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Visualisation techniques in sport - the mental road map for success

  • National University of Physical Education and Sports, Bucharest, Romania
  • National University of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania


Athletes of the highest level in many sports (athletics, football, baseball, tennis, golf, rugby, skiing, gymnastics, swimming, basketball etc.) talk about the importance of visualising technical execution both during the training period and in competition (during warm-ups, during breaks in official games, before throws, jumps, free kicks etc.).Visualisation techniques can improve motor skills, grow muscle strength, increase self-confidence, attention concentration and decrease anxiety. Through the use of imagery, pain management, endurance, performance motivation and physical performance can also be enhanced in athletes. To achieve the best results, visualisation techniques should include the five major senses (touch, hearing, sight, smell and taste) and should consider key aspects such as perspective, emotion, environment, task and timing. Mental rehearsal (or visualisation) is powerful because the subconscious processes the experience as a real one (by firing those neurons that are responsible for skill acquisition), makes the person calmer and more adapted to stressful situations, and can speed up the learning process in athletes and not only. One hour of mental training a day in 6-10 sequences has a special benefit that cannot be obtained by any other means. By applying both guided imagery techniques and practice, athletes design their mental road maps for success.
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
Radu PREDOIU1*, Alexandra PREDOIU1, Georgeta MITRACHE1,
Mădălina FIRĂNESCU2, Germina COSMA3, Gheorghe DINUŢĂ4,
Răzvan Alexandru BUCUROIU5
1 National University of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest,
2 Apostrof Press, Bucharest, Romania
3 University of Craiova, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Craiova, Romania
4 Technological High School of Automobile Building, Mioveni, Romania
5 Focşani Tennis Club, Focşani, Romania
*Corresponding author:
Abstract. Athletes of the highest level in many sports (athletics, football, baseball, tennis, golf, rugby, skiing,
gymnastics, swimming, basketball etc.) talk about the importance of visualising technical execution both during
the training period and in competition (during warm-ups, during breaks in official games, before throws, jumps,
free kicks etc.).Visualisation techniques can improve motor skills, grow muscle strength, increase self-
confidence, attention concentration and decrease anxiety. Through the use of imagery, pain management,
endurance, performance motivation and physical performance can also be enhanced in athletes. To achieve the
best results, visualisation techniques should include the five major senses (touch, hearing, sight, smell and taste)
and should consider key aspects such as perspective, emotion, environment, task and timing. Mental rehearsal
(or visualisation) is powerful because the subconscious processes the experience as a real one (by firing those
neurons that are responsible for skill acquisition), makes the person calmer and more adapted to stressful
situations, and can speed up the learning process in athletes and not only. One hour of mental training a day in
6-10 sequences has a special benefit that cannot be obtained by any other means. By applying both guided
imagery techniques and practice, athletes design their mental road maps for success.
Keywords: visualisation, guided imagery, mental rehearsal, mental training, athletes.
Visualisation refers to the representation of an object or phenomenon (in its absence). The
use of visualisation techniques dates back thousands of years ago and has significantly
progressed in recent decades (Utay & Miller, 2006). Visualisation involves accessing an
altered state of consciousness: biochemistry and brain waves modify, and the participant
becomes able to speed up healing and performance (Naparstek, 2000).
Functional MRI brain studies emphasise a change in brain activity from the left to the right
hemisphere during visualisation (Newmark, 2012). It is known that the upper right quadrant
of the brain is better at intuitive and imaginative tasks (Roco et al., 2015), the right
hemisphere being linked to creative imagination, while the left quadrants of the brain are
correlated with logical thinking, planning and organization (Popescu et al., 2015). When
using the creative quadrant/part of the brain, visual imagery and therefore performance are
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
Researchers highlight that, through the use of imagery, performance motivation, pain
management, endurance, physical performance and self-confidence are enhanced in athletes
(Thelwell & Greenless, 2003; Eddy & Mellalieu, 2003). Using mental rehearsal (for different
technical and tactical actions), both body and mind are trained. Associating physical effort
with mental effort is the most important step towards success, considering the athletes’ road
to achieve the desired performance. Top athletes have long understood that, while the human
body has its natural limits, the mind has unlimited potential. And researchers emphasized that
brain health (linked to neurotrophic factors and cognitive function) can be improved by
practicing martial arts - taekwondo, karate, judo, and kung fu (Zou et al., 2018).
Visualisation in the field of sport has been extensively applied after the 1984 Olympics,
when specialists asserted that Olympians who had used visualisation techniques reported a
positive impact on their performance and biological outcomes (Newmark, 2012).
Topic addressed
Visualisation (guided imagery) occupies a central place in the mental training process.
Mental training can be used in all branches of sport, various researchers showing the positive
effects obtained after performing such training based on visualisation. For example, Meyers
and Schleser (1980) used mental training to improve the number of points scored by a 22-
year-old basketball player. At the beginning, mental practice took place outside the
competition area. Subsequently, the athlete performed visualisation exercises during warm-
ups and during breaks in official games. The athlete was also taught to relax and visualise
successful scenes in problematic situations.
Figure 1 shows the number of points scored by the basketball player before and after the
experimental intervention, during the 28 games played.
Figure 1. Number of points scored before and after mental practice
(adapted after Meyers and Schlese)
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
Li-Wei et al. (1992), studying table tennis players with ages between 7 and 10 years, also
mention an improvement in the quality of technical and tactical performance (children
learned faster and easier) following visualisation techniques combined with video analysis
and relaxation.
Among the coaches’ objectives regarding the athletic training process, mental practice is
mandatory to be included in the training programme (in collaboration with the sports
psychologist), taking into account its positive effects on both personal development and
sports performance.
Some benefits of visualisation techniques are highlighted by Predoiu (2016):
the focus of attention increases, athletes being required to reach their full potential;
athletes learn to be more positive (mental practice is characterised by positive and
successful representations negative thoughts being eliminated);
athletes better understand the importance of goal setting;
self-control ability is improved, tension and fear are reduced, while self-confidence
increases (Xiong, 2012);
the athlete prepares the optimal programme of technical and tactical execution
(mental practice contributes to a better organization of the temporal and spatial
characteristics of the motor action);
the athlete’s thinking becomes more disciplined, organised and planned, raising
awareness of the performed motor skills;
the time needed to acquire different technical and tactical elements is reduced, and the
level of preparedness for stressful situations (characteristic of competitive activity) is
increased (Rogers, 2006).
Moran (1993) emphasises that mental practice should not be limited to visual aspects but
can include what the person hears and feels (for example, a certain material). Maximising the
efficiency of visualisation techniques can be achieved by focusing on the conditions under
which guided imagery is performed. The fact that visualisation is self-learned (without
requiring information from specialists) or that visualisation sessions are not systematically
practised (they must have a well-established place in the training process) are limitations in
acquiring visualisation efficiency. Coaches working with sports psychologists can help
athletes benefit from visualisation-based mental training.
We present below a series of recommendations and topics for reflection starting from the
literature data, our goal being to maximise the effects of visualisation techniques:
1. inducing a relaxation state facilitates the imagery control; the person is verbally
guided to look for a comfortable position in which to remain for a while with eyes
closed; a quiet place would be preferable;
Relaxation is used as a strategy to eliminate disturbing factors, the athletes attention being
directed to their own body (thoughts, emotions, inner states). Inducing the state of relaxation
is very important considering that high levels of anxiety and high need for stimulation are
linked with errors in various executions (Makarowski et al., 2016a; Makarowski et al.,
2. visualisation is effective, improving sports performance if mental images are full of
colour, realistic, involve appropriate emotions and are controllable (LeUnes, 2008);
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
Athletes must have the ability to see themselves in the position of actually performing
technical and tactical actions within the competition; when motor skills are evoked, all
sensory registers are used. The athlete must be able to control mental images, to turn them on
or off depending on the goal pursued (in certain circumstances, other images may interfere
with those of interest, distracting the athlete).
3. visualisation is a skill that can be learned;
Although some people have a better imagination/visualisation ability, almost anyone can
develop this skill through exercise. It takes perseverance, some athletes mentally practising
for months until they become proficient in using visualisation. Rehearsal is absolutely
necessary. There are authors who consider that shorter sessions are more effective. Weinberg
(1981) states that mental practice should last at least one minute but never exceed 5 minutes,
while Suinn (1997), who developed the VMBR (Visuo-Motor Behaviour Rehearsal)
technique in 1976, considers that the most important aspect is to avoid fatigue (regardless of
the duration of mental training). We subscribe to the latter point of view the duration of
visualisation sessions may vary depending on the age and internal condition of the athlete.
4. visualisation efficiency depends not only on the athletes imaginative ability but also
on their attitude and confidence in the effectiveness of the technique reaching the
true potential can only be achieved if athletes learn to train, think and behave
effectively (Harris & Robinson, 1986);
5. some studies indicate that, as athletes gain more experience in a particular sport, the
benefits of performing visualisation techniques are greater (Howe, 1991);
This can be explained by the fact that athletes with high technical and tactical skills can
more easily focus on various aspects required by mental practice (compared to athletes who
have reached a satisfactory level of motor skills, they control movements using more psycho-
nervous energy).
6. in terms of age, senior athletes are generally thought to be better in using visualisation
(not only because of differences in the level of motor skill development);
However, even young schoolchildren can have a good visualisation ability, taking into
account that kinetic representations (rendering the image of a moving object) and
transformation representations (transforming objects and their components), which ensure
action planning and guidance, appear after the age of 7-8 years. Other studies show that, for
example gymnasts aged between 8 and 11 years, have substantially benefited from
performing visualisation techniques (Partington, as cited in LeUnes, 2008).
7. mental rehearsal is recommended to be performed in a correct time sequence, noting
that visualisation in slow motion or at very high speeds (regarding motor skills) is not
very useful (Bull, 2011);
With respect to the visualisation speed, we consider it useful to perform mental rehearsal
in slow motion, at a normal pace and also at higher speeds (referring to movements, technical
and tactical actions), depending on the aim pursued in the training process: correct
understanding and learning of movement, creating the training-competition dyad or
improving the speed of execution (in this situation, the athlete can relate to the objective time
the timer). In other words, mental practice for competition participation involves not only
correct movements but also movements that respect the intensity and timing of the
competition. Physical and mental rehearsal in slow motion brings benefits to the learning
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
process, but only transient; as the speed of movement increases, the neuromuscular patterns
change. Therefore, slow-motion mental practice may have no value in the context in which
movement is characterised by a different speed during competition (Rushall & Lippman,
8. many authors (Hinshaw, 1991; Whelan et al., 1991; Suinn, 1997) talk about the
superiority of internal visualisation over external visualisation; in other words, mental
rehearsal of motor actions/skills from an inner perspective, as if we see everything
through our own eyes, is preferable;
This aspect can be explained by the fact that, through internal visualisation, a more
accurate overlap of athlete’s mental images with real-life situations is achieved. The
external variant is also useful when we observe ourselves from outside the body (for
example, from the back/ side, left-up/right-up) in certain circumstances.
As mentioned above, in the early stages of learning, mental practice contributes to a better
organization of movements in space and time. Therefore, moving in a certain space,
observing how the upper and lower limbs are positioned in the moments before or during a
technical and tactical execution (like a video analysis) and, not least, visualising the
acceleration during throwing, shooting, a tennis serve etc. are also based on external
representations (it is like looking at a screen and analysing all the movements for self-
knowledge and development). Of course, internal visualisation should predominate in mental
training sessions, with athletes imagining themselves inside their own bodies; everything that
athletes see, hear, feel (emotions, inner movements, muscle tension), all the actions they
perform will be closer to real life, as it is perceived in competition situations.
9. it is important for mental images to be positive; in other words, it is preferable for
athletes to mentally see themselves competing well (if mental rehearsal involves
negative aspects such as execution errors, the premises for sports failure are created).
Most of the Olympians practise visualisation techniques being aware of the multiple
benefits provided. For example, Michael Phelps (holder of a statistical record 23 gold
medals won at the Olympic Games) declared for The Washington Post that he visualised a
plan for each scenario (Predoiu, 2018). In 2012, his coach (Bob Bowman) explained:
He’s the best I’ve ever seen and maybe the best ever in terms of visualization. He will
see it, exactly the perfect race. And he will see it like he’s sitting in the stands, and
he’ll see it like he’s in the water. And then he will go through scenarios what if
things don’t go well? [… you know if my suit ripped or my goggles break, what
would I do… Phelps said]. So, he has all of this in his database, so that when he
swims the race he’s already programmed his nervous system to do one of those. And
he’ll just pick the one that happens to come up. If everything’s perfect, he’ll just go
with the perfect one. If he has to make a change, he’s got it in there. (The
Olympian’s Eye: Visualization Techniques”, 2016)
But why is mental rehearsal (or visualisation) so powerful? Here is why (adapted after
Poirier-Leroy, 2020):
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
visualisation makes the athlete calmer and more adapted to stressful situations;
As Michael Phelps and his coaches argued above, experiencing various scenarios in your
mind helps to faster adaptation (the stressful event becomes just another session and is not
perceived by the athlete as a new experience, avoiding nervousness). Therefore, mental
rehearsal should be about imagining the perfect workout but also imagining the unexpected,
both situations from different perspectives (views). Regarding the unexpected, the athletes’
goal is to visualise themselves overcoming stressful experiences.
when mentally rehearsing the technique, the athlete is firing those neurons that are
responsible for skill acquisition.
Researchers discuss “functional equivalence” (Sollfrank et al., 2015; Lotze & Halsband,
2006), referring to the strong overlap of neurosensory and neuromotor pathways involved
during visualisation and when actually performing an action (data confirmed by both EEG
and MRI investigations). Thus, mental rehearsal/mental practice can certainly speed up the
learning process in the case of athletes and not only (Tunney et al., 2011; Mackay, 1981).
Through visualisation, in addition to learning facilitation, changes in thinking and the
regularisation of emotional activation are achieved (we could say that what you see is what
you get). Martin et al. (1999) talk about the existence of five types of visualisation that
athletes use to obtain affective (anxiety and arousal regulation), cognitive (cognitive
modification) and behavioural effects (strategy and skill learning and performance):
- specific cognitive issues imagining sports skills (for example, running style,
executing a football penalty);
- general cognitive issues imagining strategies, game plan and routines (man to
man defence, pre-finalisation phase, hit and run attack action etc.);
- specific motivational issues imagining specific goals (for example, receiving a
- general motivational issues (activation) imagining emotional and somatic
experiences (stress, enthusiasm, anxiety etc.);
- general motivational issues (management) imagining situations that involve
managing ones own states (to remain positive and focused after a technical/tactical
error, to be confident in an important moment of the competition).
Athletes use all five types of visualisation. However, they seem to use motivational
visualisation to a greater extent than cognitive visualisation (Cumming & Hall, 2002). Other
authors complement the list of types of visualisation used by athletes, such as imagining
internal physiological healing processes (Driediger et al., 2006). A very important aspect is
that the ability to imagine the movements of ones own body (the athlete feels the effort and
tension in the muscles, has information about body balance and positioning in space) is
positively associated with self-confidence and negatively correlates with the intensity of
anxiety felt at the cognitive level worry, tension (Monsma & Overby, 2004).
imagining the details (specific game conditions, technical and tactical actions, playing
schemes and different outcomes appealing to sounds, smells, sights, muscle tension)
concentration and motor skills are increasing, while trait anxiety is decreasing;
When imagining the details within the visualisation techniques, the athletes subconscious
processes the experience as a real one (thus modelling the competition during training). It is a
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
fact that mental practice has positive effects on performance in a reaction time task (Shanks
& Cameron, 2000). Through visualisation, muscle strength also grows, mental training
enhancing the cortical output signal; consequently, a higher level of muscle activation is
recorded, and strength increases (Ranganathan et al., 2004).
One of the most widely used system goes by the acronym PETTLEP, which is from:
Physical Environment Task Timing Learning Emotion Perspective. For example,
in accordance with PETTLEP system, the athlete should wear the clothes used in
competition, an environment similar to the one in which the competition will take place
should be created (grass, different objects, temperature, humidity, or photographs and videos
can be used), and the task should be achieved in ‘real time’ (with respect to the intensity and
time needed to complete it). Visualisation should also be updated as the athletes level
increases. Do not forget about emotions they should be associated with performance and
incorporated into visualisation from an inner perspective. However, even if internal imagery
is recommended (through the athlete’s own eyes), the power of the external perspective
should not be underestimated (“The Olympian’s Eye: Visualization Techniques”, 2016).
We present some visualisation techniques used in gymnastics and golf (adapted after
Ekeocha, 2015; Newmark, 2012):
Gymnastics: begin with progressive muscle relaxation; once the muscles are relaxed,
imagine a competitive meet (use your auditory, visual and tactile senses); imagine the
routines warm up, saluting the judges before starting (as detailed as you can);
imagine yourself performing the technical actions while hearing the noise in the
audience (maybe the fans screaming);
Golf: first, with the eyes closed, a state of relaxation is induced, any tension is
released from the head to the feet, and breathing is controlled becoming slower and
deeper; golfers imagine themselves in detail (using tactile, auditory and visual senses)
playing a round of golf; they see the club, the green golf course, hear and fell the
breeze through the air, fell the ground beneath their feet (the ground is calm); the
athlete imagines the white golf ball following an imaginary dotted line into the hole.
It can be seen that visualisation techniques start with relaxation techniques (in a first
phase, the athlete must become relaxed and calmer). We complement the existing data with
some visualisation techniques used in tennis and handball (adapted after Predoiu, 2016, p.
Instructions (first phase): “Take a comfortable position in which you will remain for a
while” Keep your eyelids closed“Pay attention to what is happening outside (what
you hear, what you feel) You realize that you are not interested in what is happening
outside, you become bored Now that you know what is happening outside, you are free
to turn your attention to yourself Pay attention to your moods, breathing, thoughts,
emotions, inner movements.
Mental recreation of real-game conditions (second phase): “Imagine that you are on the
baseline of the tennis court” → “You have the tennis racket in your hand, you look at it, you
feel the tension in the muscles” “In front of your eyes you see the net, you see the other
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
side of the tennis court” “You look at the edge of the court, you see the audience, the
people watching you”.
The competition-specific ambiance will be created in order to get athletes used to stressful
situations so that later, in practice, a decrease or even disappearance of the negative effects of
different stimuli (with anxiogenic potential) can be observed.
Before the first phase, the athlete is given the following information: There are three
verbal suggestions that you will pronounce in internal language, in parallel or shortly before
the images in the mental training. Verbal suggestions and related images are (for example):
- Im moving imagine that you are moving as fast as you can to the other corner of the
tennis court;
- Im getting ready imagine the correct position before hitting the ball;
- technical execution: long-line forehand, cross-court forehand, long-line backhand, cross-
court backhand etc. imagine, feel how you accelerate the movement when the tennis racket
hits the ball and visualise how the ball reaches the target set on the opponents field.
During mental practice (after the first two phases described above), the athlete can change
the place where to send the ball, can change the effect used when hitting the ball etc. every
30-45 seconds (for 5-10 minutes). Thus, in the 5-10 minutes of mental practice, the sports
psychologist can intervene only once (using keywords) every 30-45 seconds in order to guide
the athlete regarding the place where to send the ball. Breaks can also be included in mental
training. Therefore, after every 30-45 seconds, the athlete can be verbally guided to return,
for example to the middle of the tennis court, and implement previously stabilised behaviours
(competitive rituals).
We will present some examples of verbal suggestions and related images (what the athlete
must visualise) for players specialised in the position of left/right outside defender and
left/right half defender, respectively, when defending in a 3:2:1 system (the attack system has
one pivot). The first phase of mental training involves the existence of the same verbal
commands as in the previous example (tennis), while the second phase (mental recreation of
real-game conditions) involves creating the competition-specific environment, this time in a
handball game. Examples of verbal suggestions and related images in handball:
- I’m defending imagine that you tackle the attacking ball carrier to prevent shots on
goal, breakthrough/ passing to the pivot and gain possession of the ball;
- Cover the inside imagine that you perform a left-right translation movement to block/
prevent the opponent from breaking through;
- Back up (double) imagine that you perform a step-back movement to you’re your
teammates next to you.
a) Left/right outside defender (wing)
1. I cover the attacking wing, go out directly perpendicular to the opponent and cover
the arm with the ball, prevent the breakthrough, return to the initial position (verbal
commands like “doesnt get past me”, which are negative, must be avoided);
2. I perform a left/right translational movement at 6-7 meters, close the area (inside/
outside), prevent the breakthrough, return to the initial position;
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
3. in case of a blind running in, I follow the wing, hand it over to the central defender,
I’m ready to cover fast passing to the pivot, I return to the initial position.
Verbal suggestions are accompanied by related images described for the athlete before the
internalisation stage begins. In the 5 minutes of mental training, each of the three examples
above (lasting about 20 seconds each) can be performed five times. The word wing triggers
example 1, the word translation refers to example 2, and the phrase blind running in
leads to example 3.
b) Left/right half defender
1. move forward and meet the opponent about 1 meter outside the free-throw line,
prevent shooting or passing, return to the initial position;
2. back up (double) with the outside defender and close the area, prevent the
breakthrough on the inside, return to the initial position;
3. move back and cover the inside area, prevent passing to the pivot, return to the
initial position;
4. doubling with the centre defender and prevent the breakthrough or passing to the
pivot, return to the initial position;
The words move forward trigger example 1, the phrasing back up with the outside
defender points to example 2, the words move back refer to example 3, and phrasing
doubling with the centre defenderleads to example 4.
During the 6-7 minutes of actual mental training, only one intervention is made (for verbal
suggestions) every 20 seconds to guide the athlete in counteracting the possible actions of the
Audio recording (verbal commands can be provided by the specialist or even by the
athlete) can support the development of mental training. Finally, due to the self-educational
effort, the athlete will be able to perform mental training on their own, acquiring good mental
Given that the neuromotor pathways are the same when competing and when visualising
the actions performed in competition, the learning process is increased in the case of athletes.
Also, visualisation techniques contribute to the improvement of motor skills in the final
stages of motor learning. Mental practice is transposed not only into correctly visualised
movements but also into images of movements that respect the intensity and timing of the
competition. It is recommended to mentally rehearse motor actions from an inner perspective,
as if we could see everything through our own eyes (the superiority of internal visualisation
over external visualisation is noticeable).
Through mental rehearsal, athletes become calmer and more adapted to difficult situations.
Over time, imagining or anticipating stressful situations during competition causes a decrease
in the relative significance of these situations and contributes to better management of
negative emotions and thoughts, which reduces the athletes ability to concentrate and fight.
And we know that performance sports suppose the existence of a great number of stressful
factors (present in training and in competition), whose effect can generate a reduced work
Discobolul Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy Journal, Volume 59, Issue 3, 245-256
satisfaction among athletes, behavioural disorders or an increased risk of burnout (adapted
after Pastwa-Wojciechowska & Piotrowski, 2016).
Associating physical effort with mental effort is a sine qua non condition for performance
athletes aspiring to exceptional results and top positions in the rankings. One hour of mental
training a day in 6-10 sequences has a special benefit that cannot be obtained by any other
Authors’ Contributions
All authors have equally contributed to this study.
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... A similar claim has been made by Rogowska et al. (2022) that there is a correlation between physical self-efficacy and performance. Imagery, which is based on positive inner speech and involves accessing an altered state of consciousness, brain activity being changed from the left to the right hemisphere (Predoiu et al., 2020), positively increased athletes' self-efficacy and achievements (Rogowska et al., 2022). This indicates that positive self-talk is a critical enabling component of imagery and physical self-efficacy. ...
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Finding successful solutions to the problems of psychological preparation of athletes is not possible without an understanding of the defining components of the psychological preparation process. Practice and research show that insufficient attention is paid to promoting the psychological preparation of athletes during the training process. It is one of the most important contradictions affecting the psychological preparation of athletes. The development of the psychological training model-Improvement of Athletes' Imagery Ability and Physical Self-Efficacy for the Growth of Athletic Achievements in Sport Model is expected to have positive effects on athletes' psychological preparation, development of imagery ability and physical self-efficacy and help them achieve higher success in sports. The purpose of the developed model is to improve the level of imagery ability and physical self-efficacy of athletes, which will improve their achievements. This model can be used by sports coaches, sports psychologists, athletes, as well as other sports specialists in the training process to promote the growth of athletes. Several methods were used in the process of developing the model: research and analysis of literature sources, Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Questionnaire (SEREQ), and mathematical and statistical methods. The sample of respondents consisted of 207 athletes (women and men) aged 18 to 34 years, who represented individual and team sports. The Improvement of Athletes' Imagery Ability and Physical Self-Efficacy for the Growth of Athletic Achievements in Sport Model is based on scientific findings, the results of factor analysis, as well as evaluation of the statistically significant correlation between athletes' imagery ability, physical self-efficacy, and sports achievements. The model consists of interrelated factor structures and five variables. The "Psychological preparation" factor is the overarching factor that combines the following internal factors of the model: "Imagery for Maximum Performance"; "Imagery for Optimization of Skills and Abilities"; "Physical Self-Efficacy", while the "Growth of Athletic Achievements" variable is influenced by all factors of the model.
... This can be proven to come from the imagery exercise itself because in doing a free kick with imagery a player must imagine himself (visualization) in his mind when doing a free kick from that a football player who is doing a free kick can use to see the post, the goal net, the position of the goalkeeper, and the fortress of people built versus then hear and feel as a result the ball enters the opponent's goal. This is in line with research that confirms a simulation that occurs in the brain that can strengthen or describe the free-kick movement (Predoiu et al., 2020;Renshaw et al., 2019). Based on the conflict above, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of internal imagery training on increasing the accuracy of free kicks of young Indonesian football athletes. ...
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This study aims to determine the effect of internal imagery training on increasing the accuracy of free kicks of young Indonesian football athletes aged 13 years. This type of research is an experiment with the design of one group pre-test and post-test. The population in this study was 24 young Indonesian football athletes aged 13 years. The sample in this study was 10 people taken using purposive sampling techniques. The instrument used is to measure the accuracy of the free kick using a test of shooting the ball at the target. The data analysis technique used is the paired sample t-test. The results showed that there was a significant influence of internal imagery exercises on increasing the accuracy of free kicks from the initial test and the final test increased by a difference of 4.7, namely from an average score of 9.7 in the pre-test to 14.4 in the post-test, and strengthened by the results of the t-test using a paired sample t-test with a t value of -7,870 and a p significance value of 0.000 < 0.05. This study concludes that there is a significant influence of internal imagery training on increasing the accuracy of free kicks of young Indonesian football athletes aged 13 years.
... The preparation of cricketers must include the integrated method of both mental skills along with physical strength. Another interesting method for mental preparation should be visualization (Predoiu et al., 2020). Brown (n.d.) emphasizes that "You must see your goals clearly and specifically before you can set out for them. ...
India and its people are commonly known for their unique culture and tradition. Cricket and mythology are much interwoven into the lives of people as both are almost inseparable part of their life and culture. Although the two fields are completely different from each other, there is a deep-rooted connection between them when it comes to their popularity in India. Most of the people of India have spent their childhood either by listening to the stories of mythology or watching cricket, because the two interesting activities that consciously impact the mind and gain the attention so easily. The psychological aspects of both game and stories literally leave a strong impact in human mind. Hence, this paper attempts to integrate the psychological aspects of the game and mythology by analyzing the existing mental health problems of Indian cricketers with reference to the mythological stories of Indian heroes. It further aims to provide the proposed model for mental fitness named SPORTS as a guide to mental training for contemporary cricketers to manage their emotions and control their mind for optimal performance.
... É uma técnica difundida por diversas áreas do conhecimento como a psicanálise, programação neurolinguística, meditação, entre outras.Visualizar uma jogada faz o cérebro acreditar que aquele estímulo é real, pois ele não difere entre real e o imaginado, ativando os mesmos músculos do movimento físico. A imaginação é mais efetiva quando se imagina movimentos em intensidade semelhantes ao que será enfrentado em situações reais como em jogos de finais, sendo a visualização em primeira pessoa a mais impactante e efetiva, visualizando a si mesmo realizando aquele movimento(PREDOIU et al., 2020). A prática de visualizar jogadas é mais efetiva que a utilização de aparelhos de realidade virtual e realidade aumentada, além de estar disponível em qualquer localidade, sem dependências como a de eletricidade e outros acessórios como óculos, fios e máquinas interligadas. ...
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A alta performance é desejada por muitos atletas que almejam deixar suas marcas no mundo. Sabe-se que os genes são uma parte considerável em habilidades atléticas, mas há outros fatores como personalidade, bons hábitos e diversos outros pormenores. O objetivo deste estudo é desvendar caminhos que levam atletas a alcançarem melhores desempenhos. O estudo fornece um caminho eficaz para alcançar este desempenho com treinamento mental, cuidado com o corpo, saúde mental, além de confirmar que a alta performance é treinável.
... Additionally, personal dynamics such as self-confidence or the belief to acquire a certain skill appear to be relevant for motivation levels as well (Benabou and Tirole 2003;Wattie and Baker 2017). Lastly, particularly relevant in sports, different types of learning exist, such as auditory instructions, mental visualisation, or kinesthetically, which imply different behaviours in motor learning as well (Predoiu et al. 2020;Effenberg et al. 2007;Guillot and Collet 2008). ...
Conference Paper
For a video presentation, see the Self-Modeling Networks channel at This paper addresses computational analysis by psychological knowledge in motor learning of how people with certain personalities, alone and in pairs, are being influenced by several factors during their motor learning processes. To this end a second order adaptive network model was designed for the social and behavioural processes involved. Example simulations show how the model fits to different situations. Mathematical analysis was performed for verification and parameter tuning for validation .
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Today, psychology is widely recognised as a crucial element of gaining an advantage in sports. Sports psychology now offers a considerable competitive advantage. Furthermore, it offers insights into how to effectively function in aspects of our lives outside of athletics while nevertheless being vital for elite athletes to sustain high performance. the outcome Sport psychology aims to comprehend people's behaviour, mental processes, and welfare in sports environments while embracing psychological theory and practises. The responsibilities of sports psychologists and new advancements in psychology in the field of sports and exercise sciences remain the primary issues of current expert discussions, despite the reality that sports psychology has recently been the subject of productive study and practical application. The goals of the study were met by the researcher in the current article through examination of articles published in specialised scientific journals, as well as research into official documents and informational sources from professional associations of sports psychologists. Physical and psychological qualities are both important for sports performance. The essay offers a theoretical examination of the tactical and conceptual advancements made in the psychology of sports and exercise around the world in order to look into the recent and prospective trends in this field.
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* Sport Anthropology article for "breakfast and coffee" (Generosity and Football)
This paper addresses computational analysis by psychological knowledge in motor learning of how people with certain personalities, alone and in pairs, are being influenced by several factors during their motor learning processes. To this end a second-order adaptive network model was designed for the social and behavioural processes involved. Example simulations show how the model fits to different situations. Mathematical analysis was performed for verification and parameter tuning for validation.
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Every athlete's path includes visualization as a tool for improving performance and developing plans to achieve their goals. Visualization assists individuals in visualizing how they wish to perform in their chosen sporting event. Every athlete believes and understands that visualization is what they require to achieve their goals. In this review paper, researchers examine both quantitative and qualitative research methods to describe the power of visualization; why it is important for every athlete; visualization methods used by athletes; the effects of visualization on athletic performance; and visualization techniques in sports. A literature review was conducted on several published peer-reviewed journal articles, but only articles from 2015–2022 and those written in the English language were considered for inclusion in this study. Researchers made use of search engine like Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, ProQuest, PLoS One, Cochrane Library, and Microsoft Academic databases for information. Several articles were related to the subject, but only a few text articles were used for this review. In conclusion, the reviewed articles demonstrated that what coaches, trainers, physical educators, and sports teachers need to do is provide more assistance to help our athletes build more effectiveness in visualization to improve their sporting performance, which will serve as a fantastic tool that they may utilize to establish the mentality needed to attain long-term and short-term goals and teach younger athletes visualization, it's important to do it in a way that's easily accessible and fun for them.
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education in the 21st century is facing major challenges as well as unique opportunities. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder belongs to them, as it affects a significant percentage of students. At the same time, the advancements in information technology and neuroscience provide valuable knowledge and tools about the ways human can consciously regulate and upgrade his/her cognitive functions compensating for weaknesses with new abilities. In the present thesis, we seek out, through a literature review, new intervention strategies for ADHD with the contribution of metacognition and ICTs. The strategies aim at upgrading the structures, the mechanisms and the functions related to the symptomatology of ADHD. The intervention strategies include information and communication technologies, exercises, techniques and other practices that have been proven to upgrade intelligence, awaken the student and make him/her a conscious regulator of his/her own psycho-physiological functions. The common denominator of all the proposed strategies is the development of metacognition and consciousness. The recommended strategies can be used in the school context after a proper planning, while they can be implemented in addition to existing intervention programs.
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The “Adrenaline Instead of Amphetamine” program was launched by Gdańsk's MONAR association—a center for drug treatment. The purpose of the program was to show some alternatives to using psychoactive substances and to propose replacing these anti-medical behaviors with parachuting. The treatment effectiveness in this center is about 30%, and the program's effectiveness was 80%.
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The issues of occupational stress are invariably present in social services. The police officer's job is among the occupations particularly susceptible to the consequences of stress in the workplace. Because of the strain arising from the work overload, the style of functioning of the organisation, as well as specific stressful and traumatic experiences, police officers are exposed to cumulative occupational stress resulting in reduced quality of life and professional efficiency and deterioration of their social relations. This article presents the sources of stress in the police, the consequences of occupational stress and methods of coping with stress, among which alcohol abuse is a problem that still needs to be solved. For the first time statistical data concerning alcohol consumption among polish police officers was presented.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate imagery experiences in performers with visual impairments. Structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with six elite goalball athletes regarding the processing and use of mental images in training and competition. Interview transcripts were analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures and revealed four general dimensions describing the athletes' uses of imagery. Participants reported using imagery for cognitive and motivational purposes in both training and competition. Imagery was also suggested to be utilized from an internal perspective with the processing of images derived from a range of modalities. The findings suggest that visual impairment does not restrict the ability to use mental imagery and that psychological interventions can be expanded to include the use of all the athletes' sensory modalities.
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The present study examined the effects of a mental skills training package on competitive gymnasium triathlon performance and evaluated the utilization and impacts of the mental skills during performance. Four participants competed against each other on ten occasions in a single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design, which was used to evaluate an intervention package including goal setting, relaxation, imagery, and self-talk. The results indicated the mental skills package to be effective in enhancing all participants' competitive triathlon performance and usage of mental skills from baseline to intervention phases. Qualitative data revealed that each of the mental skills were employed both prior to and during each triathlon and had varying impacts depending on when they were utilized. Issues regarding mental skill effectiveness and usage within competitive endurance performance are discussed.
Background and Study Aim: Martial arts are offensive and defensive combat systems, characterised by coordinated and cognitively complex movements. Martial arts are typically classified as “hard” and “soft” styles. Hard styles focus on quick and forceful movements involving striking, kicking, blocking, grabbling, and takedown (e.g., karate, taekwondo, kung fu and judo). The aim of this review is in the existing scientific literature knowledge about pertaining to the effects of martial arts on cognitive function across the lifespan. Material and Methods: Both electronic and manual searches of the English-language articles published were conducted without limiting year of publication. The rigorous critical appraisal was independently performed, resulting in the inclusion of 18 studies. Results: Study results from the existing scientific literature indicate that martial arts (karate, taekwondo, kung fu, and judo) can improve some selected aspects of cognitive function and neurotrophic factors (serum BDNF and IGF-1) associated with brain health. Specifically, martial arts could be promising approaches to potentially stimulate the development of cognitive function in children and adolescent, and decelerate cognitive decline in middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions: Hard martial arts may be beneficial for improving some selected aspects of cognitive function across the lifespan. Because only a few studies used randomised controlled trials, a definitive conclusion regarding the beneficial effects of martial arts on cognitive functions is still difficult to be made at this stage. To better understand the effects of martial arts for cognitive function across the lifespan, future research should involve larger sample sizes, well-controlled designs, standardised assessments and long-term follow-ups, measures of health status, exercise intensity, leisure time activities, and session attendance rates.
Evidence indicates that champion and less successful athletes across several sports can be differentiated by the type of cognitive strategies they employ. The cognitive-coping strategies identified in champion athletes were presented to a highly skilled college basketball player. Performance improvements were observed in the athlete's points per game, field goal percentage, field goals made per game, and percentage of total team scoring. Future research in this area was discussed.
Mental practice is a recognized and often effective method for influencing the proficiency of physical performance. It is suggested, however, that «mental practice» and «imagery» are general labels applied to a variety of procedures that have different goals and uses for influencing human physical performance. This commentary argues that imagery usually is implemented for two different intentions in physical performance endeavors - skill development/learning and competition performance preparation - and that different procedures and elements are associated with each purpose. It is suggested that separation of these two functions will aid interpretation of the research and identification of issues that need empirical clarification.
Field studies investigating the potential benefit of mental-imagery training with young children have been lacking in the literature. The purpose of this investigation was to shed light on the appropriateness of mental training for children. Three groups of 7–10-year-old table tennis players participated in this study to assess the value of mental-imagery training, specifically with respect to children’s performance enhancement. The results indicated that children who used mental imagery experienced significantly greater improvement in the accuracy and technical quality of their shots than children in comparison groups. This study suggests that mental-imagery training, combined with videotaped images and relaxation, may be particularly promising for children.