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Choosing a separate right of way mass transit system for an intermediate metropolis in France

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This article is the result of a 1997 study carried out to shed light on the choice of a separate right of way mass transit system for the urban area of Valenciennes. The choice was between the articulated bus, the new Bombardier's TVR (Reserved Track Transport), whose behavior during operation on the Nancy and Caen networks was not yet known, and the modern tramway widely used in France since the start of the 80s and in Europe.
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Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
1
F. Kuhn The 7 October 2020
Choosing a separate right of way mass transit system for an intermediate
metropolis in France
I. Recall
Summary
This article is the result of a 1997 study carried out to shed light on the choice of a separate
right of way mass transit system for the urban area of Valenciennes. The choice was between
the articulated bus, the new Bombardier's TVR (Reserved Track Transport), whose behavior
during operation on the Nancy and Caen networks was not yet known, and the modern
tramway widely used in France since the start of the 80s and in Europe.
If the Organizing Authority (AO) of Transport of Valenciennes metropolitan area
1
had doubts
about the flow of the busiest section at rush hour (2,700 passengers per hour and direction),
with an increase rate of 1% per year, it could have been satisfied with improving its bus
network through progressive improvements to its own site and corridors in the hypercentre.
Indeed, with articulated buses, one can theoretically carry some 2000 passengers per hour
and direction according to an interval of three minutes, even hypothetically reach the 2700
passengers by reducing the interval to two minutes - by learning to operate under these
conditions. -; or even increase these flow rates by adjusting the vehicle filling rate
2
. But is a
frequency of passages of thirty buses per hour adapted to the configuration of Valenciennes?
Isn't it a source of increased operating costs, pollution and inconvenience to residents?
Capacities depend on local conditions, including possible tail effects at intersections during
rush hour.
When the AO (Organizing Authority of Public Transit) decided to make a separate right of
way mass transit system , it landed the choice between classic tram and TVR , namely a system
on tyres dual mode which has a capacity of 150 seats per vehicle is 3000 passengers per hour
and line direction at peak; whereas the 180-seat tramway offers 3,600 passengers per hour
and direction, or even double if demand were to increase on this section.
It chose the rail tram, believing that the increase in traffic will be such that in the medium
term, demand could reach 3,600 passengers per hour and direction (in fifteen years, if
demand maintains its growth rate at 2% per year). This choice would then be sheltered from
any criticism of under-capacity and network’s saturation, while allowing, in a second step, to
adapt operation to demand without major additional investment.
1
In 2017, the city of Valenciennes had 44,000 inhabitants and the 82 municipalities making up the metropolis 352,000
inhabitants
2
Thus, in III.3 below, we can imagine 4,400 p / h / s by applying a commonly accepted criterion abroad of eight passengers
per m 2 (which is not in occurrence, a desirable option).
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
2
Since this choice and the studies which preceded it, in addition to Tvr, intermediate
transport on tires has been reinforced by new technological solutions with pneumatic
bearings. In particular, Light Transport on tyres Tlp or future Bhls (Bus with High Level of
Service) and new vehicles from the Lohr range are offered. Only the Translohr was flexible and
made it possible to increase the capacity of a line to 4,100 passengers per hour and direction:
this level corresponds to an increase in demand of 2% per year after twenty years.
In addition, the choice of the recovery of Hbnpc (Houillères du Bassin Nord Pas de Calais)
railways
3
, the use of single tracks (deviation from networks), the proximity of the workshop
garage to the separate right of way mass transit system track, showed in the study a difference
in investment cost between the Tvr and the tramway. at least 15%; this advantage rest is small
compared to the investment that would be necessary if the request was experiencing rapid
inflation after the commissioning of the the separate right of way mass transit system.
- Source : http://transporturbain.canalblog.com/pages/les-tramways-de-valenciennes/32921935.html
Diagram of the public transport network including the two new tram lines in the urban area of Valenciennes
Preamble
3
The coal mines of the Nord Pas de Calais basin had a private rail network for the transport of raw materials, which were
now abandoned .
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
3
The purpose of this article was to observe the method and the results of a previous study
which led the AO (authorities organizing transport) within the urban perimeter of the
Valenciennes area to submit to elected officials the decision to set up a transport system, a
public transport on a dedicated site, alternative to the existing bus network.
Regarding the method that prevailed in the development of the proposal, no remark can
be made regarding the use of a fairly classic and simple model. The study has proceeded by
comparing alternative choices, from the technical and economic data of the realization of
Grenoble for the "tram classic", and those of the Caen project for "tire rolling option ”. In
addition to the difficulty of comparing sites with one another, there is an unavoidable
drawback : comparing results for the “ classic tram ” option , establishing hypotheses for the
“ tramway on tires ” option (and in the current state of the project (1996) , no one is able to
certify that the Tvr chosen by the Caen conurbation will be installed at a cost lower or higher
than 70% of what a conventional tram would have cost it). Apart from the infrastructure costs,
the comparison of which on projects today varies constantly, the final operating costs are
difficult to predict, knowing that a priori road operation is similar to that of buses, better
controlled by the operator of urban transport than that of rail. Finally, in the choice of routes
submitted for comparison, the options taken by the commissioner take better advantage of
the technological railway alternative: a pre-choice oriented towards pneumatic rolling would
perhaps have done more justice to the pneumatic option, according to the industrial formula
chosen in Caen or according to any other proposal.
Observation
The validity of the conclusion, highlighting the railroad tramway, is therefore partly linked
to the parameters set and the data available to carry out the study. Projecting the current
operating results of the network and the data from previous surveys presents a risk, which is
difficult to assess in view of changes in behavior in urban travel (which today represent 18%
of mobility practices in Valenciennes). More generally, the hypothesis of the refocusing of a
metropolitan area exceeding 300,000 inhabitants is not an external variable, since the
purpose of a guided transport system is to help face its current polynuclear explosion. Such
an evolution will obviously not only result from variables internal to the transport sector, since
it brings into play the revitalization of a regional economy undergoing critical change. Other
determinants appear to be pending questions, in particular the submission to a road network
that is opposed to public transport, the passage through urban voids (road junctions or
industrial wasteland), the weakness of opportunities for crossing the river that separates the
agglomeration
4
. In any event, the system to be put in place will not be able to replace the
currently existing supply, which it will have to restructure but on which it will have to rely in
the food network.
II. Additional observations
4
In the absence of a terrain’s reconnaissance, no appreciation of the importance of these variables can be provided here.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
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1. The capacity of a separate right of way mass transit system
Like the metro, the modern tramway attracts today for its modernity, its speed and the
quality of the service offered, all major assets for which traffic managers in cities are seeking
an increase in use of public transport to improve vehicle traffic and reduce pollution. The tram
represents a step forward compared to buses subject to the vagaries and conflicts of traffic,
which therefore cannot keep to timetables and do not reach sufficient commercial speed to
present themselves as an attractive alternative to the private car. Thus, we could see at first
that modern tram networks recently commissioned (Nantes, Grenoble, Saint Etienne, Rouen,
Strasbourg, etc.) or Val (Lille, Rennes and Toulouse) see their attendance grow rapidly when a
first line is put into service.
Unlike buses, the option for a surface separate right of way mass transit system leads AO
(Organizing Transit Authority) to free up rights-of-way, initially intended for cars. In the 1970s,
the city of Zürich therefore rejected the underground metro, the population having voted in
favor of maintaining and extending the tram network and against freeing up additional space
for cars. Reserving a right of way for the separate right of way mass transit system forces,
sooner or later, to reduce the use of the automobile and to adopt a restrictive traffic plan with
deterrent parking lots to reduce conflicts unfavorable to public transport.
It becomes a priority to offer the greatest number of spaces per kilometer to maintain and
significantly increase the use of an urban transport network. Separate right-of-way from
general traffic helps increase commercial speed and network productivity by reducing
conflicts with automobiles and pedestrians and by effectively prioritizing trams at traffic lights.
An attractive and modern system presents itself as electric, rail, fast, on a clean site,
accessible, etc. These advantages, reserved for the metro, the Val and the modern tramway,
exclude the bus unless a specific site is created on its entire route, like the Trans Val de Marne
5
,
equipped with operational assistance and passenger information equipment (Sae -operating
help system- and Sai -Information help system-); the cutoff effect of this site in the towns
crossed is not negligible. However, any new separate right of way mass transit system must be
studied not only from the point of view of transport, but also from the point of view of town
planning, so that the project is adopted by the inhabitants as a whole.
If we cite the case of the Valenciennes urban area, the established APS has estimated traffic
of 2,700 passengers per hour and direction on the busiest section at rush hour, which justified
the establishment a separate right of way mass transit system and put the AO in front to at
least three options:
- the redeployed bus on its own site;
- transport on reserved lane with pneumatic bearings, of the Tvr , Translohr type ;
- the modern tramway with metal bearings, type Tfs .
The preliminary simplified summary draft 1994 compared two systems: the Grenoble
French standard tramway Tfs and the Tvr project of Caen. We could describe the advantages
5
The Trans Val de Marne runs 12.5 km from Rungis to Créteil ( Rer station ). Operated since October 1993 with 19
articulated buses, this project cost 45 MF / km and is part of the future ring road serving the suburbs called Orbitale :
organization of the internal basin of annular transport freed from congestion.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
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and disadvantages and also compare them to the variants offered by the latest systems such
as Translohr
6
, the Tlp
7
and the Citadis
8
.
Table 1 : France 1996
Virtual and current capacities of new intermediate transport systems
* The unit capacity of guided vehicles and buses is dimensioned at the rate of 4 standing passengers per square
meter (whereas in the latter case 6.6 standing passengers per square meter are allowed).
** The theoretical capacity in passengers per hour and direction of a line is dimensioned according to the section in
the mos busy direction at rush hour with an interval for a surface system which is taken here at 3 minutes.
*** The capacity observed on most French networks with surface systems during peak hours is measured with an
interval of 4 to 5 minutes: we take here an interval of 4 minutes because we consider these systems on their own
site (without conflicts) with regulation at traffic lights.
The draft summary (Aps) of the separate right of way mass transit system project of
Valenciennes considered only the system produced by the manufacturer Bombardier for the
Caen project. Since then, the manufacturer Lohr has refined its proposal for an original V-
shaped mechanical guide with two rollers resting on a central rail, with a mass of 60 kilograms
per roller (against 800 kg for each roller of the Tvr Bombardier), which strengthens the
derailment safety and reduced wear. Thus, the Translohr , intermediate system on tires guided
by a central rail, offered 146 spaces S3 in its version of a length of 24.5 m s . This vehicle is
adjustable in length and an S4 version of 34,80 meters long offered a 207 spaces capacity,
subject to circulate on its own site. The S3 escaped from this formal obstacle and the bimodal
guide allowed him to reduce implementation costs for the garage workshop, using the existing
road network as the feeder line to the depot.
Which system would best meet the productivity needs of Valenciennes? The Siturv network
having experienced the last ten years a natural change in attendance of around 1.2 to 1.5%
per year and if this change were to increase with the commissioning of a separate right of way
mass transit system (we kept indeed a forecast rate of 1.5% per year), demand on the most
heavily loaded section could drop from 2,700 to 3,400 passengers per hour and direction in
15 years, or even reach 4,300 passengers per hour and direction after thirty years. If these
trends were to continue (thanks to a relative decrease in individual motorization) and if the
implementation of a new system were to increase the number of public transport customers,
a separate right of way mass transit system adapted to this current and planned development
could have modular vehicles in length or can be coupled in multiple units. This was now the
6
The Translohr is an intermediate system, proposed by Lohr -Industrie , of road design guided by a central rail which will
exist in 3 versions: S2 of 18 m with two articulated boxes, S3 of 24.5 m with three articulated boxes and two powered axles,
S4 34.8 m with four articulated boxes and three powered axles.
7
The Light Tire Transporter ( Tlp ), proposed by Cogifer , was a 28.5m rail-designed vehicle that was not dual-mode and was
not couplable .
8
The Citadis or light urban transport system ( Stul ), is a new generation tram offered by Gec Alsthom.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
6
case for the Translohr , which can be adapted from S3 to S4 but limited to the capacity of 4,100
passengers per hour and direction and supposing that the S4 is approved as a rail vehicle.
Likewise, the Citadis range trams were modular in length and could be coupled : a 22-meter-
long version can be transformed into another 29-meter-long version and these vehicles can
form two-part trainsets with a capacity of 5,600 to 7,600 passengers per hour and direction.
In the case of Valenciennes, we can also adopt the 22-meter version offering 142 spaces (same
order of capacity as the Tvr and the Translohr ), i.e. an online capacity of 2,800 passengers per
hour, a figure that could be reached in less than five years ; then, if the demand growth
forecasts were confirmed, two vehicles would be coupled in one train to increase the capacity
to 5,700 passengers per hour and direction. We could also run vehicles of 29 meters and
others of 22 meters, depending on the network operating policy, the unit cost of each vehicle
and the cost of the entire fleet.
The French standard tram Tfs (Grenoble, Bobigny, Rouen) with a length of 29.40 meters,
which caught the attention of the A O , immediately offers a line capacity of 3,500 passengers
per hour and direction.
The people in charge of the Valenciennes transport reason essentially in the hyperpointe
and expose that:
- the articulated bus is not suitable;
- the Tvr Bombardier, the Translohr S3 and the Citadis 202 offer a limited capacity for entry
into service;
- the Translohr S4 and the Tlp , subject to rail homologation, could meet the needs.
However, the A O has validated the Tfs , based on current routes and flow estimates on the
busiest section at rush hour in the Valenciennes urban area.
2. Observations on investment and operating costs
The choice of a system circulating on the surface makes it possible to reduce the costs of
civil engineering, in particular by eliminating the expenses in tunnels and viaducts; however,
it is opposed to the work induced to re-establish traffic and to replace lost parking spaces (to
allow the automobile to compete with the new separate right of way mass transit system …).
The latest separate right of way mass transit system projects in Strasbourg and Rouen show
respective average costs of € 37.8 million val. 2007 and 54.19 M € val. 2007 per kilometer built
or and
9
, figures exceeding the historical costs of the Nantes tramways 29.32 M € val. 2007 on
line 2 and Bobigny 32.55 M € val. 2007 because of the importance of structures underground
and the pipes networks deviations
10
; other differences can be explained by a different level of
services apart from the platform required for the tramway.
The gain announced by the designers of the Tvr on infrastructure would be spread over
several items (to be confirmed after work) mainly:
9
From “ Urban Transport : Tramway Revival in France ” by F. Kuhn & JH An in Jakarta Franco- Indonesian seminar on 21
October 2008
10
Respectively 53 MF / km in Strasbourg, 44MF / km in Rouen, against 7 MF / km in Nantes (the bridges over the Loire being
financed elsewhere) and 8 MF / km in Bobigny.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
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- the dimensioning of the roadway;
- deviations from dealer networks;
- the use of the existing road network to reach the depot in dead mileage from the
terminus;
- construction of a workshop garage without specific tracks (with guide rails and switches),
without power supply by catenary.
a. Track dimensioning
11
The possible gain on the achievement of pavement layers depends on local conditions
(good deformation modulus of the sub - soil, freeze thaw cycle taken into account, etc.).
Indeed
12
, the cost of an infrastructure in bituminous structure (high modulus asphalt, Eme) or
in continuous reinforced concrete structure (Bac) - including guide rails for the Tvr system - is
respectively 9% and 5% cheaper than the cost of a conventional track for the Standard
Tramway (Tfs) which, for a same width right-of-way, uses rails laid on sleepers and a layer of
concrete, with a bituminous coating. Since the area required for a Tvr in straight alignment is
of the order of 10% greater than that of the Tfs (2.30 meters wide), the above gain is reduced
to 6% and 2% compared to the cost of the way of the Tfs . The supply of the Tvr guide rail is
currently more expensive, its rolling in small quantities does not yet allow it to be competitive
with the 35 G rail, supplied for ten years on several lines of European tram networks.
But the two rolling options lead to different joint costs, some of which are more to the
advantage of the Tvr. On a tram line route, there is generally 15% of the linear track on a
special infrastructure to obtain a certain vibration attenuation. Each type of track required for
the conventional tram corresponds to a construction cost. However, the tires transmit very
little vibrations to the environment, unlike the steel wheel of the tramway and the guide
rollers on the rail emitting only few vibrations which are much easier to filter given the low
load. We can estimate, on the sections where it is necessary to lay type 2, 2A and 3 tracks for
the tram, a saving of up to 30% compared to the track required for Tvr .
The vehicle on tires adapts better than the conventional tram to a rugged longitudinal
profile. As the number of points and crossings is less numerous for tramways on tires than for
conventional trams, a significant gain in infrastructure could be obtained. This gain could
11
The tramway track is defined by a type corresponding to the different elastic stages necessary to obtain sufficient vibratory
attenuation depending on the distance of the track from the facades of the houses along which it is located. The single elastic
stage type 1 is the standard track used when no special precautions are required. Type 2 track is used when it is located
between 7 and 4 m from a facade, for an attenuation of 10 dB for a maximum spectrum at 63 Hz; and the type 2A track for
an attenuation of 15 dB under the same situational conditions. Type 3 track is located less than 4 m from the facades, for an
attenuation of 20 dB.
12
According to a recent study carried out by Inrets and the Lcpc (IFSTTAR), on behalf of the Dtt , the main results of which
were presented to the Development Committee of surface Tcsp (a separate right of way mass transit system) on October 30,
1996: this study compares, for the same traffic and the same ground deformation modulus, these two types of infrastructure
located in a straight line, without switches; to be more precise, the comparison must be made on the same route, knowing
that the hilly site with strong ramps and comprising many switches is more favorable to the tramway on tires for example,
whereas a route with a flat profile having a garage workshop in the immediate vicinity of the tracks is more favorable to the
tramway on steel wheels.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
8
however be achieved to the detriment of commercial speed, if it led to an increase in the entry
and exit times on the guide rail.
Thus, the Transvilles of Valenciennes study establishes the low level of savings that a Tvr
would bring, due to the site's lack of relief, the possibility of reusing an existing railway
platform and the location of the workshop garage located near the line.
b. Pipes and wires deviations of concessionaire networks
The maintenance of the pipes or cables of the dealer networks is allowed for crossing the
right-of-way of the Tvr system, due to the thinness of the pavement structure. Such an
advantage is already accepted for tram lines classic: according to the depth of the networks
whose coverage should be one meter - above the upper surface of the pipes, the bottom of
excavation during the realization of the platform of the a separate right of way mass transit
system is between - 40 centimeters (relative to the level of the running surface) for the Tvr
and - 60 centimeters for the Tfs when the deformation modulus of the soil constituting the
subgrade is greater than 500 bars (510 kgf / cm2 ); earthwork can thus generally be carried out
without special precautions. When carrying out the layers of pavements, the concessionaires
can provide batteries of ducts for additional crossings of pipes under the tracks; or, they can
use mini-tunnel boring machines to cross the right-of-way after the commissioning of the
transport system.
The thin pavement necessary for the Tvr would make it possible to guard against the
deviation of the longitudinal networks of concessionaires under the influence of the Tcsp . But
protection must be taken against stray currents vis-à-vis gas and drinking water pipes, for
which cathodic protection must be installed at the risk of destroying them in the short term
by corrosion.
The concessionaires prefer to replace the old pipes and install them outside the separate
right of way mass transit system: the study of a most favorable route announced in advance
to the concessionaires then makes it possible to greatly reduce the cost of deviation attributed
to the installation of the future separate right of way mass transit system. Moreover, it is not
in the operator's interest to let the networks occupy the right of way of mass transit system,
at the risk of degrading the operation when the maintenance of these networks forces the
vehicles to leave the lane, divert on the second track or in the adjacent streets and therefore
to be twin-engine with clutch equipment for guiding the mini-bogies installed on the track at
regular spacing to the right of the stations.
In addition, the intervention under the Tvr track is detrimental to the flatness of the
wearing course: indeed, if this is made of continuously reinforced concrete (Bac structure) the
concessionaire's company should adopt a specific operating mode. so as not to “relax” the
structure and create more or less rapid subsidence; if the roadway is made of a bituminous
structure, the fact of making trenches there also causes loosening and deformation of the
wearing course, which become unfavorable to the comfort of users and to the durability of
the track.
c. The use of roads
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
9
Double-articulated vehicles 24.50 meters long remain bulky and will not be able to provide
a fine service outside their own site. It would be unreasonable to use this high-cost equipment
to provide 150 spaces at the end of the line, while standard buses could be used for feed-back
on the separate right of way mass transit system site.
Apart from its use mixed during installation, the advantage of the Tvr vehicle in using the
ordinary road network is therefore to be able to reach the workshop garage in dead mileage
at a certain distance from the terminus, fixed by a compromise between the advisability of
land, the existence of a bus garage and the additional operating cost due to the mileage to be
carried up in dead mileage over a long period.
d. The realization of the workshop garage
The cost of a workshop garage can decrease if we deviate from the conventional rail type,
by eliminating the distribution comb on the various sidings supplied by catenary: this then
requires bimodality (diesel engine or batteries). The cost savings in the Aps are around 45% of
the cost of a tram depot-workshop. Over the entire project, the gain would be of the order of
2%.
But greater gains could be obtained, especially if an extension of the existing bus depot
were initially carried out. However, in the case of Valenciennes, the Saint - Saulve depot is too
far from the first planned line; its use would result in a large number of kilometers up in dead
mileage. It is therefore planned to build a workshop garage in the immediate vicinity of the
terminus of the first line.
e. The necessary park with Tvr or Tfs
As regards rolling stock, the necessary fleet of Tvr vehicles (150 spaces) is 20% higher than
that of Tfs (180 spaces). The cost of Tvr was announced by its manufacturer at 10 MF in 1996;
however, the Tga 301 or 302 of the Citadis range was offered between 9.5 and 10.5 MF
depending on equipment, for a unit capacity of 190 to 204 spaces (4 passengers / m 2), i.e. for
25% less expensive at equivalent capacity.
In addition, the increase in the number of Tvr vehicles compared to the tram increases the
“driving” position of the operating cost of the system. The generalized cost should ultimately
be higher for Tvr. The investment cost indicated in forward - project summary for the tram
(12 MF vehicle), subject to its accuracy, so advocates of the tram rail ride.
3. Observations in relation to the quality of service, comfort and safety.
The separate right of way mass transit system option does not only aim to improve the
operator's productivity and to lower the cost of production per kilometer: it must also lead to
an increased attraction of travelers and a shift of motorists to public transport. This latter
objective is only achieved if the quality of service offered by the system is greater than that
known on the bus network. We therefore need a separate right of way site with interstations
making it possible to reach a high speed, stations well suited for accessibility and exchanges,
passenger information equipment, particularly at connecting stations and all the new features
that will mark the difference with the existing network. The specific site protected by islands
and plantations to which is added a double row of rails in the case of the tram will be essential
to motorists always looking for additional traffic lane. But the great distance between stations
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
10
can discourage some potential users, depending on the climate, places of residence and
activities, and other behaviors.
We have seen previously that the guidance ensures better insertion and greater driving
safety, for a footprint less than that of buses with normal driving
13
.This guide provides
passenger comfort very - beyond the standard bus, because the electric motor as a continuous
drive with chopper gives an acceleration of the vehicle without causing discomfort for the
user. The clean site reduces conflicts with general traffic, which are always a source of very
unpleasant unwanted braking inside vehicles.
The quality of service, comfort and safety are generally equivalent for the two systems Tvr
and Tfs. Nevertheless, the behavior of the two vehicles in front of an obstacle on the track can
be different: the grip of the tires on the roadway for the Tvr is greater than the grip of the
wheels on the rails; the progression in deceleration and the value obtained being different,
the braking distances remain greater for the tram.
As these two systems are operated on their own site and without too many conflicts, with
appropriate track and vehicle maintenance, the quality of service, comfort and safety can be
considered identical. However, uncontrolled deterioration of the roadway for Tvr, or of the
track for Tfs, can destabilize the behavior of vehicles and make the system uncomfortable,
even dangerous in the medium term.
4. Minimum consideration of the separate right of way site footprint
As the choice of the separate right of way site system is made with a surface site separate
from general traffic, the smallest right-of-way is required for a better insertion on the final
track (especially if it has to serve the center) and for a reduction of nuisances site (disturbances
to residents) during the public works building the tracks. Vehicle guidance makes it possible
to reduce the surface area allocated to the system: on the ground, it is the size of the vehicles
that will ultimately constrain the necessary footprint. Intermediate systems on tires have a
minimum static gauge of 2.50 meters, while the tram on iron wheels can be satisfied with a
static gauge of between 2.20 meters (2.65 meters at most). But the dynamic gauge of the
vehicles on tires is slightly higher than that of the tram on iron wheels (about ten centimeters).
By adding these respective advantages, the comparison between trams with metallic and
pneumatic bearings gives a certain advantage to Tfs
14
. A gain of 10% on the width of the
necessary right-of-way benefits a Tfs of static gauge of 2.30 meters over an intermediate
transport system of the Tvr type . As the double-rail tram takes up less road space, the surface
/ cost ratio is to its advantage.
Guidance also allows better accessibility by eliminating the gap to the right of the stations
and better stability of the vehicle; hence better general comfort for users. We avoid, of course,
projects with a too hilly layout, tight curves in plan and in profile
15
; of the inter-station long
enough and equidistant achieve a good commercial speed.
13
At the same speed, a vehicle driven manually (standard bus type) needs an additional 0.80 to 2.30 m on a double track,
for set speeds of 40 to 80 km / h (according to a study by the Ratp from 1977).
14
The Obstacle Limit Gauge ( Glo ) of a Tfs with lateral catenary support posts is 5.60 m; under the same conditions the Glo
of a Tvr is 6.20 m.
15
Low-floor trams are limited to taking small radius curves in profile: for example, the passage of low-floor trams on
Amsterdam canal bridges is not possible.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
11
The site of Valenciennes, the absence of slopes, the hard points that constitute the crossing
of the Scheldt and the passage through narrow streets in the center, as well as the route
adopted by the AO, with a small number of variations, are all elements which strongly
constrain the advantages that could result from a pneumatic bearing: they therefore lead to
the choice of a system running on the railroad.
5. Opportunities for optimal redeployment of the bus offer
It is hardly credible to use at the end of the line, outside the heavy axis, so-called
intermediate transport vehicles, because standard buses, which fit better into general traffic,
are suited to this type of demand. The separate right of way site system is located on an axis
where demand ensures the filling of vehicles at the peak and serving the city according to long
interstations and a route with a plan and length profile little disturbed. The search for the best
productivity therefore results from a compromise between the best filling of the Tvr or the
tram on a heavy axis, its supply by bus lines at the level of connection stations platform to
platform and a service which is not felt as a constraint by users, otherwise they will be
dissuaded from using the new transport system.
Improving the whole of the urban transport network, to - beyond the direct influence area
of the tram, leads the project Transvilles to find the best coverage of the perimeter of
transport and provide a steady journey time for a journey given at any time of the day. In the
first implementation phase of the the separate right of way site system, all Public urban
transport perimeter should benefit from increased commercial speed of the buses will not go
into the center - city outskirts and redeployment of resources released in center - city. The
average commercial speed of the separate right of way site system is estimated at 22.6 km /
hour. For the redeployment of the bus offer, the complete journey time must be less than the
journey time by bus before the completion of the Transvilles network.
• Thus, on the Denain-Anzin bar of the future separate right of way site system, the bus speeds
observed during peak hours are close to 20 km / hour
16
, for a simulated separate right of
way site system speed of 31.7 km / hour;
• On the Anzin-Valenciennes bar, the speeds observed at peak hours are around 10 km / hour,
compared to a simulated separate right of way site system speed of 17.5 km / h;
• On the Valenciennes-Université Mont Houy bar, the speeds observed are around 20 km / h
and simulated at 25.6 km / h with the separate right of way mass transit system;
• On the Valenciennes-Saint - Saulve bar, the average speed observed, 19 km / h, is lower than
the simulated average speed of the separate right of way mass transit system of 23.7 km /
h.
Insofar as the Tvr and the Tfs each circulate on the same route of the separate right of way
mass transit system, with the same interstations, the same demand, a simulation of the
operation carried out with each of the two systems must give equivalent results from the point
of view of the commercial speed. It is therefore the load of vehicles and the number of doors
that would make the difference. As the rise and fall times in the station have an impact on the
commercial speed, if the increase in demand is confirmed, again the Tfs could offer the best
16
According to the last readings of September 1996, presenting current speeds appreciably lower than those listed in the
Aps.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
12
commercial speed (at the same route, that is to say without pulling the best benefit of a
pneumatic bearing).
6. A possible reuse of existing railways
The juxtaposition of the plan of the current bus network of Valenciennes with that of the
railway lines suggests the possibility of extending the service of a separate right of way site
system to other towns of the urban area, using the lines of the Sncf (French National Railway
Society):
- or with a regional tram corresponding to the use of tram-type equipment on strictly
conventional rail services;
- or with a hybrid tram or train-tram, circulating both on the railway domain and on its own
site as part of the urban tram network.
Such use of the railways is done in Karlsruhe, in Cassel, in Cologne soon in Saarbrücken;
Similarly, the Mulhouse agglomeration put under study in 1996 a network of 53 kilometers of
public transport, including eight in urban sites
17
.
In the greater Valenciennes region, a service could be established from Saint Amand,
Raismes, Beuvrages, Anzin, Valenciennes, Trith Saint Léger, Prouvy , Haulchin , Denain,
Escaudain and other towns towards this polynuclear agglomeration. An agreement with the
Sncf could relate to the operation of these lines by the Siturv
18
, either with hybrid trams
(compatible with the normal gauge tracks of the Sncf and an electrical supply at a voltage of
700 or 25,000 volts), or with regional trams or a regular service. This network could also be
extended to the nearby Belgian cadenced network.
It remains to be seen whether the right to use the tracks requested by the SNCF would not
be higher than that of an urban bus service. This eventuality is therefore for the moment only
a hypothesis derived from the establishment of the Transville , which will perhaps have to be
satisfied for a long time to be satisfied with an extension of the bus lines reduced to the
separate right of way site system to meet present demand on these interurban axes.
7. Assessment of technical and economic risks
a. The Bombardier Tvr type
i. The bearing
The bearing on tires is well known: thanks to its structure and its absorption capacity, the
tire transmits little vibration to the environment. On the other hand, the vibrations
transmitted to the ground by the steel wheel can pose problems, in particular when the
facades are very close to the tracks. To guard against vibrations in the case of the tram, various
mechanized ways of laying track are known
19
.
17
The Mulhouse project shows an initial amount estimated at 1,160 MF in 1996.
18
Syndicat Intercommunal des Transports Urbains de la Région de Valenciennes
19
See paragraph 2 above.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
13
Moreover, the Tvr vehicle being guided, its wheels always pass in the same track, which
can lead to more or less rapid deformation of the roadway depending on the quality of the
asphalt concrete used or depending on the climate. The acceleration and braking of vehicles
prompts designers to use concrete paving in stations and in deceleration and acceleration
areas, in order to reduce the risk of premature renewal of the road surface.
In pavement cost calculations, renewal of the asphalt concrete wearing course is taken into
account after a period of 7.5 years. This period could change depending on local climatic
conditions and the quality of the products used and the warranty provided by the
manufacturer. Despite this additional cost, it turns out that the cost of a pavement with a
bituminous structure may be less than that of a structure made with concrete and steel wires
(Bac), depending on the local conditions of tendering and construction.
As far as ride comfort is concerned, this is due to the flatness of the rolling surface,
therefore to the durability of this wearing course and to the progressiveness of acceleration
and deceleration. If the vehicle is traveling on a clean site on a new roadway, the layout of
which in plan and in profile is not too disturbed, if the setpoint speeds are adapted to the
layout, it can be assumed that the ride comfort of the Tvr is good. But if we operate this dual
- mode vehicle on the existing road, the comfort risks becoming mediocre and soon bad.
ii. Guidance
The Tvr is guided by a central rail, on which rest two rollers applying a mass of 1,600 kg per
axle: each roller thus relieves the axle, except in road mode (excess load in guided mode
reduces the life duration of the rollers and the adherent weight of the carrying wheels). If the
guide rail is not treated well, from design to installation, this method of guidance with small
rollers (eight per vehicle) could generate noise. Guidance stability, as well as derailment safety
on the most common rail faults (misalignment, unwanted reverse gear, ice, etc.), remain to
be confirmed in real traffic situations.
The installation of the “traveling crane” type rail and two reinforced angles must be precise
and careful, which partly explains its high cost
20
. (1000F / meter or 204.63 € val 2018 ,
against 410 F or = 83.89 € val. 2018 for the Tfs , including the supply of rails and fasteners).
This additional cost blurs the initially obvious advantage of a rail for the tramway on tires
instead of the necessarily two for the tramway with railway tracks. Indeed, the thousand
kilometers of linear rail of type 35 G, manufactured for about fifteen years, allows to achieve
substantial economies of scale of production. In the current state (1996-2000) of known
projects in France, the expected level of linear rail “traveling crane” orders would be of an
amount of a hundred kilometers, limiting its production to “tailor-made”.
iii. The vehicle
The strong point of the Tvr would come from the bimodality of the vehicle, which suggests
that this flexible system can do without cutting its own lane for work by dealers, moving away
from its line to go through the road network. unmarked at the bus depot, be extended to
measure at the end of the line to improve neighborhood service, etc. However, twin-engine
systems make the vehicle heavier, making it more expensive to use, which does not encourage
the operator to use it in areas with low demand outside its initial heavy axis. However, the
20
1F val 1996 = 0.20463 € val. 2018. 1000 F val. 1996 = 204.63 € val. 2018 ; 410 F val 1996 = 83.89 € val. 2018
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
14
capacity of a line operated with a Tvr would be limited to 3,000 passengers per hour and
direction
21
.
When the AO wants to make the technological leap that should restore the image of public
transport necessary to stimulate the attractiveness of the network, it must consider replacing
the existing bus network with a system integrating metro and bus to an investment cost of
between one and three billion francs in one or more phases (period of 3 to 15 years). It is
therefore difficult for it to accept the risk that the heavy axis, on which most of the bus lines
will be folded, will quickly find itself limited by a capacity problem; and the assumption of
under - use of the new system, based on changes in the behavior of the application, is rarely
considered.
b. The Citadis tram type
i. The bearing
The classic tram is known, as well as its infrastructure, with the laying of track on sleepers.
The cost of this track remains competitive with that of the Tvr track, the manufacturer of
which recommends laying on a continuous reinforced concrete slab, according to a known
method of lowering costs (used to repair or build new highways with carriageway concrete).
The advantage of this method is to reduce the laying times of the track, thanks to the use of a
slip-form machine (slip - form) and to use this slab for the recovery and distribution of the
forces supported by rails. The sleepers supporting the rails being thus eliminated, the fixing of
the rails is done on saddles placed on the slab during the pouring of the concrete.
Other advantages can be cited:
- the absence of transverse joints leads to a reduction in maintenance costs in the coating,
with the exception of joints at the approach of certain structures;
- good resistance to fatigue due to the constituent materials (concrete with 350 kg of
cement);
- the thickness of this type of slab is less than that of a conventional unreinforced slab
22
, or
39 centimeters, to be compared with the thickness of a Bac structure of 22 cm by 19 cm
of concrete at 200 kg, or 41 cm for Tvr;
- taking into account the thinness of the slab, the height of the 35 G rail being 16
centimeters, the depth of the earthwork required in an urban site is 55 cm, i.e.
approximately 15 cm higher than the thickness necessary for the track of the Tvr : the
networks of concessionaires crossing the platform do not have to be all diverted, as
regards the longitudinal networks, this remains to be studied on a case by case
basis
23
.
This new installation method is being tested
24
for controlling the formatting work on slopes
and see the general behavior of the slab and its cracking and the geometry of the rails. But
railways also have their constraints.
21
At least, according to the figures given above in paragraph 1.
22
For the Citadis , the Lcpc (IFSTTAR) recommends a layer of 22 cm of Bac on a layer of 17 cm of concrete at 200 kg.
23
Cf. above paragraph 2 Network deviations.
24
Experimentation in progress at Cegelec : a test route should be carried out to finalize the implementation with the slip-
form machine and the machine distributing the saddles on the fresh concrete at the same rate of progress. After some
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
15
ii. Guidance
The guidance of the tram on steel wheels is tested if the necessary precautions are taken
for the maintenance of the tracks and the rolling stock and if the set speed is adapted to the
geometry of the track.
Efficient operation requires small radii of curvature in plan and in profile, in order to
achieve a high set speed and reduced maintenance costs. Because curves can sooner or later
become a source of inconvenience, when the wear of the wheels and rails appears.
iii. The vehicle
The vehicle on steel wheels has experienced significant improvements in recent years
(mixed floor, full low floor, etc.). The new vehicles are intended to be modular in length and
width and present an advantage for a site where there are particular problems of insertion of
the separate right of way site system.
Mixed floor vehicles, using proven engine bogies, seem better suited to urban traffic. Their
main advantage comes from the possibility of forming train from multiple units
25
,which gives
a much higher capacity than other systems.
Coupling the vehicles in sets of two or three vehicles reduces the initial investment cost to
the level of that of intermediate systems of equal capacity. This is because the additional
rolling stock and modifications to the length of stations, of the workshop garage, of the power
in electrical energy, produce a necessary additional cost spread over a long period.
III. Additional comparative considerations
1. Other bibliographical references and documentary bases
A modern tramway put into service in June 1991 in Lausanne (Tsol) seems to the separate
right of way mass transit system project for the Valenciennes agglomeration: installed as a
single track for most of its route, the Valenciennes project would be 63% so.
The Tsol is called upon to serve a university complex of 15,000 people planned for the long
term, generating significant commuting. This 7.8-kilometer, single-track line has 15 stations,
12 of which are double-track. It is operated with 12 vehicles 2.65 meters wide and 30.4 meters
long, with automatic coupling, to form trainsets of two vehicles, with a unit capacity of 214
passengers (4 passengers/m2).
In particular, we note the presence on board of a thermoelectric group of emergency
operation (giving an autonomy of one hour) which allows movements at reduced speed for
transfers on Cff
26
network when the railcars must pass on an under-floor wheel lathe for wheel
reprofiling.
years, Alstom will take a patent for APPITRACK "Automatic Plate and Pin Inserter " which was used in Jerusalem, Alger
and other railways sites.
25
Trams can be used in multiple units of 2 or 3 vehicles (60 or 90 m trainset): some German networks exceptionally use 90
m trains for sporting events, for example.
26
CFF : Chemins de Fer Fédéraux Suisses
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
16
The capacity of the line depends on several factors: the station platforms, 65 meters long,
can only accommodate two vehicles per train; the average stopping time is 23 seconds; the
average speed between the terminals is 24.4 km/hour. The interval was set at ten minutes, ie
a theoretical capacity of 3,000 passengers per hour and direction; it is planned to go down to
7.5 minutes to reach a capacity of 4,000 passengers per hour and direction.
After one year of service, the operator indicates that the single track is not a major
handicap but that maximum precautions in terms of staff training have been taken in order to
deal with various failures. An emergency operating philosophy was also adopted during the
design of the equipment (thermoelectric group, fully backed-up safety installation,
redundancy or emergency operation for specific equipment, centralization of automatic unit
equipment); to exploit this type of separate right of way mass transit system , the main idea is
that any intervention must be implemented without any delay in order to minimize any
disruption.
The low rate of incidents suggests that an interval of seven and a half minutes is possible
without other equipment and that an interval of 5 minutes will require portions of double
track in order to maintain sliding possibilities between the relative positions of the trains.
The major problem with intense single-track operation lies in the rapid aging of switches
and crossings: after several years of operation, it will be necessary to compare the
maintenance costs and those of investment for a second track
27
.
2. Comparative information about other experiences
The choice of the tram, because of the use of electric energy, is also justified by its respect
for the local environment (noise and pollution). A Tvr only has the same favorable impact over
its entire journey if, when it comes out of the power supply, it is equipped with an accumulator
battery instead of a diesel engine, which is justifies only in the case of a journey in limited
autonomy.
This aspect is less important than that relating to capacity. A nuanced assessment could
come from the diffusion of thermal sources less polluting than the current diesel (gas,
improvements of engines, fuels and operating cycles, etc.).
If the catenary is considered inconvenient in certain sectors, it is also possible, with a tram,
to consider removing it on certain sections by adding a battery.
For nearly 25 years, the German city of Freiburg has been practicing a remarkable policy of
the environment and quality of life, resulting in a significant continuous development of public
transport - essentially the own-site tramway - by the generalization of cycle paths and “30
zones” as well as by controlling parking. In ten years, we have thus seen a doubling of network
traffic and a share of bicycles covering 28% of trips, when the modal share of the car is steadily
decreasing. Since 1994, an association with neighboring communities has aimed to develop
this policy spatially (regional project Rail Brisgau 2005), with the ambition of subsequently
extending it to Basel and Mulhouse, as part of a large trinational community
28
.
27
The TSOL project cost 750 MFF or 93 MF / km (val.91) or 20.99 M € val. 2018 / km including: land, engineering structures,
technical installations, workshop and tools, 12 vehicles, service vehicles and financial costs.
28
In a speech at the symposium act of Troyes (3 and 4 October 1996) Dr. Kretschmer, Director of the Freiburger Verkehrs AG
, says: " There is not the frequency and speed that make the availability of public transport: stops and connections must be
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
17
3. Location and capacity
According to the international nomenclature, we were conventionally used to three main
families of systems, that of the urban metro serving dense areas with a capacity varying
between 10,000 and 40,000 places offered per direction during rush hour; the regional train
cruising the suburbs (50 000 to 75 000 passengers per hour and direction); and that of the
tram (between 5,000 and 10,000 p/h/s) for lower demands. We are now seeing the
emergence of hybrids which derive from one of these families by borrowing characteristics
from another. Is it possible to compare achievements marked by significant differences in
sites, systems, capacities and histories? The exercise is difficult, because of the great local
specificities, the lack of homogeneous data and the problems of updating and currency
conversion. We can risk this by discarding point sources of information showing too many
divergences between them, by eliminating the financial costs and by seeking less to arrive at
nominal values, always questionable, than at comparative orders of magnitude. The world
comparison puts on the same level achievements that take place in different contexts: one
can just as easily be offended by such an amalgam, as wanting to be inspired by solutions
brought in otherwise difficult contexts, in particular in relation to cities where the cramped
nature of the means available for public transport is as severe as it is endemic. There could be
no question, of course, of thinking of importing here formulas which, over there, are only
palliatives; but looking at these realities should at least make it possible to put our
requirements into perspective.
The most commonly used criterion is the cost of construction per kilometer, including
rolling stock. On the basis of information concerning certain lines or sections of each system,
a table can be constructed showing the kind of results that are achieved with this kind of
analysis (figure 1)
29
.
reached quickly. If, around tram stops, circles with a radius of 500 meters are drawn, it can be seen that 70% of all inhabitants
and all workplaces are in this area of influence. In 1995, three quarters of our 66 million passengers were transported by
tram. The function of the bus is to serve larger areas and to bring the inhabitants of the surrounding municipalities to the
terminal points of the tram, which is faster. It is indisputable that today, in Fribourg, you get to your destination more quickly
by tram than by car. This is particularly true for the center - city: tram serves the heart of the city so that motorists need to
find the edge of it one of the few parks in parking, then do the rest of the way on foot.
The construction of tram lines requires careful planning, long negotiations for the acquisition of land and, in addition to the
construction of the line, the purchase of more efficient vehicles, more attractive and more comfortable for users. This is not
done without costs: just for the purchase of 26 new elements, it was necessary to spend on 93-94, 350 MF (13.5 MF per
vehicle), the construction of the new line of 2.8 km with the demolition of a building 200 MF (71 MF / km), the construction
of a new warehouse-workshop 153 MF. These investments pay off if the political objective of putting road traffic back on
track is achieved by offering an attractive alternative. These investments cannot be justified and are only profitable if
attendance increases: from 1984 to 1994 the annual number of bus and tram users doubled, from 29 million to more than
60 in 1995, it even increased. reached 65.9 million. In the balance sheet of the VAG, the deficit did not follow the evolution
of the number of travelers. The formula “more travelers, more deficit” therefore does not apply to Fribourg. Despite huge
investments, the deficit has remained stable and the rate of coverage of expenditure by revenue is over 70%.
A study carried out at our request by a renowned polling institute to find out what the means were:
the most comfortable; the fastest; the most restful; the most competitive; safest; best suited to the big city; the most
ecological; the most modern has shown that the tram is more successful on these criteria than the car.
The public transport development policy, with a view to protecting the environment and the quality of life, is continuing.
Plans for the extension of the network are in the drawers and their realization will be undertaken soon. A new district of
10,000 to 12,000 inhabitants will be built while respecting the imperatives of giving priority to public transport. In Fribourg,
we have already come a long way towards a sustainable transport policy, but we are not yet at the end.
29
Figures comments extracts of E. Henry & F. Kuhn, From the metro variants: Mexican lessons and others, Codatu VII, New
Delhi, 2/96.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
18
Fig.1Source:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341609925_The_development_of_metro_variants_Lessons_from_Mexico_and_ot
her_countries
Mileage costs of 34 TCSPs worldwide
The histogram which compares the extension of networks to the populations of urban
areas, presents a classification of these cities according to the cost per kilometer of the system
built, all types combined: classic metro (here Mrt), light (here Lrt ) or regional (here Rrt ) . With
the exception of Washington, the five systems with the highest unit costs (between 730 and
930 million francs per kilometer, i.e. 155.24 M € val. 2018 and 197.77 M € val. 2018) are not
those whose networks are the most extensive (although they include mega-cities like São
Paulo and Rio de Janeiro). One third of the benchmark cities have unit costs between 260 and
520 million francs per kilometer or 55.29 M € val. 2018 and 110.58 M € val 2018: there are
both very large networks (although London and Moscow, bordering the 400 kilometers, are
not represented here) as well as metropolises like Beijing, Cairo or Calcutta, whose subways
seem atrophied in relation to the population. Thirteen cities that have opted for the light rail
naturally fall into the lower half of the curve: first the medium-sized cities in industrialized
countries, then metropolitan areas in developing countries. If the decision to build a metro
were taken on the sole basis of these considerations, it would be simple… even radical, the
least expensive system to set up being road rather than rail.
Thus, the Valenciennes project (which cannot be included in Figure 1, including costs
observed after completion) would be at the bottom of the curve: the unit cost would be
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
19
roughly equal to that resulting from the installation of light metros from Porto Alegre or
Manila, the Tvr option would correspond to the cost of the Portland tramway and the price
per kilometer of the articulated bus option would be equivalent to that of the tramway
provided by the city of Tuen Mun (Hong Kong territories). Valenciennes figures are one third
below the cost of standard French trams, but the figures presented in figure 1 are those of
realizations, and we do not know the resulting cost in the hypothesis of the establishment of
the separate right of way mass transit system at Valenciennes. We can only, from the data of
the Aps (2 lines over 22 kilometers equipped with the rolling stock necessary to absorb 2,700
passengers per hour and direction), establish a comparative histogram.
If the “articulated bus” option, on a central axis, represents approximately 62% of the cost
of a conventional tramway (option discarded from the outset and not considered in the Aps),
the difference between a pneumatic bearing of the Caen Tvr type and a system like the
Grenoble tramway is only 11%, strictly in terms of mileage costs
30
. The interest of the metallic
solution would appear more clearly by increasing the number of vehicles, because with 48
trainsets this tram would be more than 7% more expensive than its equivalent in Tvr.
Taking the international comparison again, when we adopt another comparison criterion,
that of the cost of the space offered during rush hour, which corresponds better to the
functions of the separate right of way mass transit system, the results are different. Our
alternative method therefore consists of starting from an estimate of the supply under current
conditions, on the basis of the maximum frequencies tolerated by the operating systems, by
the characteristics of the roads and by the endowments in trains
31
(figure 3). For comparison,
peak comfort levels are reduced to the criterion accepted elsewhere of eight passengers per
30
We start with a unit cost of 12 MF for standard French Tramway vehicles with metal bearings (Tsf), 10 MF for that of
Transport on reserved lane with pneumatic bearings ( Tvr ) and 1.8 MF respectively for the articulated bus (TVM equipment).
The fleet retained, in accordance with Aps Valenciennes, is 19 Tfs trainsets, 22 Tvr vehicles and 32 articulated buses.
31
E. Henry & F. Kuhn, ibidem.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
20
m2 and the compositions of the trainsets and the differences between pneumatic and metallic
rolling stock are considered.
Fig. 3
Source :https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341609925_The_development_of_metro_variants_Lessons_from_Mexico_and_other_
countries
Capacitive costs of 34 TCSPs worldwide
The capacity thus calculated, in number of places offered at rush hour, varies between two
extremes of four thousand and one hundred thousand passengers per hour and per direction
at the peak, marking the essential difference between the brand-new tram in Rouen and the
self-funded metro from Hong Kong, for example. By bringing this capability to the total
construction investment, we get a "capacitive cost", which varies from ' one to ten (3770
francs per space offered for the Light Rail Manila, against 44 200 F for that of Rouen).
We then see (upper curve in Figure 3) that the ranking of cities according to this ratio has
little relation to their ranking according to cost per kilometer (curve in Figure 1).
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
21
Thus, metros such as those in Lyon, Marseille or Santiago de Chile, but also Lrts such as
those in Nantes, Strasbourg or Atlanta, with moderate investment in kilometers, have some
of the highest capacitive costs. Conversely, the expensive nature of the metro kilometer of
São Paulo (941 MF/km) or Caracas (723 MF/km) is here strongly compensated, when it is
compared to capacity. Baltimore and Rio de Janeiro are respectively 416 and 936 million francs
per kilometer, but have a capacitive cost of around 20,300F/space.
In view of the capacity histogram (in black in Figure 3), a large supply favors a fall in the
cost of the available space, especially if the investment is low (Paris and Seoul). Finally, the
capacitive costs of the light systems are not as clearly lower, the Istanbul light metro having
for example the same cost as the automated metro in Lille (around 12,000 F/place), or that of
Monterrey (9,000 F/place) being similar to that of Hong Kong. In this list, after Paris (10,000 F
/space for the last lines built) and Hong Kong (9,300F/seat), we only find heavy or light systems
in developing cities. The results show how difficult it is to combine the merits of these three
families of urban rail transport technologies, for mega-cities, metropolises, medium-sized
towns or regional agglomerations, regardless of the “level of development” of the countries.
It is nonetheless true that investment in a light system is two to three times less than that in
the metro, compared to the kilometer built: paradoxically, its capacitive cost is 40% higher
than that of the metro in industrialized countries, while it is 30% lower in developing cities.
Reported to the case of Valenciennes, these observations allow to propose the following
histogram comparing capacitive costs installation of the three options in terms of spaces
available and in three options, reduced compared to the hypothesis of 8 passengers/m 2:
- one which corresponds to the characteristics of the project as presented in the Aps (fleet
and frequencies calculated for a flow at peak hour of 2000 passengers per hour and direction);
- the other, theoretical, develops the maximum productivity of each of the systems (48
coupled railway tram units), 24 Tvr vehicles or 36 articulated buses) at 2-minute intervals;
- an intermediate column considers the potential capacitive cost, reducing the three options
to the maximum capacity of the bus system, namely a throughput of 4,400 passengers per
hour and direction.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
22
According to figure 4
32
the advantage of the railway tram appears above all in the
theoretical operation, which supposes about 11,700 passengers per hour and sense at the
peak. But in the intermediate hypothesis, the pneumatic tramway would represent a saving
of less than 10% per space offered. In view of these considerations-but not just these because
they do not include operating costs, nor the urban rewards each systems- to justify the
decision of Valenciennes authorities. Because implementing a system is not reduced to
building kilometers of infrastructure, but corresponds to the primary objective of transporting
travelers, increasing the mobility of city dwellers and attracting motorists to public transport.
References :
- F. Kuhn, JH An, INRETS 2008, Urban Transport in France : the Tramway Revival, 28 p link :
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344491336_Urban_Transport_in_France_The_Tramway_
Revival
- Jeong-Hwa An. The choice of a sustainable transport system : comparative analysis of guided
surface transport systems in https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-
00834819/document
- http://leparticulier.lefigaro.fr/jcms/c_57169/valeur-en-euros-des-francs-erosion-monetaire
- https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tramway_de_Valenciennes
- http://transporturbain.canalblog.com/pages/les-tramways-de-valenciennes/32921935.html
- https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00460333/document
32
At eight passengers per m 2 we obtain the following equivalent capacity: 293 spaces for the Tfs , 257 spaces for the Tvr
and 148 for the articulated bus.
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
23
ANNEX
F. Kuhn Site ‘s visit
F.Kuhn 21 September 2005 Visit on the Escaut river bridge
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
24
F. Kuhn A witness station being under finish
F. Kuhn
A switch of the tracks under realization
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
25
F. Kuhn
The workshop of Saint-Waast
F. Kuhn
A first train of the 6 Citadis trains delivery on 21 September 2005
Choice of a Public transit system on a separate right of way for an intermediate metropolis in France
26
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Article
The choice of a guided surface transit system operated on separated RoW is a complex and difficult task. Even if different transit systems could provide equivalent services to users, we often lack the necessary information to better distinguish among different systems. Beyond giving a presentation of different surface guided systems structuring the public transport networks in France, the aim of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis in order to better guide decisions of local authorities in their efforts to promote urban transport that meets the challenges of sustainable development. The advantages and the drawbacks of each system are analyzed and presented in a disaggregated way. In addition, a multicriteria method ELECTRE III is proposed and discussed for aggregating the results and proposing system(s) best suited for different operating conditions. The main result shows that the modern tramway on rail occupies a privileged place in most scenarios. However, the CIVIS, Translohr, TVR and even trolleybuses have their places with respect to operating conditions, given that the related infrastructure and operating costs are taken into account. The results of this research therefore encourage us to recommend, every time we propose a surface transit system, to review the whole range of systems and to do the comparative analysis with different context and time constraints integrating mid-term and long-term visions and predictable effects on the urban requalification