Technical ReportPDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Results of the Q2 survey demonstrate that U.S. catfish farms and businesses are still experiencing negative impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic. The total number of catfish respondents for the Q2 survey (n = 49) was similar to that of Q1 (n = 54) and many of the responses indicated a similar trend as was observed in the Q1 results. Seventy percent of the catfish respondents had been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic during Q2. Almost half of the catfish respondents had their contracts either canceled or delayed. Twenty-five percent of the responding catfish farms and businesses had to lay off employees to adjust to cash flow requirements. The biggest problem cited by catfish business owners was the increased cost associated with holding market-sized fish in ponds which would have been sold if the pandemic had not occurred. Increased cost of holding market-sized fish (including increased feed costs, aeration, and others) was the main reason behind the increased cost on operations along with inefficiencies created by labor challenges, and logistical delays in procuring inputs (feed/chemicals, etc.). Half of the catfish respondents also reported lost sales due to restaurant and business closures. Catfish producers, as well as processors, were unable to rapidly pivot to new marketing channels. One out of every six responding catfish operations had no cash to cover current operating expenses while another 16% could barely cover operating expenses for another month. Lenders were reported to reduce the operating loan limits owing to lower cash flows from farms as well due to uncertain market conditions. While many Q2 catfish respondents have been able to obtain external assistance and relief, there are still several impacts that will have long term consequences for the industry. These include the continued disruption of traditional marketing channels, increasing costs of production, challenges obtaining inputs (feed and chemicals) and services (repair), challenges with cash on hand to cover operating expenses, and missed or delayed loan and bill payments. Disruptions in sales has required catfish farmers to hold fish in ponds longer causing increased holding costs as well as delays in preparations for future production. Lost revenue continues to be a significant challenge for respondents, with 50% of Q2 catfish respondents reporting lost sales. Respondents also reported historic labor shortages on catfish farms and processing facilities due to COVID-19 related absenteeism. Challenges reported with labor and production, also reinforce Q1 results in reiterating the negative impacts on future catfish production and supply.
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Impacts of COVID-19 on U.S. catfish
businesses:
Quarter 2 Results
April 10, 2020 to June 29, 2020 survey
Authored by Ganesh Kumar, Assistant Professor, Mississippi State University; Shraddha Hegde, Mississippi State
University; Carole R. Engle, Engle-Stone Aquatic$, LLC, Adjunct Faculty, Virginia Seafood AREC, Virginia Tech; Jonathan
van Senten, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist Virginia Seafood AREC, Department of Agricultural and Applied
Economics, Center for Coastal Studies Affiliate Faculty, Virginia Tech; Matthew A. Smith, Extension Specialist, The Ohio
State University; Charles Clark, Virginia Seafood AREC, Virginia Tech; Shannon Fluharty, Department of Agricultural and
Applied Economics, Virginia Tech; Michael H. Schwarz, Virginia Seafood AREC.
Introduction
On March 23rd, 2020 Virginia Tech Seafood AREC
and The Ohio State University Extension initiated an
online survey of U.S. aquaculture, aquaponics, and
allied businesses. This survey was designed to
capture and quantify the effects of the coronavirus
disease (COVID-19) on the aquaculture, aquaponics,
and allied industries. The survey will be distributed
after every quarter for 2020 (van Senten et al.
2020a,b), to attempt to capture the evolving impacts
of COVID-19 over time. The Quarter 2 survey
closed on July 17th, 2020 at 11:59 pm.
Survey methods are detailed in the Virginia
Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet VCE-AAEC-228,
available at
https://www.arec.vaes.vt.edu/arec/virginia-
seafood/research/Impacts_of_COVID19.html. This
factsheet is a supplemental report to the overall
survey that summarizes the results of catfish farm
respondents summarizing the Q2 results of this
study, covering the period from April 10th to June
29th, 2020.
Results
Characterization of Catfish
Respondents
Quarter 2 survey results showed that there were 49
catfish farm participants, which represent
approximately 9% of the U.S. catfish farmers
reported in the 2018 Census of Aquaculture (USDA,
2019). More than four-fifths of catfish respondents
sold their fish to a processor, with much smaller
percentages selling direct to consumers, distributors,
or other sources (Table 1).
Table 1. Primary marketing channel for catfish respondents.
Category
Percentage
Processor
81%
Direct to consumer
4%
Restaurants
0%
Distributors
4%
Other markets
11%
Catfish farms vary in terms of their production scale.
Respondents to the survey included those with scales
of production from annual sales of < $100,000 up to
those with annual sales greater than $1 million
(Table 2). The greatest percentage (40%) of catfish
respondents had sales in the range of over $1
million, followed by farms with sales of $500,001 to
$1 million (27%), $250,001 to $500,000 (19%),
$100,001 to $250,000 (8%), 2% of catfish
respondents had sales less than $100,000, and 4%
did not respond to this question.
Table 2. Scale of catfish respondent farms/businesses.
Category
Percentage
40%
27%
19%
8%
2%
4%
Table 3. Participation by aquaculture region.
Category
Percentage
Southern Aquaculture Region
93%
No response
7%
Key findings
Seventy percent of catfish respondents reported that
their farm or business had been impacted by the
COVID-19 pandemic during Q2. Seven percent said
that their catfish business had not been impacted,
and 17% were uncertain or unsure whether it had
been impacted. Of those who reported that their
catfish farm or business had not been impacted, 29%
said it would “definitely” be impacted, 57% said
“probably yes,” and 14% said, “probably not”. None
of the catfish respondents stated that their business
would “definitely not” be impacted.
When asked whether their farm or business would
survive the next 3 months without external
intervention (such as government assistance), only
25% said, “yes.” Fifty-eight percent reported that
their farm or business would “maybe” survive 3
months without external assistance, and 13% said
that their farm or business would not survive 3
months without external assistance (4% of catfish
respondents did not respond to this question). When
asked the same question, but for the next 6 months,
21% said that it would survive, 63% said “maybe,”
and 13% said that their farm/business would not
survive the next 6 months without external
assistance (4% did not respond). Responses related
to 12 months without external assistance suggested
that 29% would not survive, 46% said that their farm
or business would “maybe” survive, and only 17%
said that they would survive (8% did not respond to
this question).
70% of Q2 catfish respondents indicated
that their farm or business had been
impacted by the coronavirus disease
pandemic.
Increased cost associated with holding market-sized
fish in ponds was cited as the biggest problem
followed by loss in sales. Holding market-sized fish
that would have been marketed if not for the
pandemic has further caused management problems
due to the greater biomasses in production ponds.
The delay in sales resulted in larger sizes of fish that
sell as reduced prices per lb. Inefficiencies
associated with labor challenges and input supply
delays also increased the costs of production. Half of
the catfish respondents also reported lost sales due to
restaurant and other market closures. Producers and
processors were unable to pivot marketing strategies
rapidly for a variety of reasons.
Lost Sales
Lost sales were one of the major impacts reported by
respondents in the Q1 survey; with 77% of catfish
respondents (n = 54), reporting lost sales. Results
from the Q2 survey indicated that catfish
respondents also experienced lost sales in the second
quarter of 2020; with 50% of catfish respondents (n
= 28), reporting lost sales. Approximately one third
(36%) of Q2 catfish respondents reported lost sales
to international markets (n = 14). Respondents also
reported the value of lost sales in the second quarter
(Table 4), with 50% of catfish respondents
indicating that they had lost between $100,001 and
$250,000 in sales. This was followed by 14% of
catfish respondents that had lost between $500,001
and $1,000,000 or $25,001 and $50,000 during the
second quarter of 2020.
Table 4. Value of lost sales on catfish operations in Q2.
Category
Percentage
$100,001 - $250,000
50%
$500,001 - $1 million
14%
$25,001 - $50,000
14%
$250,001 - $500,000
7%
$50,001 - $100,000
7%
$10,001 - $25,000
7%
> $1 million
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
0%
$1 - $1,000
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
0%
No response
0%
Respondents were also asked about the status of
contracts during the second quarter (n = 21). One-
third of the catfish respondents (33%) had
government contracts delayed, and 10% reported
government contract cancellations. Fourteen percent
of Q2 catfish respondents indicated that their farm or
business had made new government (state or
federal) contracts during the second quarter; with
5% reporting government contracts re-instated. As
for private contracts, 48% of respondents indicated
that their farm or business had private contracts
delayed during Q2. This was followed by 29% that
had contracts canceled, and only 5% reported new
private contracts or private contracts re-instated.
Forty-six percent of Q2 catfish respondents indicated
that they expected to experience additional lost sales
in Q3 of 2020 (n = 28), with 23% of respondents
expecting to experience decreased sales to
international markets (n = 13).
50% of Q2 catfish respondents reported
that their farm or business had experienced
lost sales due to the coronavirus disease
pandemic.
A new question for the Q2 survey asked catfish
respondents about the availability of cash on hand to
cover operating expenses. A quarter of catfish
respondents (25%), indicated that they had sufficient
cash on hand to cover 1 to 3 months of operations (n
= 24). Sixteen percent of catfish respondents to the
Q2 survey said they had cash on hand for up to one
month of business operations. However, 17% of
catfish respondents indicated not having enough
cash on hand for operations. Since the Q2 survey
was open for 3 weeks for data collection, catfish
respondents who completed the survey shortly after
it was distributed may have already exhausted their
cash on hand by the time this factsheet was prepared.
Labor
Fifty-five percent of Q2 catfish respondents reported
that their farm or business had experienced no
change in employment during the second quarter (n
= 20). Twenty-five percent of respondents had laid
off additional employees during the second quarter;
while 20% of respondents reported that their farm or
business would “have to soon”. None of the catfish
respondents had hired additional employees.
Respondents were asked about the number of
employees that had been laid off during Q2, with the
majority (80%) indicating that between 1 and 3
employees had been let go. Twenty percent of
catfish businesses indicated the number of
employees laid off during the second quarter to be
between 4 and 6.
Catfish respondents were also asked how long
before their farm or business had to decide whether
to lay off employees or not. Half of the catfish
respondents indicated that they had from 4 to 6
weeks to decide on laying off employees and another
25% said that they had 1 to 3 weeks to make the
decision. Catfish respondents were then asked how
many employees the farm or business would have to
lay off (n = 4); all of them (100%) indicated between
1 and 3 employees.
Catfish respondents were also asked about
employees missing work due to the coronavirus
(COVID-19) disease pandemic. Sixty-five percent of
respondents indicated that their farm or business had
employees miss work (n = 20), while 35% percent of
catfish respondents did not experience any
employees missing work due to COVID-19. Among
the Q2 catfish respondents that indicated that
employees had missed work due to COVID-19, 38%
reported 11 to 14 days of missed work while another
23% had employees who missed either more than 14
days or from 4 to 6 days of work during the second
quarter. This was followed by 15% reporting
between 7 and 10 days of missed work.
Challenges to the
farm/business
Fifty percent of the responding catfish farms and
businesses in Q2 (n= 28) had experienced
production challenges related to the increased cost of
production, tied with the 50% that had experienced
lost sales. Another 46% of Q2 respondents indicated
they had experienced production challenges, while
39% experienced labor challenges, 21% reported
being unable to pay bills or cover their liabilities
during the second quarter. Only 11% of Q2 catfish
respondents reported experiencing an increased
demand for their product (Table 5).
Specifically, 46% of Q2 catfish respondents reported
challenges with production inputs such as feed,
chemicals, therapeutics, etc. (n = 13). Another 46%
reported experiencing challenges with financial
services. This was followed by 38% of Q2 catfish
respondents who experienced challenges with repair,
construction, consultant, or engineering services, and
another 23% reported various other challenges
related to production. Fifteen percent of Q2 catfish
respondents reported that they could not identify
specific challenges at the time they completed the
survey.
Table 5. Production problems experienced by catfish operation
in Q2.
Production problems
Percentage
Lost sales
50%
Increased cost of production
50%
Production challenges
46%
Labor challenges
39%
Unable to pay bills/liabilities
21%
Other (non-specified
challenges)
21%
Increased demand
11%
Although a third of the catfish respondents chose not
to answer the question about whether farms or
businesses had missed any bill or loan payments as a
result of the pandemic 17% percent of Q2 catfish
respondents indicated having missed between
$10,001 and $25,000 in bill or loan payments.
Similarly, 17% of respondents had missed payments
of between $100,001 and $250,000, and 17% of
respondents who had missed between $500,001 and
$1,000,000 in payments during the second quarter.
Another 17% of respondents who could not estimate
the value of missed payments at the time they
completed the survey.
50% of Q2 respondents reported that their
farm or business had experienced
increased cost of production due to the
coronavirus disease pandemic.
When asked about expecting to experience
challenges at the farm or business during Q3, 57% of
catfish respondents indicated they expected to
experience increased cost of production (n = 28).
This was followed by 46% of Q2 catfish respondents
expecting a loss in sales and another 43% expecting
labor challenges. Thirty-nine percent of the catfish
respondents expect production challenges while 29%
expect an inability to make debt payments.
An overwhelming majority (92%) of catfish farms
and businesses also reported challenges with the
market-ready product taking up space and interfering
with new stocking. Fifty-eight percent of catfish
respondents reported that their farm or business
could hold market-ready products for a period of 1
to 3 months before it would interfere with new
production (n = 24). Thirty-four percent of Q2
catfish respondents could hold market-ready
products for less than 1 month before it would
interfere with future production; while only 4%
percent of responding farms and businesses could
hold market-ready products for 4 to 6 months. None
of the catfish farms could hold market-ready fish for
more than 6 months before it would become an issue
for new production.
Marketing of products
Second-quarter catfish respondents were also asked
about the effects of holding market-ready products
on price, quality, and quantities sold. The majority
(92%) of catfish respondents said “yes”, holding
product would make it less marketable (n = 24).
Specifically, 77% of Q2 catfish respondents
indicated that holding product would result in a
reduced price, 50% indicated that holding product
would result in a lower quantity sold, and 45%
indicated that holding product would reduce the
quality of products.
Marketing channels
Catfish respondents were also asked to indicate their
primary marketing channels before the effects of the
coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic. Eighty-
one percent of Q2 catfish respondents indicated that
they previously sold their products primarily through
a processor. This was followed by 4% of Q2 catfish
respondents indicating sales through distributors or
direct sales to consumers.
Catfish respondents were also asked about
adaptations or changes in their marketing channel in
response to the pandemic, to which 74% of
respondents said “no” they had not implemented or
attempted to implement a new marketing channel (n
= 27). Fifteen percent of catfish respondents said
that they had implemented or attempted to
implement a new marketing channel during the
second quarter of 2020. Of those catfish respondents
who had implemented or attempted to implement
direct to consumer sales (n = 2), 50% had used
online sales while another 50% implemented
“curbside pickup”, or other unspecified means of
market channels.
Relief and assistance programs
As an important new addition to the Q2 survey,
catfish respondents were asked about the various
assistance and relief programs that had been
announced during Q2 of 2020. Catfish respondents
were asked to identify which programs they had
applied to, whether they had received the requested
support, and whether that support had been helpful
to their farm or business (n = 28). Half of the catfish
farm respondents (50%) had applied for a personal
bank loan or line of credit. About 32% of Q2
respondents had applied for the Paycheck Protection
Program (PPP). This was followed by 29% of catfish
respondents who had applied for a Small Business
Administration (SBA) loan while 18% had applied
for Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL).
Eighteen percent of Q2 catfish respondents reported
that their farm or business had not applied for any
assistance programs during the second quarter
(Table 6).
Table 6. Assistance applied by Q2 catfish respondents (n=28).
Category
Percentage
Private bank loans/personal line of
credit
50%
Paycheck Protection Program loans
(PPP)
32%
Small Business Administration
loans (SBA)
29%
Economic Injury Disaster Loans
(EIDL)
18%
Farm/business has not requested
financial assistance from any source
18%
Other Federal program or initiative
11%
Other State program or initiative
0%
Other Local program or initiative
0%
Unemployment benefits
0%
As for having received the support that was
requested, 17% of Q2 catfish respondents indicated
that they had applied but not yet received assistance,
while 6% reported having been declined or denied
assistance. All (100%) of the Q2 respondents who
had applied for a Paycheck Protection Program loan,
71% applying for private bank loans, 63% for Small
Business Administration Loans, and 60% for
Economic Injury Disaster Loans had received the
requested support.
Table 7 breaks down the various support programs
and the percent of Q2 catfish respondents that
reported receiving that support.
Table 7. Assistance received by Q2 catfish respondents.
Assistance received by catfish
farmers
(N =)
Percentage
Private bank loans/ personal
line of credit
14
71%
Paycheck Protection Program
loans (PPP)
9
100%
Small Business Administration
loans (SBA)
8
63%
Economic Injury Disaster
Loans (EIDL)
5
60%
Other Federal program
3
67%
Farm or business has applied
but not yet received
18
17%
Farm / business was declined
18
6%
Unemployment benefits
0
-
Other State/local programs
0
-
All of Q2 catfish respondents (n = 9) who had
applied for a PPP loan had received the requested
support. Sixty-three percent of the catfish
respondents who applied for a SBA loan received
support (n = 8). Among the respondents who
requested support (n = 18), 17% of Q2 respondents
indicated that they have not yet received assistance,
while 6% reported having been declined or denied
assistance.
Sixty-eight percent of the catfish respondents
suggested that federal assistance would increase the
likelihood of their farm to remain in business while
29% suggested State assistance. Another 14%
suggested local assistance and a similar proportion
suggested help from either associations or other
sources.
Forty-three percent of Q2 respondents indicated that
specialty-crop insurance would be helpful to them (n
= 28). Fourteen percent indicated that waiving or
delay of State fees would be helpful, and 11%
indicated that tariff relief and assistance with
identifying new markets would be helpful.
Discussion and Conclusion
Results of the Q2 survey demonstrate that U.S.
catfish farms and businesses are still experiencing
negative impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic.
The total number of catfish respondents for the Q2
survey (n = 49) was similar to that of Q1 (n = 54)
and many of the responses indicated a similar trend
as was observed in the Q1 results. Seventy percent
of the catfish respondents had been impacted by the
COVID-19 pandemic during Q2. Almost half of the
catfish respondents had their contracts either
canceled or delayed. Twenty-five percent of the
responding catfish farms and businesses had to lay
off employees to adjust to cash flow requirements.
The biggest problem cited by catfish business
owners was the increased cost associated with
holding market-sized fish in ponds which would
have been sold if the pandemic had not occurred.
Increased cost of holding market-sized fish
(including increased feed costs, aeration, and others)
was the main reason behind the increased cost on
operations along with inefficiencies created by labor
challenges, and logistical delays in procuring inputs
(feed/chemicals, etc.). Half of the catfish
respondents also reported lost sales due to restaurant
and business closures. Catfish producers, as well as
processors, were unable to rapidly pivot to new
marketing channels.
One out of every six responding catfish operations
had no cash to cover current operating expenses
while another 16% could barely cover operating
expenses for another month. Lenders were reported
to reduce the operating loan limits owing to lower
cash flows from farms as well due to uncertain
market conditions. While many Q2 catfish
respondents have been able to obtain external
assistance and relief, there are still several impacts
that will have long term consequences for the
industry. These include the continued disruption of
traditional marketing channels, increasing costs of
production, challenges obtaining inputs (feed and
chemicals) and services (repair), challenges with
cash on hand to cover operating expenses, and
missed or delayed loan and bill payments.
Disruptions in sales has required catfish farmers to
hold fish in ponds longer causing increased holding
costs as well as delays in preparations for future
production. Lost revenue continues to be a
significant challenge for respondents, with 50% of
Q2 catfish respondents reporting lost sales.
Repondents also reported historic labor shortages on
catfish farms and processing facilities due to
COVID-19 related absenteeism. Challenges reported
with labor and production, also reinforce Q1 results
in reiterating the negative impacts on future catfish
production and supply. The key points from the
Quarter 2 survey results are:
70% had been impacted by COVID-19
during Q2
43% had had private orders/contracts
canceled or delayed
25% had laid-off employees
50% had increased cost of production
and have experienced lost sales
17% had no cash available to cover
operating expenses
16% had less than 1 month of cash
available to cover operating expenses
25% would survive 3 months without
external intervention
68% suggested that federal assistance
would increase the likelihood of farm
survival and 29% indicated that state
assistance would help their farm or
business to survive.
50% have applied for a personal bank
loan or line of credit; 32% applied for the
Paycheck Protection Program, 29%
applied for Small Business
Administration loans, 18% for an
Economic Injury Disaster Loan, and 0%
for unemployment benefits.
References
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture).
2019. 2018 Census of Aquaculture. National
Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA,
Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
Accessed April 2020 at:
https://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_t
o_NASS_Surveys/Census_of_Aquaculture/i
ndex.php.
van Senten, J., Smith, M.A., and Engle, C.R. 2020a.
Impacts of COVID-19 on U.S. aquaculture,
aquaponics, and allied businesses: Quarter 1
Results. AAEC-218NP. Available at:
https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/dam/pu
bs_ext_vt_edu/AAEC/aaec-218/AAEC-
218.pdf
van Senten, J., C.R. Engle, and M. Smith. 2020b.
Impacts of COVID-19 on U.S. aquaculture,
aquaponics, and allied businesses. Journal of
the World Aquaculture Society 51(3):571-
573.
Additional resources
A summary of all Quarter 2 survey results may be
found in the Appendix document to this fact sheet,
titled: “Summary of COVID-19 impacts on U.S.
aquaculture, aquaponics, and allied businesses:
Quarter 2 Results”. All study results and
disaggregated reports are/will be published online
and available at:
https://www.arec.vaes.vt.edu/arec/virginia-
seafood/research/Impacts_of_COVID19.html
Indicia and Publication Number
Visit Virginia Cooperative Extension: ext.vt.edu
Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all,
regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression,
national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic
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opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative
Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia
State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Edwin
J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program,
Virginia State University, Petersburg.
2020 VCE-AAEC-___NP
VSG-20-__
Appendix
Summary of COVID-19 impacts on U.S. catfish aquaculture:
Quarter 2 Results
Shraddha Hegde, Mississippi State University
Ganesh Kumar, Mississippi State University
Jonathan van Senten, Virginia Tech
Matthew A. Smith, The Ohio State University
Carole R. Engle, Engle-Stone Aquatic$, LLC, Virginia Tech
Shannon Fluharty, Virginia Tech
Charles Clark, Virginia Tech
Michael H. Schwarz, Virginia Tech
Contents
Q1. What is the primary product that your farm or allied business produces? ................................. 13
Q1.1 Please indicate which is the major species of foodfish raised by your farm or business. .......... 14
Q1.2 Please indicate which is the major species of sportfish raised by your farm or business: ........ 14
Q2. Please indicate the scale of your farm or allied business by annual sales volume before the
effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). ............................................................................................ 15
Q3. Please provide the average price and approximate inventory of the primary product (market-
sized) on your farm or business for the following periods of time: ...................................................... 16
Q3.1. Please provide the volume of the primary product (market-sized) sold by your farm at the
market price and the volume sold at a reduced price due to being out-of-size for the following
periods of time: .......................................................................................................................................... 16
Q5. Has your farm or allied business been impacted, either positively or negatively, by the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020?
.................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Q5.1. Does your farm or allied business expect to be affected, either positively or negatively, by the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2020? .............................................................................................. 18
Q6. Have there been changes in government (state or federal) contracts in the period of time
between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 because of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? ........ 19
Q7. Have there been changes in private contracts or orders in the period of time between April 10th
2020 and June 29th 2020 because of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? ........................................ 19
Q8. Please indicate what types of changes in employment have occurred in the period of time
between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? (n = 20) . 20
Q8.1. Are any of the employees that your farm or allied business had to, or will have to, lay off due
to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) designated as "Short-Time" or "Shared-Work" employees?
.................................................................................................................................................................... 20
(n = 9) ......................................................................................................................................................... 20
Q8.2 How many employees has your farm or allied business had to lay off in the period of time
between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? .. 21
Q8.3. How many weeks before your farm or business will have to make a decision to lay off
employees, in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? ......................................................... 22
Q8.4. How many employees do you estimate your farm or business will have to lay off in response
to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? ................................................................................................ 22
Q9. Has your farm or allied business had any employees miss work due to the coronavirus disease
(COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020? ................................ 24
Q9.1. In total, approximately how many days have any employees in your farm or allied business
missed work due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th
2020 and June 29th 2020? .......................................................................................................................... 24
Q10. Does your farm or allied business employ H2A or H2B workers? .............................................. 25
Q10.1. Has your farm or allied business been able to hire H2A and H2B workers during the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June
29th 2020? ................................................................................................................................................... 25
Q10.2. Is your farm or allied business currently at risk of losing H2A or H2B workers due to the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic? ......................................................................................... 26
Q11. Has your farm or allied business experienced any of the following as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020?
(Please select all that apply) ..................................................................................................................... 27
Q11.1. Has your farm or allied business experienced lost sales to international or export markets
(outside of the United States), as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of
time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020? .............................................................................. 27
Q11.2. If your farm or allied business has experienced lost sales as a result of the coronavirus
disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020? Please
estimate the value of lost sales: ................................................................................................................ 28
Q11.3. If your farm or allied business has experienced production challenges (not related to labor)
as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and
June 29th 2020, can those challenges be specified? (Please select all that apply) ................................. 29
Q11.6. If your farm or allied business has experienced increased demand for products as a result of
the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th
2020? Please estimate the value of those effects on sales: ...................................................................... 30
Q11.8. If your farm or allied business has experienced missed bill or loan payments as a result of
the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th
2020, please estimate the value of those missed payments: ................................................................... 31
Q12. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience any of the following as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September)? (Please
select all that apply) .................................................................................................................................. 32
Q12.1. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience changes in sales to international or
export markets (outside of the United States), as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), in
the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September)? .............................................................................. 32
Q12.2. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience lost sales as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September), please
estimate the value of lost sales: ................................................................................................................ 33
Q12.3. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience production challenges (not related to
labor) as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August,
September)? (Please select all that apply) ............................................................................................... 34
Q12.6. Does your farm or business expect to experience increased demand for products as a result
of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September)?
Please estimate the value of those effects on sales: ................................................................................. 35
Q12.8. If your farm or allied business expects to miss bill or loan payments as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September)? Please
estimate the value of those missed payments: ........................................................................................ 36
Q13. Without external intervention (for example, governmental assistance), will your farm or allied
business survive in the next 3 (three) months? ....................................................................................... 37
Q14. Without external intervention (for example, governmental assistance), will your farm or allied
business survive in the next 6 (six) months? ........................................................................................... 38
Q15. Without external intervention (for example, governmental assistance), will your farm or allied
business survive in the next 12 (twelve) months? ................................................................................... 38
Q16. How would you describe the current availability of cash on hand for your farm or allied
business, including financial assistance or loans? Please select how long a period the current cash
on hand will cover: .................................................................................................................................... 39
Q17. Will holding market ready product, as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), make
it less marketable? ..................................................................................................................................... 40
Q17.1. Will holding market ready product, as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19),
result in: (please select all that apply) ..................................................................................................... 40
Q18. How long can your farm or allied business hold market ready product, as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19), before it becomes an issue for new crops or planting? ................. 41
Q19. Please indicate if your farm or allied business has applied for loans or financial assistance
from any of the following programs in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th
2020: (please select all that apply) ........................................................................................................... 42
Q19.1. Please indicate if your farm or allied business has received loans or financial assistance from
any of the following programs that you applied for: (please select all that apply) ............................. 43
Q19.2. Please indicate if loans or financial assistance received by your farm or allied business have
been helpful? ............................................................................................................................................. 44
Q20. Are there specific steps or types of assistance that would increase the likelihood for your farm
or allied business to survive? (please select all that apply) .................................................................... 44
Q21. Would assistance with any of the following be helpful to your farm or allied business right
now? (please select all that apply) ........................................................................................................... 45
Q22. Are there any existing programs that your aquaculture, aquaponics, or allied business does
not currently qualify for, that would increase the likelihood of survival of your farm or business? 46
Q23. How did your farm or allied business primarily market or sell aquaculture / aquaponics
products before the effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?......................................................... 47
Q23.1. Did your farm or allied business implement or attempt to implement a new marketing or
sales channel in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 because of
coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? ........................................................................................................... 48
Q23.2. What percent of sales from your farm or allied business in the period of time between April
10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 went through a new marketing channel? ............................................... 48
Q23.3. If your farm or allied business implemented or attempted to implement a "Direct to
consumer / end user" marketing channel, please specify the method(s) from the options below:
(please select all that apply)?.................................................................................................................... 49
Overview
On March 23rd, 2020 Virginia Tech Seafood AREC and The Ohio State University Extension
initiated an online survey of U.S. aquaculture, aquaponics, and allied businesses. This survey
was designed to capture and quantify the effects of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the
aquaculture, aquaponics, and allied industries. The survey will be administered quarterly for
2020 to capture the evolving effects of the coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) on the
industry. The Quarter 2 survey closed on July 17th, 2020 at 11:59 pm.
Survey methods are detailed in the Virginia Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet VCE-AAEC-228,
available at: https://www.arec.vaes.vt.edu/arec/virginia-
seafood/research/Impacts_of_COVID19.html.
This report is a supplemental report to the Catfish Report Summary, Quarter 2 that
summarizes the results of catfish farm respondents.
Q1. What is the primary product that your farm or allied business produces?
(n = 49)
No response
:
0%
Foodfish
:
98%
Mollusks
:
0%
Baitfish
:
0%
Sportfish
:
0%
Crustaceans
:
0%
Ornamental fish
:
0%
Aquaponics
:
2%
Aquatic plants
:
0%
Seaweed
:
0%
Allied business
:
0%
University/education
:
0%
Other
:
0%
0%
98%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Percent of respondents
Q1.1 Please indicate which is the major species of foodfish raised by your farm or business.
(n = 49)
No response
:
0%
Catfish
:
100%
Trout
:
0%
Salmon
:
0%
Tilapia
:
0%
Hybrid Striped Bass
:
0%
Other
:
0%
Q1.2 Please indicate which is the major species of sportfish raised by your farm or
business:
(n = N/A)
No response
:
N/A
Trout
:
N/A
Warmwater sportfish
:
N/A
Other
:
N/A
0%
100%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
No
response
Catfish Trout Salmon Tilapia Hybrid
Striped
Bass
Other
Percent of respondents
Q2. Please indicate the scale of your farm or allied business by annual sales volume before
the effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
(n = 48)
No response
:
4%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
0%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
2%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
0%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
8%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
19%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
27%
> $1 million
:
40%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
0%
4%
0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%
8%
19%
27%
40%
0%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
Percent of respondents
Q3. Please provide the average price and approximate inventory of the primary product
(market-sized) on your farm or business for the following periods of time:
(n = N/A)
Average price per
unit ($ USD)
Average inventory
(# of units)
Unit
(lbs, count, etc.)
No response
N/A
N/A
N/A
As of January 1st 2020
N/A
N/A
N/A
As of April 1st 2020
N/A
N/A
N/A
As of July 1st 2020
N/A
N/A
N/A
Q3.1. Please provide the volume of the primary product (market-sized) sold by your farm
at the market price and the volume sold at a reduced price due to being out-of-size for the
following periods of time:
(n = N/A)
Unit
(lbs, count, etc.)
Average number of
units sold at market
price
Average number of
units sold at
reduced price
No response N/A N/A N/A
Q1: January – March
2020 N/A N/A N/A
Q2: April – June 2020 N/A N/A N/A
Q4. In which USDA defined Aquaculture Region is your farm or allied business located?
(n = 30)
No response
:
7%
Northeastern Aquaculture Region
:
0%
North Central Aquaculture Region
:
0%
Southern Aquaculture Region
:
93%
Tropical and Sub-tropical Aquaculture Region
:
0%
Western Aquaculture Region
:
0%
7%
0% 0%
93%
0% 0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Percent of respondents
Q5. Has your farm or allied business been impacted, either positively or negatively, by the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June
29th 2020?
(n = 30)
No response
:
7%
Yes
:
70%
No
:
7%
Uncertain/ not sure
:
17%
Q5.1. Does your farm or allied business expect to be affected, either positively or
negatively, by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2020?
(n = 7)
No response
:
0%
Definitely yes
:
29%
Probably yes
:
57%
Probably not
:
14%
Definitely not
:
0%
7%
70%
7%
17%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
No response Yes No Uncertain / not
sure
Percent of respondents
0%
29%
57%
14%
0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
No response Definitely yes Probably yes Probably not Definitely not
Percent of respondents
Q6. Have there been changes in government (state or federal) contracts in the period of
time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 because of the coronavirus disease
(COVID-19)?
(n = 21)
No response
:
38%
Contracts delayed
:
33%
Contracts cancelled
:
10%
Contracts re-instated
:
5%
New contracts made
:
14%
Q7. Have there been changes in private contracts or orders in the period of time between
April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 because of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?
(n = 21)
No response
:
14%
Contracts delayed
:
48%
Contracts cancelled
:
29%
Contracts re-instated
:
5%
New contracts made
:
5%
38%
33%
10%
5%
14%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
No response Contracts
delayed
Contracts
cancelled
Contracts
re-instated
New
contracts
made
Percent of respondents
14%
48%
29%
5% 5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
No response Contracts
delayed
Contracts
cancelled
Contracts
re-instated
New
contracts
made
Percent of respondents
Q8. Please indicate what types of changes in employment have occurred in the period of
time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-
19)? (n = 20)
No response
:
0%
Laid off additional employees
:
25%
No change
:
55%
Will soon have to lay off additional employees
:
20%
Have hired additional employees
:
0%
Q8.1. Are any of the employees that your farm or allied business had to, or will have to, lay
off due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) designated as "Short-Time" or "Shared-
Work" employees?
(n = 9)
No response
:
11%
Yes
:
33%
No
:
56%
Don’t know
:
0%
0%
25%
55%
20%
0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
No response Laid off
additional
employees
No change Will soon have
to lay off
additional
employees
Have hired
additional
employees
Percent of respondents
11%
33%
56%
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
No response Yes No Don't know
Percent of
respondents
Q8.2 How many employees has your farm or allied business had to lay off in the period of
time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease
(COVID-19)?
(n = 5)
No response
:
0%
1-3 employees
:
80%
4-6 employees
:
20%
7-10 employees
:
0%
11-15 employees
:
0%
16-20 employees
:
0%
> 20 employees
:
0%
0%
80%
20%
0% 0% 0% 0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Percent of respondents
Q8.3. How many weeks before your farm or business will have to make a decision to lay off
employees, in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?
(n = 4)
No response
:
0%
< 1 week
:
0%
1-3 weeks
:
25%
4-6 weeks
:
50%
7-10 weeks
:
0%
> 10 weeks
:
25%
Q8.4. How many employees do you estimate your farm or business will have to lay off in
response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?
(n = 4)
No response
:
0%
1-3 employees
:
100%
4-6 employees
:
0%
7-10 employees
:
0%
11-15 employees
:
0%
16-20 employees
:
0%
> 20 employees
:
0%
0% 0%
25%
50%
0%
25%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
No response < 1 week 1 - 3 weeks 4 - 6 weeks 7 - 10 weeks > 10 weeks
Percent of respondents
0%
100%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Percent of respondents
Q8.5. How many additional employees has your farm or allied business hired in the period
of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease
(COVID-19)?
(n = N/A)
No response
N/A
1-3 employees
N/A
4-6 employees
N/A
7-10 employees
N/A
11-15 employees
N/A
16-20 employees
N/A
> 20 employees
N/A
Q9. Has your farm or allied business had any employees miss work due to the coronavirus
disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020?
(n = 20)
No response
:
0%
Yes
:
65%
No
:
35%
Q9.1. In total, approximately how many days have any employees in your farm or allied
business missed work due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time
between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020?
(n = 13)
No response
:
0%
< 1 day
:
0%
1-3 days
:
0%
4-6 days
:
23%
7-10 days
:
15%
11-14 days
:
38%
> 14 days
:
23%
0%
65%
35%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
No response Yes No
Percent of respondents
0% 0% 0%
23%
15%
38%
23%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Percent of
respondents
Q10. Does your farm or allied business employ H2A or H2B workers?
(n = 20)
No response
:
0%
Yes
:
5%
No
:
95%
Q10.1. Has your farm or allied business been able to hire H2A and H2B workers during
the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in the period of time between April 10th
2020 and June 29th 2020?
(n = 1)
No response
:
0%
Yes
:
0%
No
:
100%
Don’t know yet
:
0%
Have not tried
:
0%
0% 5%
95%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
No response Yes No
Percent of respondents
0% 0%
100%
0% 0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
No response Yes No Don't know
yet
Have not tried
Percent of respondents
Q10.2. Is your farm or allied business currently at risk of losing H2A or H2B workers due
to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic?
(n = 1)
No response
:
0%
Yes
:
0%
No
:
0%
Don’t know yet
:
100%
0% 0% 0%
100%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
No response Yes No Don't know yet
Percent of respondents
Q11. Has your farm or allied business experienced any of the following as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June
29th 2020? (Please select all that apply)
(n = 28)
Lost sales
:
50%
Production challenges
:
46%
Increased cost of production
:
50%
Labor challenges
:
39%
Unable to pay bills / liabilities
:
21%
Increased demand
:
11%
Other
:
21%
Q11.1. Has your farm or allied business experienced lost sales to international or export
markets (outside of the United States), as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in
the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020?
(n = 14)
No response
:
0%
Yes
:
36%
No
:
64%
50% 46% 50%
39%
21%
11%
21%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Lost sales Production
challenges
Increased
cost of
production
Labor
challenges
Unable to
pay bills /
liabilities
Increased
demand
Other
Percent of respondents
0%
36%
64%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
No response Yes No
Percent of respondents
Q11.2. If your farm or allied business has experienced lost sales as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June
29th 2020? Please estimate the value of lost sales:
(n = 14)
No response
:
0%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
7%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
14%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
7%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
50%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
7%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
14%
> $1 million
:
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
0%
0% 0% 0% 0%
7%
14%
7%
50%
7%
14%
0% 0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Percent of respondents
Q11.3. If your farm or allied business has experienced production challenges (not related to
labor) as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between
April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020, can those challenges be specified? (Please select all that
apply)
(n = 13)
Challenges with production inputs
:
46%
Challenges with repair, construction, consultant or engineering services
:
38%
Challenges with financial services
:
46%
Other
:
23%
Cannot identify specific production challenges at this time
:
15%
46%
38%
46%
23%
15%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
Challenges with
production inputs
Challenges with
repair,
construction,
consultant or
engineering
services
Challenges with
financial services
Other Cannot identify
specific
production
challenges at this
time
Percent of respondents
Q11.6. If your farm or allied business has experienced increased demand for products as a
result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020
and June 29th 2020? Please estimate the value of those effects on sales:
(n = 3)
No response
:
0%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
0%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
0%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
0%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
0%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
33%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
0%
> $1 million
:
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
67%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
33%
0% 0%
67%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Percent of respondents
Q11.8. If your farm or allied business has experienced missed bill or loan payments as a
result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the period of time between April 10th 2020
and June 29th 2020, please estimate the value of those missed payments:
(n = 6)
No response
:
33%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
17%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
0%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
0%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
17%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
0%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
17%
> $1 million
:
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
17%
33%
0% 0% 0%
17%
0% 0%
17%
0%
17%
0%
17%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Percent of respondents
Q12. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience any of the following as a result
of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August,
September)? (Please select all that apply)
(n = 28)
Lost sales
:
46%
Production challenges
:
39%
Increased cost of production
:
57%
Labor challenges
:
43%
Unable to pay bills / liabilities
:
29%
Increased demand for products
:
14%
Other
:
18%
Q12.1. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience changes in sales to
international or export markets (outside of the United States), as a result of the coronavirus
disease (COVID-19), in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September)?
(n = 13)
No response
:
0%
Decreased sales
:
23%
No changes expected
:
62%
Increased sales
:
15%
46% 39%
57%
43%
29%
14% 18%
0%
20%
40%
60%
Lost sales Production
challenges
Increased
cost of
production
Labor
challenges
Unable to
pay bills /
liabilities
Increased
demand
for
products
Other
Percent of respondents
0%
23%
62%
15%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
No response Decreased sales No changes
expected
Increased sales
Percent of respondents
Q12.2. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience lost sales as a result of the
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September),
please estimate the value of lost sales:
(n = 13)
No response
:
0%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
0%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
15%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
23%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
31%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
0%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
8%
> $1 million
:
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
23%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
15%
23%
31%
0%
8%
0%
23%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Percent of respondents
Q12.3. Does your farm or allied business expect to experience production challenges (not
related to labor) as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of
2020 (July, August, September)? (Please select all that apply)
(n = 11)
Challenges with production inputs
:
45%
Challenges with repair, construction, consultant or engineering services
:
36%
Challenges with financial services
:
64%
Other
:
9%
Cannot identify specific production challenges at this time
:
9%
45%
36%
64%
9% 9%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Challenges
with
production
inputs
Challenges
with repair,
construction,
consultant or
engineering
services
Challenges
with financial
services
Other Cannot
identify
specific
production
challenges at
this time
Percent of respondents
Q12.6. Does your farm or business expect to experience increased demand for products as a
result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August,
September)? Please estimate the value of those effects on sales:
(n = 4)
No response
:
25%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
25%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
0%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
0%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
25%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
0%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
0%
> $1 million
:
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
25%
25%
0% 0% 0%
25%
0% 0%
25%
0% 0% 0%
25%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Percent of respondents
Q12.8. If your farm or allied business expects to miss bill or loan payments as a result of
the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the 3rd Quarter of 2020 (July, August, September)?
Please estimate the value of those missed payments:
(n = 6)
No response
:
17%
$1 - $1,000
:
0%
$1,001 - $5,000
:
0%
$5,001 - $10,000
:
0%
$10,001 - $25,000
:
0%
$25,001 - $50,000
:
0%
$50,001 - $100,000
:
17%
$100,001 - $250,000
:
17%
$250,001 - $500,000
:
17%
$500,001 - $1 million
:
17%
> $1 million
:
0%
Cannot estimate at this time
:
17%
17%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
17% 17% 17% 17%
0%
17%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Percent of respondents
Q13. Without external intervention (for example, governmental assistance), will your farm
or allied business survive in the next 3 (three) months?
(n = 24)
No response
:
4%
Yes
:
25%
Maybe
:
58%
No
:
13%
4%
25%
58%
13%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
No response Yes Maybe No
Percent of respondents
Q14. Without external intervention (for example, governmental assistance), will your farm
or allied business survive in the next 6 (six) months?
(n = 24)
No response
:
4%
Yes
:
21%
Maybe
:
63%
No
:
13%
Q15. Without external intervention (for example, governmental assistance), will your farm
or allied business survive in the next 12 (twelve) months?
(n = 24)
No response
:
8%
Yes
:
17%
Maybe
:
46%
No
:
29%
4%
21%
63%
13%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
No response Yes Maybe No
Percent of respondents
8%
17%
46%
29%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
No response Yes Maybe No
Percent of respondents
Q16. How would you describe the current availability of cash on hand for your farm or
allied business, including financial assistance or loans? Please select how long a period the
current cash on hand will cover:
(n = 24)
No response
:
21%
No cash available
:
17%
1-7 days
:
0%
1-2 weeks
:
8%
3-4 weeks
:
8%
1-3 months
:
25%
4-6 months
:
4%
7-10 months
:
8%
>10 months
:
8%
Don’t know
:
0%
21%
17%
0%
8% 8%
25%
4%
8% 8%
0%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Percent of respondents
Q17. Will holding market ready product, as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-
19), make it less marketable?
(n = 24)
No response
:
4%
Yes
:
92%
No
:
0%
Don’t know
:
4%
Q17.1. Will holding market ready product, as a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-
19), result in: (please select all that apply)
(n = 22)
Reduced quantity sold
:
50%
Reduced price
:
77%
Reduced quality of products
:
45%
Other
:
9%
4%
92%
0% 4%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
No response Yes No Don't know
Percent of respondents
50%
77%
45%
9%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
Reduced quantity
sold
Reduced price Reduced quality of
products
Other
Percent of respondents
Q18. How long can your farm or allied business hold market ready product, as a result of
the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), before it becomes an issue for new crops or planting?
(n = 24)
No response
:
4%
1-7 days
:
0%
1-2 weeks
:
13%
3-4 weeks
:
21%
1-3 months
:
58%
4-6 months
:
4%
7-10 months
:
0%
>10 months
:
0%
Don’t know
:
0%
4%
0%
13%
21%
58%
4%
0% 0% 0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Percent of respondents
Q19. Please indicate if your farm or allied business has applied for loans or financial
assistance from any of the following programs in the period of time between April 10th 2020
and June 29th 2020: (please select all that apply)
(n = 28)
Private bank loans/personal line of credit
:
50%
Small Business Administration loans (SBA)
:
29%
Paycheck Protection Program loans (PPP)
:
32%
Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL)
:
18%
Unemployment benefits
:
0%
Other Federal program or initiative (please describe)
:
11%
Other State program or initiative (please describe)
:
0%
Other Local program or initiative (please describe)
:
0%
Fam / business has not requested financial assistance from any source
:
18%
50%
29% 32%
18%
0%
11%
0% 0%
18%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Percent of respondents
Q19.1. Please indicate if your farm or allied business has received loans or financial
assistance from any of the following programs that you applied for: (please select all that
apply)
Private bank loans/personal line of credit (n = 14)
:
71%
Small Business Administration loans (SBA) (n = 8)
:
63%
Paycheck Protection Program loans (PPP) (n = 9)
:
100%
Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL) (n = 5)
:
60%
Unemployment benefits (n = 0)
:
N/A
Other Federal program or initiative (please describe) (n = 3)
:
67%
Other State program or initiative (please describe) (n = 0)
:
N/A
Other Local program or initiative (please describe) (n = 0)
:
N/A
Farm / business has applied but not yet received (n = 18)
:
17%
Farm / business was declined (n = 18)
:
6%
71%
63%
100%
60%
0%
67%
0% 0%
17%
6%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Percent of respondents
Q19.2. Please indicate if loans or financial assistance received by your farm or allied
business have been helpful?
Financial Assistance Program
No
response
Yes
No
Private bank loans/personal line of credit (n = 10) 0% 90% 10%
Small Business Administration loans (SBA) (n = 5) 0% 100% 0%
Paycheck Protection Program loans (PPP) (n = 9) 11% 78% 11%
Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL) (n = 3) 0% 100% 0%
Unemployment benefits (n = 0) N/A N/A N/A
Other Federal program or initiative (please describe) (n = 2) 0% 100% 0%
Other State program or initiative (please describe) (n = 0) N/A N/A N/A
Other Local program or initiative (please describe) (n = 0) N/A N/A N/A
Q20. Are there specific steps or types of assistance that would increase the likelihood for
your farm or allied business to survive? (please select all that apply)
(n = 28)
Federal assistance
:
68%
State assistance
:
29%
Local assistance
:
14%
Assistance from associations
:
7%
Other
:
7%
None
:
11%
68%
29%
14%
7% 7% 11%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Federal
assistance
State
assistance
Local
assistance
Assistance
from
associations
Other None
Percent of respondents
Q21. Would assistance with any of the following be helpful to your farm or allied business
right now? (please select all that apply)
(n = 28)
Waiving or delay of State fees
:
14%
Tariff relief
:
11%
Assistance identifying new markets
:
11%
Loan guarantees
:
14%
Specialty crop insurance
:
43%
Other
:
7%
14%
11% 11%
14%
43%
7%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
Waiving or
delay of State
fees
Tariff relief Assistance
identifying
new markets
Loan
guarantees
Specialty
crop
insurance
Other
Percent of respondents
Q22. Are there any existing programs that your aquaculture, aquaponics, or allied business
does not currently qualify for, that would increase the likelihood of survival of your farm
or business?
(n = 28)
No response
:
75%
Yes
:
11%
No
:
14%
Don’t know
:
0%
75%
11% 14%
0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
No response Yes No Don't know
Percent of respondents
Q23. How did your farm or allied business primarily market or sell aquaculture /
aquaponics products before the effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?
(n = 27)
No response
:
11%
Direct to customers
:
4%
Processor
:
81%
Distributor
:
4%
Restaurants
:
0%
Grocery stores/ supermarkets
:
0%
Other aquaculture /aquaponics
:
0%
Other
:
0%
11%
4%
81%
4% 0% 0% 0% 0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
Percent of respondents
Q23.1. Did your farm or allied business implement or attempt to implement a new
marketing or sales channel in the period of time between April 10th 2020 and June 29th
2020 because of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?
(n = 27)
No response
:
11%
Yes
:
15%
No
:
74%
In process
:
0%
Q23.2. What percent of sales from your farm or allied business in the period of time
between April 10th 2020 and June 29th 2020 went through a new marketing channel?
Marketing Channel Average percent of sales
Direct to consumers / end users (n = 2)
11%
Processor (n = 0)
N/A
Distributor (n = 1)
80%
Restaurants (n = 0)
N/A
Grocery stores / supermarkets (n = 0)
N/A
Other aquaculture / aquaponics farms or business (n = 0)
N/A
Other (n = 0)
N/A
11% 15%
74%
0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
No response Yes No In process
Percent of respondents
Q23.3. If your farm or allied business implemented or attempted to implement a "Direct to
consumer / end user" marketing channel, please specify the method(s) from the options
below: (please select all that apply)?
(n = 2)
Home delivery
:
0%
Curbside pickup
:
50%
Opened retail outlet
:
0%
Online sales
:
50%
Other
:
50%
0%
50%
0%
50% 50%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Home delivery Curbside
pickup
Opened retail
outlet
Online sales Other
Percent of respondents
References
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 2019. 2018 Census of Aquaculture.
National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, Washington, District of Columbia,
USA. Accessed April 2020 at:
https://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Census_of_Aqua
culture/index.php.
Acknowledgments
Thank you to all respondents who participated in this study. Also, thank you to all of the
national, regional, and state associations, agencies, Extension, and all others who helped us
disseminate the survey. There are simply too many names to list, thanks to all of you. Thank you
to NOAA Sea Grant and the National Marine Fisheries Service for supporting this work.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.