibration
Depth of tissue approached
Light massage
Deep massage
Part of body used
General Massage
Local massage
Means of application of pressure
Manual massage
Mechanical massage
On the basis of nature of drug used
Dry Massage
Powder Massage
Oil Massage
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Types of massage (Swedish) according to movements
Touch- Is a sensation which is carried through brain.
Stroke-Touch with movement with one/both palms slowly.
Friction-Grasp the part & move with little amount of pressure.
Kneading-Alternate compression of the tissues by grasping them against the underlined
body surfaces and muscle mixing.
Paschat Karma
Oil is wiped off with a soft towel. Patient is advised to take rest for at least fifteen minutes.
Patient is advised to take bath with warm water or Rasanadi Churna is applied all over the
body. The necessary/mandatory instructions are to be given to the patient to achieve the
maximum therapeutic benefits to avoid the complications.
Mode of Action of Abhayanga
Acharya Dalhana has indicated that Abhyanga should be done for specified times, also a
description of the penetration of Sneha at various levels are given in the table below.[9] Thus,
Abhyanga should be performed for at least 5 minutes in each position if the desired outcome
is to effect deeper tissues like Majja.[10]
According to Ayurveda, oil etc. used for massage does not have their actions confined to skin
alone. The drugs with which these are boiled permeate through the skin and reach different
tissue elements of the body. The medicated oil used for massage remain in the skin for 300
seconds (matras) and gradually and consecutively permeates through different tissues
elements like Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja, the medicated oil takes about 100 Matras
each, to persuade and permeate through these different categories of tissue elements.
Table 1: Reaching of Taila to different Dhatus or effect on Dhatus.
Dhatu
Kala
Time/Secs
Roma
95
Twak
127
Rakta
159
Mamsa
190
Meda
220
Asthi
254
Majja
285
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Modern Aspect of Abhyanga
Abhyanga can be compared with modern science in many aspects.
There is different technique of massage according to their movements.
Touch-sensation sensation which is carried through brain.
Stroke-Touch with movement with one/both palms slowly.
Friction-Grasp the part and move with little amount of pressure.
Kneading-Alternative compression of the tissues by grasping them against the underlined
body surfaces.
Vibrations-Fine vibratory/shaking movements communicated to the body through the
hands.
Percussion-The movements/blows administered in various ways with varying degrees of
force.
Joint movements-both assisted and resisted movements are performed.
Physiological Effects
The therapeutic value of massage lies in its numerous and combined physiological effects and
technique dependent. Massage, be it manual or mechanical, imparts pressure and stimulates
mechanically the various tissue approached at the time of application of a particular
technique. It is the magnitude, duration, and the direction of force applied during a particular
technique that determines the effects, produced by that technique on that body.
1. Effects on the circulatory system
A. On the venous and the lymphatic flow
B. On the arterial flow
Effects on the mobility of the soft tissue.
Effects on the skin.
Effects of massage on the circulatory system
A. On the venous and the lymphatic flow
Massage facilitates the forward movement of the venous blood and the lymph.
So reduces the chance of stagnation of the blood and the lymph in the tissue space. The
mechanical action of massage resembles with that of normal muscular contraction. The
different techniques of massage alternately compress and release the soft tissue. This
facilitates the venous and lymphatic flow.
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Massage facilitates the drainage, and reduces the stagnation of fluids and speeds up the
removal of waste products.
B. On the arterial flow
Massage improves the blood supply of the area being massaged. A definite vasodilation along
with an increase in the peripheral blood flow is usually observed after massage. This
moderate, consistent and definite increase in the arterial flow may be attributed to the
following events happening during massage.
1. Release of vasodilators
2. Activation of axon reflex
3. Decrease of venous congestion
1. Effects on the Soft Tissue
Elasticity, Plasticity and Mobility of soft tissue enhanced. The tissues which can be affected
by massage include muscles, sheath, ligaments, tendons, and joint capsule superficially as
well as deep fascia.
1. Effects on the Skin
It improves the nutritive status of skin and rises the temperature of skin. Massage
facilitates the movement of skin over the subcutaneous structure. As a result, skin
becomes soften, more supple and finer.
After prolonged massage the skin also becomes tough, more flexible, elastic and its
sensitivity is reduced. It has a soothing effect on the highly sensitive and vascular
papillae, over which deeper layers of the cuticle fits.
The dead cells are removed by the constant contact of the hand over the skin. The sweat
glands, hair follicles and the sebaceous glands, thus, become free from obstruction and
can function more effectively.
Massage, by activating the sweat glands, increases perspiration, so that the heat
dissipation is increased. It also facilitates the sebaceous secretions from exocrine glands
of skin and thus, improves the lubrication and appearance of skin.
Combine Physiological Effects of Massage
Increases Venous and lymphatic flow.
Increases Arterial blood flow to the muscle and skin.
Increases Stagnation of fluid in tissue space.
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Increases Removal of waste products of metabolism.
Increases WBC, RBC and platelets count in circulating blood.
Increases Nutritive exchange between blood and cells.
Increases Tropic status of the part massaged.
Induce sedation.
Decreases Pain.
Facilitate contraction in hypotonic muscle.
Increases Excitability of motoneuronal pool in neurologically health person.
Modulate autonomic response.
Increases Electrodermal response or GSR.
Increases Removal of secretion from lung.
Increases Gaseous exchange across pulmonary capillaries.
Increases Removal of dead cells from skin.
Increases Activity of sweat and sebaceous gland.
Modulate psychosomatic arousal.
Mobilize soft tissue.
Break the soft tissue adhesions.
Accelerate various metabolic processes.
Promote lypolysis.
Table 2: Contraindications of Massage.
General Contraindication
Local Contraindication
1. High fever
2. Severe renal or cardiac diseases
3. Deep X- Ray therapy
4. Osteoporosis
5. Severe spasticity
6. Very hairy skin
7. Patient’s preference
1.Acute inflammations
2. Skin diseases
3. Recent fractures
4. Severe varicose veins
5. Atherosclerosis
6. Thrombosis
7. Myositis ossificans
8. Malignancy
9. Open wound
10. Poisonous foci
Screenings of Patient
1. a) To selection of a patient according to Prakriti
b) Taking the full history of patient.
2. a) Behavior modification of patient
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b) Physical activity
c) Desha, Kala (Ritu)
3. Selection of oil according to this condition.
DISCUSSION
By performing Abhyanga daily, it makes the individual healthy and strong. The medicated
oils utilized during the process, nourishes the tissue, gives strength and stimulates the
Agni.[11] The tissues are nourished when the oil penetrates the seven layers of the skin and the
time duration has been mentioned in the table before.[12] Abhyanga reduces pain and takes
away stress, it stimulates the nervous system which in turn effects the muscular system,
glands and vessels. Usually, lukewarm medicated oils are used, which stimulates the
Swedavaha Srotas, thus causing dilation of the blood vessels, thereby increasing the blood
circulation, reducing pain, stiffness and contraction of vessels.
The human body has 107 Marma points. At these points, the Prana (energy) resides and by
doing Abhyanga of these points, positive energy is generated. Hence protecting, rejuvenating
and increasing the immunity toward external environmental changes which makes Abhyanga
very important part of daily activities.
During physical exercise or ordinary work, some metabolic products get accumulated in the
neuro-muscular junctions leading to fatigue. If the neuro-muscular junctions are kept clean
and if both nerve and muscle tissues are toned up, then the person could avert fatigue in spite
of hard work and physical exercise. This is possible through massage therapy. The movement
of soft tissue probably helps wastes (free radicals) and nutrition to flow in appropriate manner
by helping to relax tension in the tissue. When waste and tension are removed then tissue and
organs return to their ground-state status of natural functioning--a restful alertness where
sensory apparatus is ready and able to function. In this section an additional benefit is
realized from deeper touching or massage. There is no evidence that this and the former
section obtain benefits which are mutually exclusive. Rather, the idea is simply that stress
may be released from different levels of the anatomy, depending upon the type of massage
such as light or deep. This section does emphasize that the connection to healing can be
through the body first and then the emotions and nervous system. Thus, another avenue of
releasing stress and providing pleasure and well-being is added to the above aspects.
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CONCLUSION
By oil massage the Sharira (body) becomes strong and gains resistance to exhaustion caused
by stressful jobs. Ayurveda says Abhyanga (oil massage) should be performed daily or if not
daily, at least applying oil to the head, ears and foot is must to lead a healthy life thus
showing the importance of massage to the most important parts such as Shira (head), Karna
(ears) and Pada (foot). Hypothetically it can be concluded that Abhyanga should be done for
10 minutes daily as a part of Dinacharya and to treat any condition depending upon the
strength, age etc.
Anatomical knowledge of Shadanga Sharir is quite beneficial while attempting the process of
Abhyanga. The various kinds of Abhyanga (massage) therapies has been practiced today
following the single rule of increase the circulation of vital fluid in the applied part, as well as
to stimulate the nervous system to provide a soothing and relaxing effect to the patient.
Abhyanga should be done in Anuloma (to the direction of hair growth) to prevent any damage
to the hair roots. It is practiced in circular movements in the joints to facilitate the lymph
drainage and venous drainage as most of the lymph nodes are situated in the joint spaces and
collateral venous networks are also there in the joint regions so circular movements help in
emptying the vessels. All the benefits of Abhyanga are directly or indirectly related with the
stimulation of autonomic nervous system and central nervous system.
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Mumbai; Nirnaya Sagar Press, 1968; 42.
3. Vagbhata, Astanga Hrdayam, Vol.I. Srikanta Murthy KR, editor. 2nd ed. Krishnadas
Academy. Sutrasthana, 1994; 22/24: 273-274.
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Narayan Ramacarya, editors. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
Sutrasthana, 2004; 45/112: 205.
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesame_oil.
6. Nishtashwar, Vidyanath. Sahasrayoga (English) 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkamba Sanskrit
Series Office, 2006.
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7. Nishtashwar, Vidyanath. Sahasrayoga (English) 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkamba Sanskrit
Series Office, 2006.
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Narayan Ramacarya, editors. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
Chikitsasthana, 2004; 24/34.
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Narayan Ramacarya, editors. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
Chikitsasthana, 2004; 24/30.
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Narayan Ramacarya, editors. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
Chikitsasthana, 2004; 24/30 -34: 488.
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Article
Full-text available
Managing rice crop stubble is one of the major challenges witnessed in the agricultural sector. This work attempts to investigate the physical, mechanical, and liquid absorption properties of rice straw (RS)-reinforced polymer composite for assessing its suitability to use as an ayurvedic treatment table. This material is expected to be an alternative for wooden-based ayurvedic treatment tables. The results showed that the addition of rice straw particles (RSp) up to 60% volume in epoxy reduced the density of the composite material by 46.20% and the hardness by 15.69%. The maximum tensile and flexural strength of the RSp composite was 17.53 MPa and 43.23 MPa, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed deposits of silica in the form of phytoliths in various size and shapes on the outer surface of RS. The study also revealed that the water absorption rate (WA) was less than 7.8% for the test samples with 45% volume of RSp. Interestingly the test samples showed greater resistance to the absorption of Kottakal Dhanvantaram Thailam (<2%). In addition, the developed samples showed resistance towards bacterial and fungal growth under the exposure of treatment oils and water.
  • Vagbhata
Vagbhata, Astanga Hrdayam, Vol.I. Srikanta Murthy KR, editor. 2nd ed. Krishnadas Academy; Sutrasthana, 1994; 24.
  • Vagbhata
Vagbhata, Astanga Hrdayam, Vol.I. Srikanta Murthy KR, editor. 2nd ed. Krishnadas Academy. Sutrasthana, 1994; 22/24: 273-274.
Susruta Samhita (Nibandhasangraha commentary of Dalhana)
  • Susruta
Susruta. Susruta Samhita (Nibandhasangraha commentary of Dalhana). Jadavji Trikamji, Narayan Ramacarya, editors. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy. Chikitsasthana, 2004; 24/30.
  • Vagbhata
Vagbhata, Astanga Sangrraha,Vol.1.Srikanta Murthy KR,editor.1 st ed.Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia, 1995; 42-43.