ArticlePDF Available

The relationship between anger control and physical activity

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Introduction: Increasing social tensions and aggressive behaviors is one of the problems in all societies. It seems that physical activity can impact on anger control so the present study aimed to assess the relationship between anger control and physical activity. Materials and Methods: The statistical population of this study consisted of all girl students who educating in Qom University. Number of 280 students who selected randomly fulfilled demographic questionnaire, Baecke's physical activity questionnaire and anger control questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Pearson correlation test and regression analysis. Results: The findings indicated that there was a significant inverse correlation between anger and physical activity (r=-0.125, P=0.037). Physical activity was also effective on anger control and work index and exercise index were predictors of anger control. Conclusion: It seems that there is an inverse correlation between physical activity, the work index, and the exercise index with the control of anger and anger trait.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Fundamentals
of Mental Health
Mashhad University
of Medical Sciences
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Research Center
Brief Report
The relationship between anger control
and physical activity
Reyhaneh Malmir1; *Tahereh Nedaee2
1Bachler of sport sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Literature, Qom University, Qom, Iran
2Associate professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Literature,
Qom University, Qom, Iran
Abstract
Introduction: Increasing social tensions and aggressive behaviors is one of the problems in all societies. It
seems that physical activity can impact on anger control so the present study aimed to assess the relationship
between anger control and physical activity.
Materials and Methods: The statistical population of this study consisted of all girl students who educating
in Qom University. Number of 280 students who selected randomly fulfilled
demographic questionnaire, Baecke's physical activity questionnaire and anger control questionnaire. Data
were analyzed using SPSS, Pearson correlation test and regression analysis.
Results: The findings indicated that there was a significant inverse correlation between anger and physical
activity (r=-0.125, P=0.037). Physical activity was also effective on anger control
and work index and exercise index were predictors of anger control.
Conclusion: It seems that there is an inverse correlation between physical activity, the work index, and the
exercise index with the control of anger and anger trait.
Keywords: Anger, Aggression, Physical activity, Sport, Students
(
Please cite this paper as:
Malmir R, Nedaee T. The relationship between anger control and physical activity. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental
Health 2019 Jul-Aug; 21(4): 284-91.
o
*Corresponding Author: Department of Physical Education and
Sports Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Literature, Qom University,
Qom, Iran
tahereh.nedaee@yahoo.com
Received: Jan. 3, 2019
Accepted: May. 22, 2019
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
Introduction
Nowadays, one of the problems of all
developed and developing societies is the
increasing prevalence of social tensions and,
consequently, an increase in aggressive
behaviors and anger in society (1). Anger is
a kind of emotion which associated with
humans at all stages of life (2).
Aggression and violence are the related
concepts with anger. Aggression is an
instinctive reaction to failure and
competition for access to resources, which
manifests itself mainly through physical
encounters. Oronson has defined anger and
aggression as behaviors that aimed to hurt,
harm, and suffer (3).
There are different strategies to control
anger. Pause and think about subject,
express the correct cause of the discomfort,
slow breathing, resting, leaving the scene,
walking, drinking water, examining possible
solutions to the problem, learning to control
the anger and relaxation skills are among
these strategies. Another effective factor in
controlling anger is having regular physical
activity and exercising regularly (4).
Exercise helps secreting hormones to control
and reduce anger. When you are exercising,
excess energy is evacuated. In case of lack
of mobility, this excess energy is evacuated
through violent behavior and causes many
problems in society (5,6).
Physical activity through the evacuation of
exceed energies, creating psychological
enjoy, increasing endorphins and enhancing
self-esteem lead to sense of calm (7).
Assigning too much time to cyber networks
is a major dilemma for today's societies.
Long-term use of cybernetics leads to an
increase in neurological tics, stress, anger,
aggression, decreased physical activity,
obesity, and social isolation and Internet
addiction (8).
The use of cyber in students is associated
with an increase in anger and aggression. In
the study of Shojaei et al., there was a direct
relationship between the incidence of
aggressive behaviors and the use of
computers (9).
Studies have also shown that by increasing
the use of virtual spaces, people's mental
health will be damaged and aggressive
behaviors will increase while daily physical
activity reduces the time spent using cyber
networks (10).
In terms of physical activity and control of
anger, Buchman et al. assessed 200 medical
students and they concluded that anger has a
negative correlation with fitness and
exercise habits. Washburn et al. in a study
on 76 students reported that the level of
anger was related to their physical activity
(11).
Nazer et al. in a study on 360 female high
school students concluded that there was a
significant difference between the scores of
anxiety, aggression, depression, physical
complaints and interpersonal sensitivity
before and after intervention performed in 8
forty-five minute sessions (12).
In a study by Teymoori et al. on 300 female
students, two months of daily exercise were
associated with reduced anger and improved
social relationships (13).
Considering the importance of physical
activity, its role to control anger and the
limited researches in this field, this study
aimed to investigate the relationship
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
between physical activity and anger control
in female students.
Materials and Methods
The statistical population of this descriptive-
correlational study is all female students
who educating in of Qom University,
(n=1000).
Based on the Morgan table, 280 students
were considered as sample of study. Then
300 students were selected by classified
sampling based inclusion criteria included:
educating in Qom University, female gender
and willingness to cooperate.
Finally, due to 20 incomplete
questionnaires, data related to 280 students
were analyzed.
This research is approved by the Ethics
Committee of Qom University.
Research instrument
A) Demographic Information
Questionnaire: Includes age, sex,
educational level, history of sport and
history of the disease.
B) Anger Control Questionnaire: This
questionnaire assessed through Spielberger's
standard scale of anger and includes 57
questions. The questionnaire has state of
anger (feeling anger, feeling the need for
verbal expression of anger and feeling the
need for physical expression of anger) (15
questions), trait of anger (anger
temperament and anger reaction) (10
questions), expression of anger (outburst and
internal anger) (16 questions) and control of
anger (control of outburst and internal
anger) (16 questions).
The final scores are in range from 0 to 96. A
higher score indicates more anger and no
control over it. Validity and reliability of
this questionnaire have been investigated in
Iran by Navidi and the Cronbach alpha
coefficient has been reported at various
scales between 0.56 and 0.88 (14).
The questionnaire was also examined by
Spielberger in 1999 and the Cronbach alpha
coefficient was reported at a range of 0.86 to
0.93 (15).
C) Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire:
It contains 16 questions and 3 indicators:
work (8 questions), exercise (4 questions)
and leisure (4 questions). The validity and
reliability of this questionnaire was assessed
as acceptable (5).
In the present study, physical education
specialists assessed its validity. The content
validity ratios of all questions were above
0.64 and content validity index of them
exceeded 0.88 that is acceptable.
In order to assess the reliability of the
questionnaire, the internal consistency
(alpha Cronbach) method was used.
At this stage, 30 female students of Qom
University who were not included in the
sample responded to questionnaires with a
4-week interval.
The Cronbach alpha is reported equal to
0.748. Validity and reliability of this
questionnaire have been investigated in
similar demographic groups in Iran (16) and
in foreign countries (17).
In this research, descriptive statistics method
was used to calculate frequency and
percentages.
The distribution of data was first examined
by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and
Pearson correlation test was used to
determine the relationship between the
variables. Then, by using hierarchical
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
regression analysis, predictive variables
were obtained.
SPSS software version 21 was used to
analyze the data.
Results
Based on the demographic variables of this
study, 33.9% of participants aged 18-20
years, 57.1% aged 20-24 years, 1.6% aged
24-28 years, 2.5% aged 28-32 years, and
0.4% aged 32-38 years.
In term of educational degree, 9.3% had
associate degree, 82.5% had bachelor degree
while 9.9% and 0.4% had master and Ph.D.
degree respectively.
Also, 53.9% of the participants had a history
of physical exercise and only 4.3% of them
had a history of disease.
Based on the results of Pearson correlation
coefficient for anger and physical activity
(r=-0.123, P=0.027), there was a significant
inverse correlation between anger rate and
physical activity.
In Table 1, Pearson correlation coefficient
for each index is presented.
Table 1. Relationship between physical activity and its indices with control, anger and anxiety trait by
means of Pearson correlation coefficient (r)
*P<0.05, **P<0.01
In order to analyze the statistical data, the
statistical preconceptions such as normalized
distribution of the variables scores and the
correlation coefficients between them were
first examined, the results of which are
reported in Tables 2 and 3.
Table 2. Analytic hierarchical regression analysis for the relationship
between physical activity and anger control
Physical
activity
Work
index
Exercise
index
Leisure index
Anger control
-0.125 *
0.048
-0.130 *
-0.125 *
Anger state
-0.066
0.052
-0.086
-0.011
Anger trait
-0.168 *
-0.012
-0151 *
-0.229 **
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
Components
B
Standard coefficient
t
R square
level of significance
Physical
activity
- 0.432
11.215
- 2.101
0.016
0.037
Fixed
41.245
0.826
0.001
According to the results of Table 2, the
prediction equation is: Anger control=
41.245-0.432 (Physical activity)
Indices of leisure index, exercise index and
work index entered the regression model.
With hierarchical regression, work index
and exercise index were the conditions for
entering the equation (level of significance
less than 0.05) and 4% of the changes in
anger control.
The index of work with positive coefficient
and exercise index with negative
coefficients were included in the model. The
index of leisure time did not have an entry
condition.
Table 3. Hierarchical regression analysis for work, exercise and leisure indicators
with anger control
Components
B coefficient
Standard deviation
t
R square
Level of significance
Work index
3.124
1.384
2.258
0.025
Exercise index
-0.753
0.322
-2.343
0.020
Leisure index
-1.443
1.124
-1.284
0.200
Fixed
36.869
3.677
10.027
0.001
Regression model
11.11619
0.04
0.01
According to Table 3, the prediction
equation is:
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
Anger control=3.124 (work index) 0.753
(exercise index) +36.869
As shown in Table 3, the index of work with
positive coefficient and exercise index with
a negative factor influenced anger control.
For each unit of change in the rate of work
index, an increase of 0.15 occurs in the
control of anger (a positive factor), and per
unit of variation in the rate of exercise
index, a decrease of 0.17 in control of anger
occurs.
The variables of anger state and anger trait
did not have normal distribution. Therefore,
they did not enter the hierarchical regression
analysis.
Discussion
In this case study, which was conducted on
female students of the University of Qom,
there was an inverse correlation between the
students' physical activity and control of
anger and trait of anger. An inverse
relationship was found between the amount
of exercise and leisure indices with anger
control. There was also an inverse
correlation between the rate of exercise and
leisure indices with anger trait. Anger state
was not related to any of the indicators of
work, exercise, and leisure.
According to the results, physical activity
has reduced anger among students. Physical
activity can reduce the incidence of tension,
stress, anxiety, depression, and increased
sense of relaxation, self-esteem and joy (18).
It seems that physical activity to be an anger
suppressor. The results of this study were
concordant with the results of study by
Buchman et al. (19), which showed anger
has a negative correlation with exercise
habits and fitness. Also, in the study
conducted by Washburne et al. in 2007, the
rates of anger were related to the amount of
physical activity (11). In the present study,
there was no correlation between students'
physical activity and anger state. Designing
different studies, not considering the effect
of confounders and using different tools to
measure physical activity and anger in
individuals, can explain the different results
in these studies. The exercise index with
anger control (r= -0.130) and anger trait (r=
-0.151) showed a significant reverse
correlation. The results were concordant
with the results of the clinical trial which
showed significant differences in the scores
of anxiety, aggression, depression, physical
complaints and interpersonal sensitivity
before and after intervention (12).
Also, in the study by Teymoori et al. (13),
two months of daily exercise were
associated with a reduction in anger rates
and improved social relationships. The
previous studies have shown that increased
physical activity and exercise in leisure time
are associated with a reduction in aggression
and anger (7,13).
This study has strong points such as novelty,
randomized sampling from all educational
levels. Also, physical activity and anger are
examined by standard questionnaires. There
are also limitations in the implementation of
the study. The study is conducted only on
female students, and this can lead to bias in
the results. A cross-sectional study has been
done and interventional and prospective
studies are suggested.
Conclusion
Based in the results, there is an inverse
correlation between physical activity, work
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
index and exercise index with anger control
and anger trait.
Acknowledgment
The authors thank the professors, officials
and staff of Qom University. This research
is approved by the Ethics Committee of the
University of Qom and the authors declare
any conflict of interest.
References
1. Salamat Online. [cited 2016]. Available from: http:// www.salamtonline.ir (Persian)
2. Ghaemi A. [Family and difficulties of children’s behavior]. Tehran: Parents and Instructors
Association; 1999. (Persian)
3. Mohseni RA. Analysis of behavioral aggression and exercise of violence with emphasis on social
psychosocial approach]. Journal of sociology 2009; 3: 51-72. (Persian)
4. Shapshire M, Riley PE. [Anger management: a guide to cognitive-behavioral therapy]. Karimi M,
Sobhi N. (translators). Tehran: Cultural Attitude; 2014. (Persian)
5. Baecke JA, Burema J, Frijters JE. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical
activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 936-42.
6. Gilson ND. Health- enhancing physical activity and health-related risk in a sample of north
Mexican, office-based employees. Promot Educ 2007; 14: 12-6.
7. Forouzanfard F. [Mental relaxation by exercise]. [cited 2013]. Available from
http://www.iaufala.ac.ir (Persian)
8. Biaby. [Pathology of family and cyberspace: threats and challenges]. [cited 2018]. Available from
http://www.pajohe.ir (Persian)
9. Shojaei S, Dehdari T, Noori Jalani K, Duran B. [Investigating the predictive factors of
aggression in adolescents’ users of computer games in Qom]. Journal of Qom University of Medical
Sciences 2012; 7: 71-9. (Persian)
10. Shirazi P. [Mental health in the threat of the virtual world]. Tehran: Jam-e-Jam Newspaper; 2014:
3965. (Persian)
11. Washburn R, Pritchard MY, Book P, Clark C. Correlation between exercise and anger in students
of Christian College. Percept Motor Skills 2007; 104: 1310-12.
12. Nazer M, Hassani S, Sardouei G, Sayadi Ansari AR. [The effectiveness of designed exercise on
mental health of teen girls]. Journal of community health 2012; 6: 1-8. (Persian)
13. Teymoori S, Ghahreman MA, Ghahreman M. [The effect of exercise on reducing aggression in
adolescents]. Proceeding of Conference of the Role of Exercise in Children’s Health. Mashhad: Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences, 2012. (Persian)
14. Naveedy A. [The efficacy of anger management training on adjustment skills of high school male
students in Tehran]. Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology 2009; 14: 394-403. (Persian)
15. Spielberger CD. State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2TM: Professional manual. 2nd ed.
Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
16. Sadeghi Sani M. [Validity and reliability of the Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire in
the Persian healthy people]. Proceeding of the 26th Congress of Physiotherapy; Tehran, Iran. 2015.
(Persian)
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
17. Baecke JA, Burema J, Frijters JE. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical
activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 936-42.
18. Mohammady S. [Effect of exercise on neuropsychiatric health]. [cited 2016]. Available from:
http://www.ifsm.ir (Persian)
19. Buchman BP, Sallis JF, Criqui MH, Dimsdale JE, Kapla RM. Physical activity, physical fitness
and psychological characteristics of medical students. J Psychosom Res 1991; 35: 197-208.
ANGER CONTROL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MALMIR AND NEDAEE
Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2019 Jul-Aug
http://jfmh.mums.ac.ir 284-91
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Levels of hypertension, obesity and raised total cholesterol are increasing in Mexico. Mexicans employed within sedentary occupations may be particularly at risk of developing one, or a clustering of these health-related risk factors, due to lack of participation in health enhancing physical activity (HEPA). The purpose of this study is to examine: a) prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity and raised total cholesterol, and b) the link between these variables and HEPA, in a sample of North Mexican, office-based employees. Methods include an assessment of systolic/diastolic blood pressure,% body fat, total cholesterol and HEPA (7-day self-report) in 47 men (33±10 years) and 43 women (28±7 years) from Monterrey, a large industrial city in the Northeast of Mexico. Values were compared against recognised health-related thresholds to determine prevalence rates of individual health-related risk factors, along with clustering of two or more risk factors. Relationships between variables were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation. The results show Men had a high prevalence of obesity (32%) and raised total cholesterol (44%), while women's rates were lower (7% and 10% respectively). More men (59%) than women (17%) demonstrated a clustering of two or more risk factors. HEPA participation was low in both men (9%) and women (16%). A significant relationship was found between men's HEPA and % body fat (r=-0.31; p<0.05). Conclusions: The high levels of inactivity found in both men and women were cause for concern, suggesting the need for innovative intervention approaches, which aim to integrate physical activity into busy working lives.
Article
Exercise habits, cardiovascular fitness, and selected psychological characteristics were assessed in a sample of over 200 men and women at entrance to medical school. Fitness was measured with a step test, and other variables were measured with standardized questionnaires. Anger ('anger-in') showed the strongest negative correlation with both exercise and fitness. Anger suppression, Type A behavior, and daily stress showed significant negative correlations with both exercise and fitness variables, although the strengths of these associations were uniformly weak. Associations of exercise/fitness with depression and total anger inventory were nonsignificant. Few gender differences were found. Both exercise and fitness showed similar patterns of association with psychological variables. Both exercise and fitness were associated with a style of anger expression that has been found to be related to cardiovascular risk in other studies.
Family and difficulties of children's behavior
  • A Ghaemi
Ghaemi A. [Family and difficulties of children's behavior]. Tehran: Parents and Instructors Association; 1999. (Persian)
Analysis of behavioral aggression and exercise of violence with emphasis on social psychosocial approach
  • R A Mohseni
Mohseni RA. Analysis of behavioral aggression and exercise of violence with emphasis on social psychosocial approach]. Journal of sociology 2009; 3: 51-72. (Persian)
Tehran: Cultural Attitude
  • M Karimi
  • N Sobhi
Karimi M, Sobhi N. (translators). Tehran: Cultural Attitude; 2014. (Persian)
Investigating the predictive factors of aggression in adolescents' users of computer games in Qom
  • S Shojaei
  • T Dehdari
  • Noori Jalani
  • K Duran
Shojaei S, Dehdari T, Noori Jalani K, Duran B. [Investigating the predictive factors of aggression in adolescents' users of computer games in Qom]. Journal of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2012; 7: 71-9. (Persian)
Tehran: Jam-e-Jam Newspaper
  • P Shirazi
Shirazi P. [Mental health in the threat of the virtual world]. Tehran: Jam-e-Jam Newspaper; 2014: 3965. (Persian)
The effectiveness of designed exercise on mental health of teen girls
  • M Nazer
  • S Hassani
  • G Sardouei
  • Sayadi Ansari
Nazer M, Hassani S, Sardouei G, Sayadi Ansari AR. [The effectiveness of designed exercise on mental health of teen girls]. Journal of community health 2012; 6: 1-8. (Persian)
Proceeding of Conference of the Role of Exercise in Children's Health
  • S Teymoori
  • M A Ghahreman
  • M Ghahreman
Teymoori S, Ghahreman MA, Ghahreman M. [The effect of exercise on reducing aggression in adolescents]. Proceeding of Conference of the Role of Exercise in Children's Health. Mashhad: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2012. (Persian)