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International Journal of Philosophy and Theology
June 2019, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 44-49
ISSN: 2333-5750 (Print), 2333-5769 (Online)
Copyright © The Author(s). All Rights Reserved.
Published by American Research Institute for Policy Development
The Interactive Effect of Gender on the Effectiveness of Logotheraphy and Philosophy of
Education Teaching on Mosaic Ten Commandments Belief on First Year Undergraduate
Dr. BABALOLA, James Adeyemi Oluwatoyin1 , Dr. ADEOYE, Ayodele Olusegun 2
Dr. ABOLARIN, Isaiah3 & AKINPELU, Abel4
The population for the study consisted of newly admitted 100level students of a faith based private university
in Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select the participants. The study adopted a 3x2 pre-test
and post test experimental research design consisting of two treatment groups and one control group. Each
of this group had 40 participants with a total of 120. Three hypotheses were formulated and
Multidimensional Ten Commandments Questionnaire (M10CQ) by Snell (1995) was the instrument used for
data collection. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse the data at the 0.05 level of
significance. Results revealed a significant effect in the two-way interaction effect of treatment and gender on
the bullying behaviour of secondary school students (F(2,101) = 8.567 p <0.05).The study also revealed that
gender (F1,101 = 6.212; p < 0.05) did interact with the effect of the two treatments. Based on these findings,
Counselling Psychologists, Religious leader could use any of the treatment packages (Logotherapy and
Philosophy teaching) as identified by the study in changing the belief concept of the undergraduate .Thus
gender have to be taken into consideration.
Keywords: philosophy of education, logotheraphy and mosaic ten commandments
Christians believe the Ten Commandments have divine authority and continue to be valid, though they have
different interpretations and uses of them. (Aaron, 2006). Through most of Christian history, the decalogue has been
considered a summary of God's law and standard of behavior, and has been central to Christian life, piety, and
The Ten Commandments concern matters of fundamental importance in both Judaism and Christianity: the
greatest obligation (to worship only God), the greatest injury to a person (murder), the greatest injury to family bonds
(adultery), the greatest injury to commerce and law (bearing false witness), the greatest inter-generational obligation
(honor to parents), the greatest obligation to community (truthfulness), the greatest injury to moveable property
(theft). (Markl, 2013) The Ten Commandments are written with room for varying interpretation, reflecting their role
as a summary of fundamental principles. (Kuntz, 2004; Markl, 2012 & 2013). They are not as explicit (Watts, 2004) or
detailed as rules (Mendenhall, 2001) or many other biblical laws and commandments, because they provide guiding
principles that apply universally, across changing circumstances. They do not specify punishments for their violation.
Their precise import must be worked out in each separate situation. (Norman, 2009)
1 Department of Religious Studies, E-mail: email@example.com
2 Department of Educational Foundation, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Department of Religious Studies/PG Methodologist, E-mail: email@example.com
4 Department of Religious Studies, School of Education & Humanities, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria. E-mail:
AKINPELU, Abel et.al. 45
The Bible indicates the special status of the Ten Commandments among all other Old Testament laws in
several ways. They have a uniquely terse style. Of all the biblical laws and commandments, the Ten Commandments
alone were "written with the finger of God" (Exodus 31:18). And lastly, the stone tablets were placed in the Ark of the
Covenant (Exodus 25:21). (Turner,2005).
the Ten Commandments provide God's universal and timeless standard of right and wrong, unlike the other
603 commandments in the Torah, which include, for example, various duties and ceremonies such as the kashrut
dietary laws and now unobservable rituals to be performed by priests in the Holy Temple. They form the basis of
Jewish law.[Jewish tradition considers the Ten Commandments the theological basis for the rest of the
commandments; a number of works (starting with Rabbi Saadia Gaon) have made groupings of the commandments
according to their links with the Ten Commandments.
The traditional Rabbinical Jewish belief is that the observance of these commandments and the other mitzvot
are required solely of the Jewish people, and that the laws incumbent on humanity in general are outlined in the seven
Noahide laws (several of which overlap with the Ten Commandments). In the era of the Sanhedrin transgressing any
one of six of the Ten Commandments theoretically carried the death penalty, the exceptions being the First
Commandment, honoring your father and mother, saying God's name in vain, and coveting, though this was rarely
enforced due to a large number of stringent evidentiary requirements imposed by the oral law.
Frankl clarifies that this search for meaning does not have any relation to spirituality or religion, but strictly
relates to finding purpose in one’s life or tasks (Somani, 2009). Moreover, logotherapists do not prescribe meaning to
a patient but rather describe the process of how meaning is obtained in hopes of providing the patient with a sense of
fulfillment (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Thus, logotherapy regards its assignment as that of assisting a patient to find
meaning in life (Frankl, 1959).
Logotherapy is composed of three basic principles. The first basic principle is that life has meaning in all
circumstances, even despondent ones. The second principle is that the main motivational force is the desire to find
meaning in life. Lastly, the third basic principle states that humanity has the freedom of attitudinal choice, even in
situations of unchangeable affliction (Frankl, 1959). Thus, Frankl purports that people can discover meaning through
creative, experiential, and attitudinal values (Hatt, 1965). Creative values consist of achievement of tasks such as
painting a picture or tending a flowerbed (Boeree, 2006). Experiential values consist of encountering another human,
such as a loved one, or by experiencing the world through a state of receptivity such as appreciating natural beauty
(Hatt, 1965). Attitudinal values speak of the potential to make meaningful choices in situations of suffering and
adversity (Gelman & Gallo, 2009). Frankl contends that everything can be taken away from a person but the freedom
to choose one’s attitude (Frankl, 1959). He stressed that people should not suffer unnecessarily in order find meaning
but that meaning was possible when suffering is inevitable. For example, a person subjected to an incurable disease or
placed in a concentration camp can still discover meaning even though his or her situation seems dire (Hatt, 1965).
Moreover, tragic optimism means that people are capable of optimism in spite of the tragic triad. Frankl believes that all
humans will be subjected to the tragic triad, which consists of guilt, death, and unavoidable suffering (Ponsaran, 2007).
Meaning in life is described as the overriding goals of one's life that add purpose to everyday living as an individual's
terrestrial experience and a primary motivational force in humans (Frankl, 1988). The meaning in life of the
adolescents was measured by the Adolescents Meaning in Life (AMIL) scale which was revised by Kang, Kim, Song,
& Shim ,2007). Spiritual well-being is defined as the affirmation of life in a relationship with God, self, community
and environment that nurtures and celebrates wholeness (Soeken & Carson, 1987).
The study is aimed at establishing the Interactive effect of gender on the independent variables
(Logotheraphy and Philosophy Education training) on the dependent variable (Mosaic 10 commandment). It is also
designed to establish the effects of gender on dependent variable (Mosaic 10 commandment)
1. There is no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on Mosaic 10 commandments
2. There is no significant interactive effect of gender on Mosaic 10 commandments
This study adopted a 3x2 pre-test, post-test, factorial design. The factors of the study are treatment, which
exists at three levels (Logotheraphy, Philosophy teaching and Control) which exists at two levels, (Male &Female).
46 International Journal of Philosophy and Theology, Vol. 7, No. 1, June 2019
This design enabled the researchers to determine the effect of the independent and moderators on the
dependent variable at a single shot.
Population of the study
The population of this study consisted of undergraduate students who are been admitted into 100 level in
Babcock University, Nigeria.
Sample and Sampling Technique:
A simple random sampling technique was used to pick subjects for the study. 40 students (20 males and 20
females) for each group were selected to participate making a total of one hundred and twenty participants, Each of
the group was assigned with the treatment and the control group thus:. (A, B&C)
The belief was assessed using an adapted Instrument prepared by Snell(1995) named Multidimensional Ten
Commandments Questionnaire (M10CQ).The Ten Commandments Questionnaire consists of the following 10
subscales (5 items per subscale), designed to measure how much people agree (versus disagree) with each of the 10
Commandments discuss in the Bible: A 5-point Likert scale was used to measure the subject’s responses: a) strongly
disagree (-2); b) slightly disagree (-1); c) neither agree or disagree (0); d) slightly agree (+1); and e) strongly agree (+2).
Subscale scores were based on a summation of the responses to the five items on each subscale (range: 10 to 50).
Higher positive (versus negative) subscale scores indicated greater agreement (versus greater disagreement) with each
The validity was also ensured through proper scrutiny of the items by experts in Educational Psychologist.
The internal consistency of the scale was established using Chrombach’s alpha which yielded a scale of 0.87.The
Instrument was subjected to three weeks pre and post test among some students outside the scope of studies. Scores
generated from these were correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation method. A co-efficient(r) of 0.76
showing that the instrument is reliable to be used for the study.
Administration of the Instrument/Procedure
This study was carried out in three phases. In the first phase the participant was assigned to the two treatment
groups(Logotheraphy, ,N=40, Philosophy teaching =40 and Control group N=40 ) respectively. MC10 was
administered. The data generated through the administration of pre-test served as covariate in the analysis of
covariance. At phase two, each group went through six weeks (2 hours a week) of intensive training. 30 minutes of
discussion/lecture, 15 minutes to discuss the previous assignments given, 15 minutes to summarize and give the next
assignment. Instructions and explanations on the task involved in each experimental group such as lectures,
discussion, and assignments were given to all participants. Among other discussions/lectures given to participants
Method of Data Analysis
All the stated hypotheses in this study were analyzed using Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA).This method
helped to draw out the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable using scores as covariant. The
hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significant.
1.There is no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on Mosaic 10 commandments
AKINPELU, Abel et.al. 47
Table 1: Tests of Between-Subjects Effect of Logotheraphy, Philosophy teaching and Control on Mosaic ten
commandments belief on 100 level Undergraduate students.
Type III Sum of Squares
Age * Gender
Age * Group
Gender * Group
Gender * Age * Group
a. R Squared = .452 (Adjusted R Squared = .449)
Table 2:Estimates of the Interaction Effect of Treatment and Gender on Mosaic Ten Commandments belief
on 100level Undergraduate students.
95% Confidence Interval
Philosophy of education
a. Covariates appearing in the model are evaluated at the following values: Pre-test mosaic ten commandment
The results in Table 2 revealed that there was significant two-way interaction effect of treatment and gender on the
bullying behaviour of secondary school students (F(2,101) = 8.567 p <0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis which stated
that there is no significant gender difference in the effect of Logotheraphy, Philosophy teaching and Control on
Mosaic ten commandments belief on 100level Undergraduate students was rejected by this finding.
The implication of the results is that gender would interact significantly with treatment to Mosaic ten
commandments belief on 100level Undergraduate students participants.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant interactive effect of gender on Mosaic 10 commandments
Table 3: Estimates of Gender on Mosaic Ten Commandments belief on 100level Undergraduate students.
95% Confidence Interval
a. Covariates appearing in the model are evaluated at the following values: Pre-test Mosaic 10 commandments =
48 International Journal of Philosophy and Theology, Vol. 7, No. 1, June 2019
The results in Table 3 indicated that male participants had a mean score of 31.953 and a standard error of
1.208 while female participants had a mean score of 30.323 and a standard error of 1.226. To determine if these mean
scores are significantly different, an Analysis of Covariance was conducted. Results are as presented in Table 4
Table 4: Univariate Test of Gender on Participants’ Mosaic 10 commandments belief
The F tests the effect of Gender. This test is based on the linearly independent pairwise comparisons among
the estimated marginal means.
The results in Table 4 revealed that there was a significant difference in the effect of gender (F(1,101) = 6.212; p
< 0.05) on the Mosaic ten commandments belief on 100level Undergraduate students. The null hypothesis which
stated that there is no significant difference in the effect of gender on the Mosaic Ten Commandments belief on
100level Undergraduate students participants was rejected by this finding. The implication of this result is that male
and female participants’ will significantly differ.
The result in table 2 revealed the summary of the first hypothesis that stated that, there is no gender
significant difference in the effect of Logotheraphy, Philosophy teaching and Control on Mosaic ten commandments
belief on 100level Undergraduate students. The outcome of the data analysis on this hypothesis indicated that there is
a significant difference in the two way interaction effects of gender and treatments on ten commandments belief. The
result also affirms the researches of (Adeoye,2013) and Benvenga,(1998) that gender effect with the use believe
system.. Also, this result support the earlier findings of Maccoby & Jacklin (1987) who reported that males and
females religious philosophy can be influenced The insignificant difference in gender and treatment may be explained
using Piaget cognitive development and social learning theories by Bandura(1977) who described that behaviours are
learnt and imbibed especially at youthful ages irrespective of gender.
The second hypothesis which states there is no significant difference in the effect of gender on Mosaic ten
commandments belief on 100level Undergraduate students. The result of this study laid credence to what has been
observed all over the globe (Pattakos,2004; Moosavi,2012) Although, some studies were of the opinion that belief
systems among females are easily changed due to their nature than males. While other researchers conducted indicated
that males and females are influenced mostly due to their family background, social status and educational background
(John, 2012). The females are prone to changes than the ales due to their feeble nature.
Based on the conclusion of the studies, the following recommendations were made:
Counselling psychologists could use any of the treatment packages (Logotherapy and Philosophy teaching) as
identified by the study in changing the belief concept of the undergraduate .Thus gender has to be taken into
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