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Winnicott Studies

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The present paper will attempt to examine and delineate those processess that facilitate the acquisition of object usage. I shall propose that analytic holding initially permits the patients to acquire a capacity for object relating by providing a situation which does not require that the patient sift out the projective from the real aspects of the object. During object relating, the patient's emotional position vis-a-vis the analyst is a highly sensitive one because the patient tends to easily experience emotional disruption in response to even small shifts in the analyst's affective presence. In order for the patient to acquire a more even sense of relatedness and to reach object usage, a complex interplay between holding and failures in holding must take place.
Chapter
Winnicott comments on the responses of colleagues in the New York Psychoanalytic Society to his paper ‘The Use of an Object’. He points out the developmental growth in this area of ‘object use’ for certain patients who need to ‘destroy their object in fantasy and see it survives in reality’. He also states that what here appears as ‘destructive’ in actuality is the vitality and energy of what it means to be alive. Through clinical work in this area, the analyst may become a real object, existing outside the patient’s omnipotent fantasises, something that is not usually possible in cases of more acute mental illness.
Chapter
In this essay, Winnicott describes the interstices between illusion and reality. He focuses his discussion on the soft objects used by an infant, what he calls a transitional object. He says transitional objects involve the nature of the object, the infant’s capacity to recognize the object as ‘not-me’ and yet to feel paradoxically that he has created that object. Through the attachment to the transitional object the infant initiates an affectionate type of object relationship. Winnicott emphasises the importance of this transitional object to the infant, and how parents respond to it. The transitional object belongs to the realm of illusion, which is at the basis of initiation of experience. An infant’s transitional object ordinarily becomes gradually decathected as cultural interests develop.
Chapter
Winnicott summarises the conscious and unconscious to and fro between a mother and her baby who has as yet no separate conscious and unconscious. The baby, he writes, communicates creatively and in time becomes able to use what has been found so that the mother is found and used. Winnicott sums up the process in a poetic final statement. The preliminary notes for this lecture are also included.
Chapter
In this paper, Winnicott makes a theoretical statement about what psychotherapy and psychoanalysis do. For him, the work of therapy is a form of playing, and it occurs in the area of overlap between patient and analyst. If the therapeutic process is successful, the patient who cannot ‘play’ is enabled to do so. Winnicott looks at play in relation to masturbation, at his own concept of transitional phenomena, at play in time and space, and uses illustrative cases to make his points. He summarises that the child in play is investing external realities with his dreaming self and its meaning and feelings.
Chapter
In this Preface and Acknowledgements to Winnicott’s 1958 Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis , he describes his experience as a paediatrician and analyst and gives his reasons for dividing the book into three sections, which show his development within paediatrics, and then beyond to his contribution to psychoanalytic theory.
Book
A comprehensive overview of object relations theory from a Kleinian perspective. It includes chapters on phantasy, the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions, internal objects, and the work of Winnicott on potential space.
Book
First published in 1991. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company. © 1981 by Madeleine Davis and David Wallbridge. All rights reserved.
Article
The negotiation of paradox may be considered as an essential vehicle of the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis. The paradoxes inherent to the psychoanalytic experience are considered here with particular reference to Winnicott's writings, which abound in, and require, paradox. These paradoxes are evident in the following juxtapositions: the subjectively conceived object versus the objectively perceived object; personal isolation versus relatedness; ruthlessness versus concern; and dependence versus independence. In analysis, the framework for the transitional area of illusion is maintained through a continuing intersubjective process of negotiation, by which analyst and patient seek to straddle the paradoxes of their many‐layered relationship. This ongoing process of negotiation carries both the potential for structure building and the delicate hope for a reworking of repetitions in the transference‐countertransference construction. Exploration of these issues includes consideration of the analyst's and patient's coauthorship of metaphorical communications and a definition of the analyst's neutrality in terms of his responsibility to preserve the area of illusion for ongoing negotiation. Finally, detailed clinical material serves to illustrate the process of negotiation in the course of a treatment.
Article
I explore in this book the idea that human experience is the product of the dialectical interplay of three modes of generating experience: the depressive, the paranoid-schizoid, and the autistic-contiguous. Each mode creates, preserves, and negates the other. I propose that schizoid experience is generated in an area of experience lying between the realm of strangulated internal object relations and the realm of tyrannizing, asymbolic patternings of sensation. Through discussing certain aspects of the analysis of a schizoid patient, I attempt to illustrate the ways in which analytic theory and technique must incorporate an understanding of the nature of the interplay of autistic-contiguous, paranoid-schizoid, and depressive modes of generating experience. In Chapters 5 and 6, the focus of the discussion shifts to an examination of the transition into the Oedipus complex in female and male development. I then turn in Chapter 7 to a discussion of early experience of a different sort: the beginnings of the analytic experience. In the final chapter, I discuss a specific form of primitive anxiety: the unconscious fear of not knowing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
26 of the author's papers, covering a period of 25 years (1931-1956), are collected in this volume and divided into 3 sections: emotional problems of child development, the impact of psychoanalytic concepts on pediatrics, the author's original contributions to psychoanalytic theory and practice. The 26 chapters deal with such subjects as: psychoses and child care, the antisocial tendency, pediatrics and childhood neurosis, appetite and emotional disorder, hate in the counter-transference, withdrawal and regression, aggression and emotional development. 89-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evidence from research in developmental psychology on mother-infant communication and cognition in the first 18 months is considered in relation to British psychoanalytic theory, and particularly that of D.W. Winnicott. Large overlaps exist between the two disciplines, but there are areas where empirical work indicates modifications of psychoanalytic formulations and, conversely, clinical observations that draw attention to the need for far closer empirical scrutiny of certain developmental issues.
Article
The area of faith is distinguishable from operations which primarily emphasize ego mastery and introjection-internalization processes. Faith is implicit in Winnicott's transitional experiencing and carried forward in object usage. In Bion faith is linked with openness to O or the (unknowable) ultimate reality of a session and is the operative principle of the psychoanalytic attitude. This paper emphasizes the play of faith in Winnicott's object usage and Bion's O. A certain faith is also required to tolerate the movement of meaning in Lacan's Symbolic order. Faith as a fundamental dimension is in tension with the defensive use of mastery and introjective-projective representational networks. In its various forms this complex tension is part of the structure of human life and constitutes the arena in which faith may evolve.
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The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant
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Between Reality and Fantasy In Between Reality and Fantasy
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Winnicott and the Spatula Game
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The Work and Play of Winnicott
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Boundary difficulties in borderline patients
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Projective identification reappraised: Projective identification, introjective identification, the transference / countertransference / neurosis / psychosis, and their consummate expression in the Crucifixion, the Pieta, and therapeutic exorcism. II. The countertransference complex
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Use or misuse: A clinical illustration of Winnicott s concept of object usage
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