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Dark Tourism and Crime

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... However the macabre is problematic since it is essentially a normative judgment and what is 'macabre' will mean different things to different people in different contexts. Others have argued for broader conceptualisations that include violence (Robb, 2009), crime (Dalton, 2014;Lennon, 2010) and segregation (Jamal & Lelo, 2011). Consequently, as the scope of dark tourism has become increasingly wide any association, however weak, with death or suffering is now labelled dark tourism (Biran & Poria, 2012). ...
... In such instances there is little desire to promote a dark past for tourism. These tensions have been examined in a range of contexts including Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge (Lennon, 2009(Lennon, , 2010; the heritage of communism in East-Central Europe (Light, 2000a;McKenzie, 2013); detention centres dating from an era of state repression in Argentina and Chile (Dalton, 2014); and the heritage of recent conflict ('the Troubles') in Northern Ireland (Nagle, 2012;Simone-Charteris et al., 2013). Recognising that forgetting is central to the construction of collective memory offers an alternative framework for understanding the selective messages presented at some dark places which moves the debate beyond rather simplistic notions of commodification and authenticity (see Section 4). ...
... Clearly many people visit places of death and suffering from a desire to understand past events, rather than from a particular interest in the deaths which took place there. However, one motive that does appear to be more pronounced at some dark sites and attractions (particularly those associated with genocide) is a sense of duty or moral obligation (see Dalton, 2014). ...
Article
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This paper reviews academic research into dark tourism and thanatourism over the 1996-2016 period. The aims of this paper are threefold. First, it reviews the evolution of the concepts of dark tourism and thanatourism, highlighting similarities and differences between them. Second it evaluates progress in 6 key themes and debates. These are: issues of the definition and scope of the concepts; ethical issues associated with such forms of tourism; the political and ideological dimensions of dark tourism and thanatourism; the nature of demand for places of death and suffering; the management of such places; and the methods of research used for investigating such tourism. Third, research gaps and issues that demand fuller scrutiny are identified. The paper argues that two decades of research have not convincingly demonstrated that dark tourism and thanatourism are distinct forms of tourism, and in many ways they appear to be little different from heritage tourism.
... De nombreuses questions sont posées concernant les raisons qui attirent ou poussent les visiteurs jusqu'à des sites relevant du dark tourism. Au-delà des aspects liés à la mort, certains auteurs ont montré qu'il existait un désir de comprendre des événements tragiques passés dans le but de « le voir pour le croire » (Poria et al., 2004 ;White & Frew, 2016), ou encore de visiter ces sites avec une sorte d'obligation morale ou de devoir [de mémoire] (Dalton, 2014). Dans ces conditions, le dark tourism semble bien relié à une forme de tourisme patrimonial, mais dont le patrimoine en question serait non désiré ou encore serait un « patrimoine qui blesse » (Roberts & Stone, 2014 Cependant, différents éléments tendent à limiter la pertinence de l'usage du concept de dark tourism pour imaginer un tourisme post-glaciaire. ...
... Dans le cas du LCT, il s'agit principalement de disparition d'éléments environnementaux (e.g., Eijgelaar et al., 2010 ;Dawson et al., 2011 ;Lemieux et al., 2018), même si de rares exceptions existent (Kiliç & Yozukmaz, 2020). À l'inverse, le dark tourism s'intéresse plutôt à des événements qui ont directement touché l'histoire humaine (e.g., Dalton, 2014 ;White & Frew, 2016 ;Light, 2017) . ...
Thesis
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After being perceived negatively by the inhabitants of mountain areas, glaciers have been promoted as a tourist attraction for over two centuries. The first visits to the Arveyron Arch (Chamonix) in the 18th century were followed by cog railways and cable cars that allow access to the largest glaciers in the Alps and in the world in just a few dozen minutes. Thus, glacier tourism today includes practices and touristic sites that are emblematic of certain mountain territories. However, rising temperatures and the extremely rapid glacier retreat also make these glacier sites markers of climate change. The Mer de Glace in France, the Rhone glacier in Switzerland and the Pasterze glacier in Austria are among the major glacier tourist sites that are experiencing the full force of landscape changes linked to the retreat of the cryosphere. What do these changes imply for the operators of these glacier tourism sites? And for their visitors? Using mixed methodologies, this PhD thesis attempts to answer these two questions for six major Alpine glacier tourism sites. In essence, the results show that glacial tourism sites are largely impacted by climate change and the glaciological and geomorphological changes it brings to mountain territories. These impacts lead to difficulties in site management, itinerary issues, difficulties in carrying out certain activities which may become more dangerous, or a decrease in the attractiveness of the sites through less attractive glacial activities or through a "landscape degradation" feared by the site managers. However, our results with visitors to the sites show that this "degradation" of the landscape does not drastically reduce visitors' satisfaction with the glacial landscape: the negative judgements are limited to glaciers or paraglacial forms, but only slightly affect visitors' general appreciation of the landscape. At the same time, a new form of tourism - last chance tourism - is developing around glaciers and shows that they are now considered as "endangered species". Furthermore, the site managers in question are implementing strategies for adapting to climate change that are mainly reactive and which raise the question of their long-term sustainability. This question is even more important as glacier modelling for the year 2050 suggests that current adaptations will not be sufficient.
... Les auteurs qui entrent dans ce champ de recherche évoquent une histoire plus ancienne pour le thanatourism que pour le dark tourism et qui puise ses racines dans une fascination pour la mort qui n'est pas l'apanage de la modernité (Light, 2017 Eijgelaar et al., 2010 ;Dawson et al., 2011 ;Lemieux et al., 2018), même si de rares exceptions existent (Kiliç & Yozukmaz, 2020). À l'inverse, le dark tourism s'intéresse plutôt à des événements qui ont directement touché l'histoire humaine (e.g., Dalton, 2014 ;White & Frew, 2016 ;Light, 2017) . ...
... ). Dans la majorité des cas (excepté en ce qui concerne les exécutions), le dark tourism et le thanatourism sont des pratiques touristiques qui visent à voir un lieu figé dans le temps, où les événements qui en ont fait la « notoriété » sont terminés.De nombreuses questions sont posées concernant les raisons qui attirent ou poussent les visiteurs jusqu'à des sites relevant du dark tourism. Au-delà des aspects liés à la mort, certains auteurs ont montré qu'il existait un désir de comprendre des événements tragiques passés dans le but de « le voir pour le croire »(Poria et al., 2004 ;White & Frew, 2016), ou encore de visiter ces sites avec une sorte d'obligation morale ou de devoir [de mémoire](Dalton, 2014). Dans ces conditions, le dark tourism semble bien relié à une forme de tourisme patrimonial, mais dont le patrimoine en question serait non désiré ou encore serait un « patrimoine qui blesse »(Roberts & Stone, 2014). ...
Thesis
Après avoir été perçus négativement par les habitants des territoires de montagne, les glaciers ont, depuis plus de deux siècles, été l’objet d’une mise en tourisme. Aux premières visites de l’Arche de l’Arveyron (Chamonix) au XVIIIe siècle ont succédé trains à crémaillères et téléphériques permettant d’accéder et de contempler, en seulement quelques dizaines de minutes, les plus grands glaciers des Alpes et du monde. Ainsi, le tourisme glaciaire regroupe aujourd’hui des pratiques et des sites touristiques emblématiques de certains territoires de montagne. Cependant, l’augmentation des températures et le retrait extrêmement rapide des glaciers font également de ces sites glaciaires des marqueurs du changement climatique. La Mer de Glace en France, le glacier du Rhône en Suisse ou encore celui du Pasterze en Autriche, font parties de ces grands sites touristiques glaciaires qui subissent de plein fouet les changements paysagers liés au retrait de la cryosphère. Qu’est-ce que ces changements impliquent pour les acteurs de ces sites touristiques glaciaires ? pour leurs visiteurs ? À travers des méthodologies mixtes, cette thèse de doctorat tente d’apporter une réponse à ces deux questions pour six grands sites touristiques glaciaires alpins. En substance, les résultats montrent que les sites touristiques glaciaires sont largement impactés par le changement climatique et les modifications glaciologiques et géomorphologiques qu’il engendre pour les territoires de montagne. Ces impacts entrainent des difficultés de gestion des sites, des problématiques d’itinéraires, des difficultés à réaliser certaines activités et qui peuvent devenir plus dangereuses ou encore une baisse d’attractivité des sites par des activités glaciaires moins attrayantes ou par une « dégradation du paysage » redoutée par les gestionnaires des sites. Nos résultats auprès des visiteurs des sites montrent cependant que cette « dégradation » paysagère n’induit pas une baisse drastique de la satisfaction des visiteurs à l’égard du paysage glaciaire : les jugements négatifs se cantonnent aux glaciers ou aux formes paraglaciaires mais ne ternissent que très peu l’appréciation générale des visiteurs vis-à-vis du paysage. Dans le même temps, une nouvelle forme de tourisme – le tourisme de la dernière chance – se développe autour des glaciers et montre que ceux-ci sont aujourd’hui considérés comme des « espèces en voie de disparition ». Par ailleurs, les gestionnaires de sites en question mettent en place des stratégies d’adaptation au changement climatique qui sont principalement réactives et qui pose la question de leur soutenabilité long termes. Question d’autant plus importante que les modélisations glaciaires à l’horizon 2050 laissent penser que les adaptations actuelles ne seront pas suffisantes.
... Growing exponentially over the last twentyfive years, dark tourism has become an increasingly significant component of the wider heritage tourism industry. However, noting its perceived exploitation and trivialisation of historic tragedies, scholars have suggested dark tourism is, in practice, beset with ethical and management challenges (Foley & Lennon, 1996;Dalton, 2015). Still, as a catalyst for emotional values and knowledge enrichment (Kim & Butler, 2015), dark tourism can offer audiences opportunities to connect with difficult pasts through interpretation. ...
... Despite the success of edutainment within the wider heritage tourism industry, much of dark tourism research criticises it and the 'Disney Effect' that has infiltrated dark tourism practice (Dalton, 2015;Isaac & Çakmak, 2014;Stone, 2009a). Although some scholars have questioned whether edutainment is a sufficient and/or appropriate form of interpretation (Dunkley, 2017;Hooper, 2017), others have argued it provides a framework that, through effective thematic storytelling, helps to create meaningful experiences that resonate with visitors even after they leave a location (Heidelberg, 2015;Oren & Shani, 2012). ...
Article
Existing dark tourism literature has explored various aspects of interpretation, including challenges in balancing interpretation efforts with concerns for historical accuracy, and managing ethical issues with interpreting past tragedies for packaged tourism purposes. However, research appears underdeveloped concerning the influences on the design of interpretation at dark visitor attractions, particularly those considered lighter due to their edutainment agenda. This paper thus critically explores the influences on the design of edutainment interpretation at three lighter dark visitor attractions, which are introduced as new attractions for study within dark tourism research. It also discusses the findings achieved that not only contribute to the study's conclusions and recommendations for future research in the realms of dark tourism and interpretation, but also contribute to enhancing interpretation design understanding for both dark tourism research and practice.
... Thus, we also explore depictions of other pains perpetrated by police such as use of force. In so doing, we locate these museums within the broader fields of 'penal tourism' (Welch 2015) and 'dark tourism' (Dalton 2015). ...
... Phrases such as 'Thanks for the lockup!' and 'Reminds me of college' mock the experiences of those confined inside holding cells, past and present. The artifice involved in staging the mock cell as both authentic and inauthentic likely distracts visitors from contemplating the suffering that occurs in such spaces (Dalton 2015). Entertainment and trivialisation often overshadow solemn reflection and education at dark tourism sites (Stone and Sharpley 2008). ...
Article
Ferguson, M., J. Piche and K. Walby. ‘Representations of Detention and Other Pains of Law Enforcement in Police Museums in Ontario, Canada’. Forthcoming with Policing and Society
... Se puede agregar, sin miedo al error, que este nuevo sub-segmento de la demanda turística no solo desafía el concepto mismo de belleza sino que cautiva de diversos investigadores en todo el globo. Particularmente, estos nuevos turistas eligen visitar ciudades golpeadas por desastres naturales o sitios donde predomina un sentimiento de nostalgia y consternación respecto al sufrimiento humano (Stone & Sharpley, 2008;Cohen 2011;Sharpley, 2005;Stone 2012;Wilson 2008, Podoshen 2013Dalton 2014;Heidelberg, 2015;Korstanje & George, 2015). Si bien las causas son de lo más variadas, muchos de ellos manifiestan cierta sensibilidad por los hechos históricos de naturaleza traumática (Dalton 2014). ...
... Particularmente, estos nuevos turistas eligen visitar ciudades golpeadas por desastres naturales o sitios donde predomina un sentimiento de nostalgia y consternación respecto al sufrimiento humano (Stone & Sharpley, 2008;Cohen 2011;Sharpley, 2005;Stone 2012;Wilson 2008, Podoshen 2013Dalton 2014;Heidelberg, 2015;Korstanje & George, 2015). Si bien las causas son de lo más variadas, muchos de ellos manifiestan cierta sensibilidad por los hechos históricos de naturaleza traumática (Dalton 2014). Por otro lado, estos trabajos son ilustrativos acorde al rol de la muerte como atractivo turístico, no obstante a ello se ha prestado poca atención al hecho que la mayoría de estos abordajes tienen su epicentro cultural en el Reino Unido de la Gran Bretaña, o países de habla inglesa como Estados Unidos, y Australia. ...
Article
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Korstanje M 2016 Inglaterra y el Turismo Oscuro: los orígenes de la Tanaptosis. RITUR. Revista Iberoamericana de Turismo. Volume 2, issue 2 Diciembre 2016. Available at http://www.seer.ufal.br/index.php/ritur/issue/view/193. Universidade Federal de Algoras (Brasil) & Universitat de Girona (España). Penedo, Algoas, Brasil. ISSN 2236-6040. Resumen La presente pieza de revisión interroga sobre los orígenes y evolución del turismo oscuro dentro del Reino Unido. A primera vista, esta nación ofrece un fértil terreno de exploración para las prácticas de turismo oscuro, que por varios motivos no se han replicado en América Latina. Los objetivos del presente ensayo son dobles. Por un lado, hacemos una revisión profunda de la historia cultural de Inglaterra a la vez, que por el otro, situamos el concepto de Thanaptosis que discute la literatura vigente, dentro del contexto cultural del protestantismo, y del capitalismo mortuorio. Palabras-claves: Muerte, Turismo Oscuro, Inglaterra, Logro, Protestantismo. 1 INTRODUCCIÓN En las últimas décadas, diversos estudios se han enfocado en el turismo oscuro como un nuevo segmento de visitantes que tiene por principal motivación la búsqueda de destinos donde predomina " la muerte " como principal factor de atracción (Seaton 1996; Wight 2006). Aun cuando los estudios de este tipo de casos se remontan a la década de los 90, no menos cierto parece ser que luego del advenimiento del nuevo milenio trajo consigo eventos que de alguna u otra manera pusieron a occidente en vilo. Desde los ataques al Word Trade Centre, hasta huracanes de grado 5 y terremotos devastadores, todo a la orden del día con el fin de formular una cultural " apocalíptica " que fue reconducida hacia una economía global de consumo (Klein, 2007). En términos del filósofo Jean Baudrillard, el sistema capitalista hacía de los riesgos no solo un entretenimiento, el cual podía ser consumido en forma de espectáculo, sino un mecanismo para producir " pseudo
... While some made explicit connections between podcasts as expressive justice, others described the listener as a core part of this process; as one participant noted, 'crimes need to have their stories heard and if they have to go through it I think the least we can do is listen'. Here, listeners are not consumers; they are understood as active participants, engaging in ethical earwitnessing to provide justice for the victim (Dalton 2015). Importantly, these comments demonstrate that a pastime historically described as exploitative provides a new subjectivity for listeners to inhabit that emphasises ethical conduct. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Australia, the public is increasingly accessing stories about crime, violence and harm via true crime podcasts (TCPs). Despite the proliferation of these sources, TCPs have received limited attention in criminological media research. To address this gap, this article outlines findings from a recent research project that examined Australian listeners’ perspectives of TCPs. To explore how listeners relate to TCPs and the factors shaping the podcasts they gravitate towards, this vignette study asked participants to read two podcast summaries, choose which they would prefer to listen to and write about what informed their decision. The analysis of these accounts presented in this article provides insight into which TCP narratives listeners recognise as meaningful and how these texts produce and entrench different ways of experiencing and understanding crime.
... Indonesia memiliki potensi wisata yang sangat beraneka ragam, mulai dari wisata sejarah, wisata alam, wisata olah raga, dan wisata gelap (dark tourism). Wisata gelap, adalah tindakan bepergian ke lokasi bekas terjadinya suatu peristiwa yang terdiri dari kematian, bencana, dan kekejaman penjajahan (Zhang, Yang, Zheng, & Zhang, 2016 (Dalton, 2015). ...
... The concept: definition, antecedents Ashworth & Isaac, 2015;Dann & Seaton, 2001;Dann, 1994;Foley & Lennon, 1996;Hartmann, 2014;Lennon & Foley, 1999;Prentice, 1993;Rojek, 1993;Seaton, 1996Seaton, , 1999Sharpley, 2005. The scope: whether it includes death, macabre, suffering, crime, segregation, deviance, and so forth Biran & Poria, 2012;Buda et al., 2014;Dalton, 2014;Hepburn, 2012;Isaac & Ashworth, 2011;Lennon, 2010;Mansfeld & Korman, 2015;Robb, 2009;V azquez, 2018;Yan et al., 2016 Shades/taxonomies of dark places as well as sub-types of dark tourism (i.e., genocide tourism, grief tourism, etc.) Beech, 2009;Bristow & Newman, 2005;Dann, 1998;Dunkley et al., 2007;Freeman, 2014;Heuermann & Chhabra, 2014;Miles, 2002;Raine, 2013;Robb, 2009;Robbie, 2008;Sharpley, 2005;Strange & Kempa, 2003 Ethical aspects of dark tourism: providers' presentation/ commodification or visitors' conduct. ...
Article
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In this paper, we examine the role of marketing strategies of tourism providers in inducing risk‐taking behaviour deriving lessons from theoretical foundations of ‘fear appeal’ and ‘protection‐motivation’ and the stimulus–organism–response framework. We engage with their meaning‐generating identity narratives that play an indispensable role in sustaining and enhancing the market appeal of dark tourism experiences, places and products. Our findings demonstrate how providers use information‐based and emotions‐focused strategies to induce visitors to engage in different degrees of risk‐taking activities.
... The second gaze reflects the notion that morality should be part of the tourist gaze, and Yu and Xu (2018) identified a moral gaze in tourism as 'a general way of thinking, feeling and acting that tends to involve morality'. Regarding destinations associated with death and suffering, tourists often experience complicated inner moral conflicts (Dalton, 2015;Sharma, 2020), and the tourist gaze typically reflects their critiques and reflections (Muzaini, Teo, & Yeoh, 2007). In summary, the tourist gaze at dark sites often involves moral judgements (Lisle, 2004). ...
Article
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The moral issues related to dark tourism, which commercializes death and disaster, have aroused heated academic debate. This paper adopts an analytical framework that explores the moral gaze of tourists in the context of commercialized dark tourism in the time and space dimensions. The findings show that different orientations to the past or present (in the time dimension) and different understandings of dark sites and dark places (in the space dimension) bring about various moral conflicts for tourists. Four types of moral gaze are identified: the critical gaze, tolerant gaze, supportive gaze, and sympathetic gaze. This paper makes a theoretical contribution to the study of the morality of dark tourism and promotes the understanding of the relationships between dark tourism and post-disaster reconstruction. Managerial implications are discussed with regard to how to reconcile moral conflicts for the sustainability of dark tourism.
... take photo) because it "just did not seem right" to do so (Henderson, 2000, p. 278). Dalton (2015) noted that dark tourists tend to behave more ethically than general tourists. Few empirical studies have examined tourists' perceptions and attitudes toward dark tourism. ...
Chapter
Abstract This study highlights the essential factors in the quality of beach usage. A survey was conducted beach visitors to Chenang Beach, Malaysia, to assess the level of beach quality necessary for sustainable tourism development in beach areas. Hypotheses were tested using the second generation of SEM analysis, Partial Least Squares (PLS). The findings from the PLS approach confirmed that the beach's physical aspect and design had the most substantial and significant effect on the perception of beach quality. In contrast, environmental aspects and facilities and services do not determine the perception of beach quality due to the subjectivity of visitors' judgment and individuals' socioeconomic status. The existing tourism activities in the beach area conform to sustainable requirements in some of the cases. The findings have managerial implications for the use of local resources, and the content and upgrading of beach designs to meet visitors' needs and encourage their revisit intentions.
... Cookie cutter shopping malls and the allure of leisurely mall experiences such as Fast Times at Ridgemont High are largely over. Arguably, therefore, dark tourism consumption for some people for some of the time fills that experiential void, and there has been some early work that has examined the burgeoning experientially minded immersion tourism experiences (Dalton 2014;Knudsen 2011a, b;Robb 2009). ...
Chapter
This chapter theoretically examines dark tourism in an increasingly violent world. While early conceptualizations of dark tourism guide us in examining the phenomena of exposure to death-related tourism, a more violent age in a post-9/11, post-Charlie Hebdo world forces us to come to terms with a more violent existence. Violent death and orchestrated mass murder, once largely sequestered for many in the West, are now ever more evident in our own personal spaces and communities. Indeed, ISIS and violent extremism, not necessarily a stranger to those in the perpetually war-torn Middle East, is now in the forefront of the minds of those in the UK, Continental Europe and North America. Moreover, entertainment and the media incorporate increasingly violent narratives, including an emphasis on gruesome experiences in dystopian worlds whereby there is an embracing focus on moral decay, personal responsibility, and atrocity images (Podoshen et al. 2014b; Sparrow 2014; Calia 2015). Resultantly, the study of death and its intersection with consumption has gained significant momentum in the literature (Dobscha et al., 2012; Dobscha, 2016; Levy, 2015; Podoshen 2016; Stone and Sharpley, 2013; Venkatesh et al., 2014).
... By performing "the carceral past in the present" (Turner and Peters, 2015: 75), penal heritage museumswhether operated by heritage groups, companies or state entities (Walby and Piché, 2015) claim to provide visitors access to authentic spaces, relics and narratives associated with penality. These "dark tourism" destinations where death is depicted (Lennon and Foley, 2000;Dalton, 2015) tend to reify the necessity of incarceration by conveying the idea that prisoners are a different breed of human (Wilson, 2008). We analyze the displays created in Canadian penal heritage sites and the frames used to curate warden-related objects. ...
Article
Wardens figure centrally as part of the plot in popular culture representations of prisons such as in films (e.g. The Shawshank Redemption) and television (e.g. Wentworth). Yet little is known about how wardens are depicted in another form of criminal justice popular culture: the penal history museum. This paper examines representations of wardens observed as part of a study of 45 punishment memorialization sites across Canada. We analyze the symbolism used in these penal history museums, as well as the framing used to curate warden-related objects. Our analysis reveals that positive representations of prison wardens depict them as family-oriented, benevolent men of a strong character, who embody and command respect for authority. We found fewer representations that were critical of warden's work. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of our findings for literature on cultural depictions of penality and justice.
... Farklı araştırmacılar tarafından sunulan tüm modeller içinde yer alan, afet yerleri (Yan vd. 2006), mezarlıklar (Seaton 2002), soykırım yerleri (Beech 2009), vahşet yerleri (Ashworth ve Hartmann, 2005), hapishaneler ve suç yerleri (Wilson 2008;Dalton 2013), köle miras yerleri (Dann ve Seaton 2001;Rice 2009) gibi çeşitli yerler de hüzün turizmi ile ilişkili birçok araştırmaya konu olmuştur. Bu bağlamda yapılan araştırmalar, günümüzde ölüm ya da trajedi olayları ve yerlerinin simgesel içerikli, kentsel peyzajlar (Roberts ve Stone, 2014:9-10), anıtlar, müzeler vb. ...
... The "darkest" tourism sites are generally solemn and highly sanctified places of actual suffering where ideologically mediated narratives serve instrumentally to attract empathy, contemplation, and transformation. Auschwitz and other in situ Holocaust sites are often cited in this regard as the ultimate manifestation of what Miles (2002) calls the "Dark Camps of Genocide" (Dalton 2015;Knudsen 2011;Stone 2006). In contrast, the "lightest" dark tourism places are ephemeral and commercial "Dark Fun Factories" such as Dracula theme parks and wax museums that use entertainment sensationally to titillate thrill-seekers and the morbidly curious (Jamal and Tanase 2005). ...
Article
Engaging the neglected intersection between dark tourism, the visitor postexperience and geopolitics, this research reports the findings from a survey of 1,082 domestic visitors to Lushun Prison Museum in Dalian, China, a Japanese-era incarceration and punishment site that projects hegemonic anti-Japanese social representations. Most respondents reported strong emotional reactions and elevated patriotism along with worsened attitudes toward Japan, Japanese products and, to a lesser degree, Japanese people, suggesting negative implications for the increasingly tense China–Japan bilateral relationship. However, sample diversity is indicated by the revelation of small Japan-neutral clusters whose members are more likely to express contemplation and pity as dominant emotions rather than the anger and hate of the majority, and who qualify the dominant social representations accordingly. Communist Party membership, age, lack of student affiliation, and not having Japanese friends or knowing any Japanese people were all associated with Japan-negative perceptions and intentions.
... Although a lot of studies has focused on the motivations and expectances of tourists who make the decision to visit spaces of disasters, death or N o v a S c i e n c e P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . mourning, places which were recently dubbed as " dark " or Thana-Tourism destinations ( Wilson 2008, Podoshen 2013 Dalton 2014; Heidelberg, 2015;) less attention was paid to the cultural background of dark tourism. The fact is that United Kingdom seems to be the nation where a major proportion of these studies originally emerged. ...
Book
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Gazing at Death: dark tourism as an emergent horizon of Research. (Korstanje M. & Handayani, B). New York, Nova Science Publishers. This is a must-read book which starts a new discussion not only on dark tourism issues but on the role of death in modern society. A much deep-seated issue that merits to be investigated in the years to come (Abraham Abe Pizam, University of Central Florida, US) Dr. Maximiliano Korstanje is one of the great minds of our young century. You may agree or disagree with his conclusions but this book, like much of his work makes the careful reader ponder his points and consider his positions. Korstankje is more than a thinker, he is the best type of academic, one who makes us question even the simplest of assumptions. Encountering his ideas is more than a mere journey into another academic work, but a chance to come face to face with multiple questions and academic challenges. (Peter Tarlow - Texas A&M University, US) Gazing Death draws together the latest research in the field by presenting new and important insights in a well-crafted meticulously researched book. The chapters in this volume employ a multidisciplinary perspective to address the social, political, ethical, philosophical and cultural perspectives of dark tourism. It is an indispensable guide that will satisfy the novice and more experienced dark tourism scholar seeking to understand the tourism of macabre spectacles, places of disaster and sites on the darker side of life. (Demond S. Miller, Rowan University, US) “The topic of dark tourism is growing in attention globally. Dr. Korstanje has dedicated this book to understanding the phenomena of travel surrounding death, disasters and terror. This book provides a one-stop shop for understanding a number of key areas of research within dark tourism: the motivations and behaviors surrounding dark travel, smart tourism for dark sites, as well as the economic impact of dark tourism. This book fills a gap in the literature which can be used by students, academics and practitioners alike.” - Professor Dr. Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, USA Gazing at Death is a must-read book, which allows a restructuration in the ways global tourism should be thought. This represents a fertile invitation to build a new theoretical framework of tourism in this new millenium. - Associate Professor Celeste Nava - University of Guanajuato, Mexico
... Penal tourism research, which tends to focus on the negotiation of meanings of punishment at prison museums, is a form of memorialization scholarship that interrogates the role of "criminal justice" in given societies (Welch, 2015). These penal heritage museums are one among many types of dark tourism destinations (Dalton, 2015;Lennon & Foley, 2000;Wilson, 2004Wilson, , 2008 where visitors frequent sites of death, pain, and tragedy. ...
... Although a lot of studies has focused on the motivations and expectances of tourists who make the decision to visit spaces of disasters, death or mourning, places which were recently dubbed as " dark " or Thana-Tourism destinations (Stone & Sharpley, 2008; Cohen 2011; Sharpley, 2005; Stone 2012; Wilson 2008, Podoshen 2013 Dalton 2014; Heidelberg, 2015; Korstanje & George, 2015) less attention was paid to the cultural background of dark tourism. The fact is that United Kingdom seems to be the nation where a major proportion of these studies originally emerged. ...
Chapter
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This investigation evinces how in recent years British Scholars were captivated by exploring dark tourism issues. At a closer look, this country offered a fertile ground for the rise of dark tourism practices while in other regions as Latin America, it failed to be adopted as a main activity. Basically, the goals of this essay review are twofold. On one hand, we review the historic background for England to serve as a platform to thanatology. On another, it situates as an interesting discussion to expand the current understanding on Thanaptosis as finely-ingrained into Protestant World.
... At worst, some tourists indicate that this type of art is created with the purpose to trivialize the Holocaust. This, in conjunction with Dalton's (2015) and Ronson's (2004) observations that some visitors tour Auschwitz without a great deal of respect, marginalizes the impact of the experience for many. As such, museums that hosted these controversial types of exhibits, located in countries where Jews were victimized with the help of local Nazi collaborators (Estonia and Poland) do not in any way assist the nations in growing the tourism industry or helping victims' families on their quest for answers or discovery of roots. ...
Article
This paper examines how tourists engaged in atrocity heritage tourism embark in processing meanings, community discourse and motivations when faced with increasing levels of hostility. Specifically, this research examines how Jewish Holocaust tourists marshal discourses, make sense of meanings and engage with material geographies in an environment of renewed global anti-Semitism. Under the frame of assemblage, Holocaust tourism and its evolving trajectories are examined using qualitative mixed methods. The results demonstrate the transformative effect that certain global happenings can have on consumers when atrocity sites connected to heritage are affected by multiple sets of perceived harmdoers. Additionally, it is demonstrated as to how meanings and motivations are implicated in the evolved discourses of atrocity heritage amongst a group of people with a diasporic identity. Larger theoretical and managerial implications are discussed relating to Holocaust tourism.
... While brandfests are effective at satisfying consumer desires for transcendence and sociality (Canniford, 2011;Schouten et al., 2007), consumers seek out a broad range of marketplace experiences. The increase in organised festivals (Maclaran & Brown, 2005;Maffesoli, 1996); carnivalesque servicescapes (Belk, 2000;Langer, 2007;Sherry et al., 2007); illicit servicescapes (Goulding, Shankar, Elliott, & Canniford, 2009); dystopian-themed environments (Podoshen, Venkatesh, & Jin, 2014) and dark tourism (Dalton, 2014); the emergent culture of intoxication (Cocker, Banister, & Piacentini, 2012;Hackley et al., 2013); and popularity of dangerous edgework practices (Cronin, McCarthy, & Collins, 2014;Murphy & Patterson, 2011;O'Sullivan, 2015;Van Hout & Hearne, 2014) suggest that consumers desire a range of consumption experiences, which are not mimetic, but more carnivalesque and less controlled in nature. Consumers appear to be gravitating towards non-mimetic consumption experiences. ...
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This ethnography outlines experiences of the marketer-facilitated World Series of Beer Pong. Consumers, in carnival spirit, augment marketer-facilitated mimetic (moderate, controlled) forms of experience with non-mimetic (dangerous, uncontrolled) consumption rituals, enacted in pursuit of contemporary excitement. Consumers serendipitously hijack the facilitating brand’s ideology resulting in the promotion of marketplace tensions. This study contributes to marketing and consumer culture theory by extending current experiential marketing frameworks via the introduction of the branded carnival, a non-mimetic communal brand-centric phenomenon; showing how non-mimetic excitement emerges in marketplace contexts; highlighting the implications for experiential and brand community marketers; and positioning the branded carnival within a broader cultural gravitation towards non-mimetic behaviour opposing marketplace ideology. Finally, limitations are discussed, and directions for further research are suggested. Readers are encouraged to engage with carnival spirit: profanities go uncensored.
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The research report's theme is Dark Tourism, considering prisons as Dark Tourism destinations. Dark Tourism is tourism involving travel to sites historically associated with death, tragedy, and suffering. Dark / Grief heritage sites include cemeteries, battlegrounds, concentration camps, prisons, executions sites, memorial sites, and museums. (John Lennon & Malcolm Foley, 2000: 3,4). Moreover, it investigates the dark tourist and their different motivations to visit sites associated with death, tragedy, and suffering. The Correctional Service Museum (CSM) at Kgoši Mampuru II Management Area (previously known as Pretoria Central Prison) in Tshwane is used as a case study. One of the major exhibits at the museum is “the gallows” which focuses on political prisoner executions, which occurred on the site from 1961 to 1989, amongst other displays and themes in the museum. (Correctional Service Museum, n.d.). My research report has three aspects of Dark Tourism, namely: Prison, Execution3 Site, and Museum, which are associated with the CSM. Thereafter, the report considers the potential of the site in enabling tourism. The research report will then compare the site with some of the popular prison museums in both the Global North and Global South and explore why one is popular as compared to another. Finally, I look at the significance of preserving and maintaining the prison site. Why do Prisons attract visitors as a dark tourism destination? What is the significance of the site? What is its potential?
Article
The purpose of this study is to delve into the range of ways that acceptable public discourse and reconciliatory language impact Rwandan memorial space and its various stakeholders. The goal is to interrogate the dissonance between the more commonly researched practices of Rwanda genocide tourism industry (the curated and controlled narratives formulated within the national memorial and its satellite sites) and that of the banal, every day, and even disavowed sites (such as unmarked burial and crematorium sites) of genocide that carry an immense amount of meaning within local communities. By looking at national genocide sites, as well as their “forgotten echoes” strewn across the Rwandan countryside, it is clear that multipurpose (and multi-meaning) use of public/private space in Rwanda problematizes simplistic unificatory narratives used by the government and international community.
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Piipponen, Mäntymäki and Rodi-Risberg suggest that many contemporary crime narratives across the globe host a heightened interest in diverse and ambiguous mobilities, border crossings and borderlands. They propose that such mobilities and crossings reflect on recent sociocultural developments on local and global levels and communicate specific geopolitical anxieties. They position their own mobilities research perspective within existing crime fiction scholarship, especially within the so-called transnational and spatial turns. Introducing some key observations of mobilities research, they suggest that mobility can be considered both as an object of study in its own right and a critical lens through which contemporary crime narratives can be examined. The chapter identifies several key areas where crime texts engage with types and practices of mobility to offer social critique: crimes across borders and global flows of capital; the means for expanding and curtailing human mobility; and generic exchange and especially the mobilisation of affect through genre hybridisation.
Article
Popular interest in crime is substantial and longstanding, driving the development of crime-based dark tourism attractions. The appeal of these sites can partly be explained through the understanding of functions of transgression as tours provide their audiences with infotainment. These representations of crime both reflect and shape social and cultural perceptions of the nature of offending and victimization. There is, however, a significant gap in relation to the discussion of these crime-based dark tourism activities with almost no engagement with gender at these sites. To fill this gap, this paper presents a conceptual discussion on tourism to sites of female criminal activity, drawing parallels to similar male crime locations. Examination of online advertising for murder walking tours in the UK reveals gendered power dynamics wherein traditional, western gender roles are enforced through the removal of agency from women who engage in more violent crimes while simultaneously fetishizing women as victims of violence, especially sexual. This is evident in the absence of female serial killers within organized dark tours, which often focus specifically on this sexual violence. Thus, the tourist activities that revolve around dark heritage sites, especially those that deal with violent criminal activity, reinforce gendered stereotypes around ‘acceptable’ transgression.
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As a death row for icebergs, Iceberg Alley is a site where melting icebergs are transformed into nonhuman death spectacles for sightseeing tourists and into bottled luxury water for sophisticated consumers. By examining how vibrant, icy nonhumans are produced for and consumed by tourists, this chapter investigates iceberg consumption as an emerging criminal anthroposcene, one shaped by dark tourism, as well as a desire for natural purity. Off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, icebergs are hunted and devoured in ways that conceal the environmental costs of their cultural commodification, even as those costs are contributing to an escalation of the ecological harms on display.
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The relationship between tourism and transitional justice is little-researched. This paper explores the importance of domestic tourism for enabling citizens to encounter and engage with wider transitional justice projects. This issue is explored with reference to a memorial museum in Romania which interprets political violence and state repression. Semi-structured interviews with 52 domestic tourists were undertaken (using purposive sampling to select participants) and the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Most visitors reported general sightseeing motives for visiting the museum and may not have anticipated engaging with transitional justice messages. However, their engagement went beyond sightseeing in a range of ways. Visitors participated in acts of memory-work, acknowledged the victims of repression, and recognized the core message of transitional justice – ‘never again’. They also reflected on the relationship between the recent past and the present, and recognized the role of the museum as a resource for future generations. These experiences were shared by those who had lived through state repression and those who had not. The findings indicate that domestic tourism is a meaningful but overlooked context through which citizens can engage with broader transitional justice projects.
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Acclaimed Australian filmmaker Jennifer Kent’s film The Nightingale has generated intense debate since its premiere at the 2018 Venice Film Festival. Set during the Black War in Van Diemen’s Land in 1825, the film is an unflinching depiction of colonial and sexual violence. Kent told The Saturday Paper that she ‘wanted to tell a story that is relevant to my history and my country’. Her vision of British colonisation, and its consequences for those caught in its wake, taps into a conversation with a strong presence in Australia’s public, political and cultural life over the last three decades. This article critically introduces The Nightingale as an historical film; that is, a film set in the past which offers an interpretation of history. We ask: how does The Nightingale represent the past? How might we situate it within longer traditions of historical representation of frontier conflict, and the convict experience? How did audiences respond to the film? And finally, how might we situate The Nightingale in the moment of its reception? What does it mean to make a film about colonial violence at the same moment as the Uluru statement called for truth-telling about our history?
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book dedicated to virtual dark tourism
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The present chapter focuses on the role of museums as producer of dark myths, which means the cultural background that leads visitors to consume "other's death". Anthropologically speaking, museums are symbolic instrument that helps understanding traumatic events. For this reason, it is important to deepen the connection between tourism consumption and disasters. Over centuries, positivism trivialized mythology as a fictional story, or rumors proper of primitive cultures; rather, not only myths play a leading role in configuring culture, but also the borders between life and death. Here we propose an alternative fresh methodology to study dark tourism issues in the decades to come.
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The present chapter questions to what extent visitors in dark sites are really interested for heritage issues or understanding the roots of moral disasters as the specialized literature suggests or simply are in quest of pleasure-maximization. This text is based on a criticism of the book Heritage that hurts authored by Joy Sather-Wagstaff. Far from any emotionality, dark tourism represents an ideological mechanism to reinforce the supremacy of liberal cultural values which are enrooted in late-capitalism. As the previous backdrop, to what extent tourists visiting these sites emulate (living as victims) or produce a genuine empathy with suffering is the main question goes unnoticed for sociologists and anthropologists. This essay review, which explores the roots of emotions not only continues our previous research in regards to the rise of Thana-Capitalism.
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Taking cues from the surging popularity of thana-tourism, this paper argues that its prevalence echoes the end days of capitalism. The predominant forms of tourism in a society reflect the ethos of that society. What we once called 'mass tourism' reflected the spirit of classical capitalism; later, ecotourism and various other alternative forms of tourism reflected a critical turn in capitalism, often called the 'sympathetic capitalism'. These were incremental alternations, however. Thanatourism is a qualitatively discontinuous form of tourism and its surge should thus correspond with a similarly discontinuous, radical, shift in capitalism. The authors present scholarly perspectives to bring home the view that thana-tourism might indeed be symptomatic of the end of capitalism. &copy 2018, IGI Global. All rights reserved.
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In recent years, a forensic archaeological project at Treblinka extermination camp has uncovered significant evidence relating to the mass murder that took place there. A number of questions emerged regarding the provenance and origins of objects discovered as part of this work, and why they had remained undiscovered for over 70 years. These discoveries led to an opportunity to confirm and challenge the history of the extermination camp, and demands (from the public) to view the objects. This paper will outline how archaeologists and artists came together to reflect on these issues, whilst simultaneously providing access to the new findings.
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From 1975 to 1979, Cambodia, under the leadership of Pol Pot and other leaders of the Democratic Kampuchea,1 was forcibly returned to an agrarian, Marxist-Leninist state in which education, money, religion, and class divisions were violently dismantled. During this period—which was preceded by civil war and tense, violent conflict with Vietnam and the United States—an estimated 2 million members of the Cambodian population perished.
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Dark tourism is the act of travel to tourist sites associated with death, suffering or the seemingly macabre (Stone 2006, 146). This phenomenon is object of increasing attention from the scientific community, which has mainly focused on two interpretive keys. Indeed, there is 1) a more established literature that considers the dark tourism as a form of «collective effervescence», to approach the sacred and sublime dimension of death, 2) a set of contributions that have dealt with the process of commodification involving some experiences and destinations of dark tourism. It is assumed that the condition of both can be identifed in the conception of dark tourism as a carnival experience of liminality and some possible research developments are proposed.
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This article offers a critical analysis of British writer Angela Morgan Cutler’s and Jewish American author Paul Auster’s accounts of their encounters with the Nazi sites of mass murder Auschwitz-Birkenau and Bergen-Belsen. Having no personal connection to the history of the Holocaust, Cutler and Auster post-witness the past through experiencing contradictory sensorial and cognitive reactions to the memorial sites, which resemble cognitive dissonance.
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In 2005, film-maker Rex Bloomstein released KZ, which aimed to find a new way to represent the Holocaust for future generations who face a world with no living survivors, yet a mediated world oversaturated with images of global atrocity. Despite much critical acclaim, KZ received little academic attention. Ten years later, this article provides a reflective analysis of the film, exploring the emergent themes, and their criminological significance. Focus is given to bystanders of atrocity who bear witness to the past. The moral dilemmas of Holocaust representation, such as its commodification for both entertainment and tourism, are additionally discussed.
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