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Lessons from U.S. immersion programs: Two decades of experience

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... Effective dual language education programs require additional teaching and staff characteristics (Cloud et al., 2000;Day & Shapson, 1996;Met & Lorenz, 1997;Montecel & Cortez, 2002). These characteristics are important to consider in recruitment and professional development. ...
... Montecel and Cortez reported that successful bilingual programs selected staff based on their academic background and experience. Teachers in language education programs need appropriate teaching certificates or credentials, good content knowledge and classroom management skills, and training with respect to the language education model and appropriate instructional strategies (Cloud et al., 2000;Lindholm-Leary & Molina, 2000;Met & Lorenz, 1997). Montecel and Cortez found that fully credentialed bilingual and ESL teachers continually acquired knowledge regarding best practices in bilingual education and ESL and best practices in curriculum and instruction. ...
... The research literature is replete with studies demonstrating the importance of training to promote more successful administrators, teachers, and staff (Levine & Lezotte, 1995;Met & Lorenz, 1997;National Staff Development Council, 2001;U.S. Department of Education, 1998. ...
Technical Report
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An updated third edition was published in 2018. An pdf version is available for free download from the Center for Applied Linguistics: https://www.cal.org/resource-center/publications-products/guiding-principles-3
... In contrast, students with limited time in the TL (such as 50/50 programs) will have difficulties in higher grades because the cognitive level of work is more advanced than students' TL proficiency (Met & Lorenz, 1997). Thus L1 proficiency does not suffer when TL time is maximized, but TL and academic achievement are severely affected by not having enough time in the TL. ...
... Professional development and training are meant to ensure teacher training in immersion pedagogy. Ideally, teachers should have native or near-native proficiency, but those teachers are rare, and proficiency is often inadequately assessed (Met & Lorenz, 1997). The rubric requires that teachers be native speakers of the TL or have a high level of language proficiency. ...
... Accordingly, each year immersion teachers must have 12 hours in immersion-specific training. The rubric also requires administrators and ELA partner teachers' have six hours of language immersion professional development in order to enhance cross-fertilization and staff unity in the immersion setting (Met & Lorenz, 1997). ...
Article
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At the time of the demise of bilingual education in California via Proposition 227, Chueng and Drabkin (1999) discussed the unchecked prevalence of poorly run bilingual programs and the apathetic administrators who provided inadequate oversight in terms of ensuring program quality. Proponents of dual language immersion programs hope to avoid this apathy and poor implementation. Program effectiveness depends on the quality of its implementation (Li, Steele, Slater, Bacon, & Miller, 2016). While immersion practitioners and researchers are acutely aware of the list of non-negotiables that are the cornerstone of a successful immersion pathway (Fortune, 2009, de Jong, 2016), they often encounter difficulties in engendering respect of these principles among site administrators. These administrators are confused by some of the counterintuitive aspects of the immersion model. In Louisiana, Louisiana Act 196 (Session 2014) was the solution found for this issue. Louisiana Act 196 requires that the state design a template reflecting these non-negotiables, create a review rubric, attach a state certification to it, and make it mandatory for schools to obtain their certification by 2016- 17. This literature review examines the rationale for each element of the immersion state site certification rubric.
... Consequently, it is crucial to establish an additive environment towards the target language, and the programme itself, throughout the whole school (Johnson & Swain, 1997). In this regard, Met and Lorenz (1997) make the point that effective bilingual programmes also place high emphasis on integrating all the students within the total school programme. This is demonstrated in the New Zealand context by the success of such schools as Richmond Road Primary School (see May, 1994,1995) and Finlayson Park Primary School (McCaffery & Tuafuti, 1998Tuafuti & McCaffery, this issue). ...
... 14. For further discussion, see Cloud et al ., 2000;Day & Shapson, 1996;Met & Lorenz, 1997;Skutnabb-Kangas & García, 1995. Issues and Challenges in Māori-medium ...
Article
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This paper summarises the key issues and challenges that have emerged from a recent major report by the authors on Māori-medium education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The discussion is situated within a wider international analysis of bilingual/immersion programmes, including heritage language programmes for indigenous peoples. Key issues explored in the paper include the negotiation of, and occasional tension between, the wider goals of indigenous Māori language revitalisation and the successful achievement of bilingualism and biliteracy in Māori-medium educational contexts. Issues to do with current pedagogy, staffing and resourcing of Māori-medium programmes are also examined. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ongoing development and extension of Māorimedium education.
... Additionally, bilingual preschools provide further factors which have been identified as beneficial for the child learner (e.g. Burmeister 2006, Met & Lorenz 1997, Piske et al. 2001, Wesche 2002: The young age of the learner, a long exposure to the L2, a high intensity of the language programme, the active use of the L2 and also the specific pedagogic strategies used in bilingual programmes have been found to advance the children's language attainment: data from the ELIAS project have shown for the first time that the teaching principles used by L2 teachers have a significant effect on the children's language learning, that is, children show the best results when teachers provide a high quantity and quality of language input, when they ensure comprehension by visualising and contextualising everything they say and when they explicitly encourage the children's language production (Weitz et al., volume I, see also section 6 below). ...
... Council of Europe 2006). Bilingual approaches differ widely across Europe and world wide (Met & Lorenz 1997, Swain & Johnson 1997, Walker & Tedick 2000, and while results on content and language learning have been highly positive in the evaluation of immersion programmes, it is at this point still difficult to make substantial statements about the effectiveness of other approaches with less intensive L2 input. The term "immersion," however, seems to be increasingly used as an umbrella term for a wide variety of different bilingual programmes, many of which do not rigorously apply the criteria mentioned above. ...
... Thus, tracking individual students' oral proficiency also allows educators to identify those who may need additional support with oral language to promote development of strong reading comprehension skills. Finally, because systematic evaluation of English-proficient learner language-particularly in U.S. world language immersion education 2 -has largely been neglected or confined to an individual program's evaluation process using local teacher-or programdeveloped tools (Aoki, 2009;Bacon, 2007;Met & Lorenz, 1997), no U.S. L2 proficiency benchmarks exist to inform progress monitoring. Some program leaders (i.e., administrators, state-level world language specialists) have sought to fill this void by identifying and making available targets; however, investigating research-based outcomes to better inform these targets is a critical next step. ...
... These results show higher overall oral proficiency levels for K-2 students in early total immersion than have previously been reported using similar CAL assessment tools in partial immersion (Aoki, 2009;Bacon, 2007;Boyson et al., 2005). Given the increased cognitive and academic demands of the upper elementary curriculum (Met & Lorenz, 1997;Walker & Tedick, 2000) and the relationship between higher levels of oral proficiency and strong literacy skills (Erdos et al., 2010;Geva, 2006), these findings may suggest some important advantages of the early total program design. The significant difference found in scores between the Grade 2 and 5 students (end of year 6) in oral fluency, grammar, and vocabulary was reduced to one sublevel even though 5th graders' instructional day was still 70% in Spanish. ...
Article
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This cross-sectional study used assessments developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics to examine the oral proficiency of 218 K-8 English-proficient students in 4 Spanish immersion programs. Following a comprehensive review of assessment results for English-proficient immersion learners, the article reports findings from statistical analyses. Ratings of student proficiency were significantly higher between Kindergarten and Grade 2 and between Grades 2 and 5; however, no significant differences were found between Grades 5 and 8, lending empirical support to the plateau effect identified in earlier immersion studies. Furthermore, positive moderate to strong correlations were found between teacher ratings and ratings assigned by trained assessment administrators. The article discusses implications for assessment tools and practices, immersion program design, and pedagogy.
... Presumably due to their limited English proficiency and incomprehensible input, students worried that they had not learned as much as they should have in EMCCs (Huang, 2009). Scholars have also argued that the limitations of L2 proficiency might hinder students' acquisition of abstract content (Duff, 1997;Evans & Morrison, 2011;Met, 1998;Met & Lorenz, 1997), and so the selection of proficiency-appropriate content and students whose English proficiency is above the threshold becomes important in making curriculum decisions. In order to facilitate students' academic literacy, teachers need to teach not only general or subject-specific vocabulary (Bernier, 1997) or rhetorical or discursive features in the target disciplines (Kol, 2002;Short, 1997;Srole, 1997), but also academic conventions and tasks so that students can convey content appropriately in academia (Huang, 2011;Kırkgöz, 2009;Lea & Street, 2006). ...
... Recognition of the mistaken assumptions pinpointed the importance of understanding the principles underlying curriculum designs for teaching content in English. First, there should be a minimum proficiency level to guarantee effective EM content courses (e.g., Erling & Hilgendorf, 2006a, 2000b since the limitations of L2 proficiency might hinder students' acquisition of content (e.g., Duff, 1997;Evans & Morrison, 2011;Met, 1998;Met & Lorenz, 1997), thus making it imperative for CTs to obtain more than disciplinary or pedagogical knowledge but more importantly pedagogical content knowledge and language awareness to become effective teachers (e.g., Huang, 2011;Pawan, 2008). In particular, CTs need to provide adequate linguistic, conceptual, social, cultural, and academic assistance (Huang, 2011;Pawan, 2008; also see Snow & Brinton, 1997). ...
Article
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Although content-area courses adopting English-medium (EM) instruction have become more widespread in university-level settings in response to the internationalization of higher education (de Wit, 2002), many operate on the unspoken and inaccurate assumptions that all the students and teachers are capable of learning or teaching content in English (Erling & Hilgendorf, 2006a, 2006b). This paper aims to provide an in-depth understanding of how students, teachers, and administrators perceive the design, implementation, and effectiveness of EM curriculum through a qualitative case study on a university campus in Taiwan. Interviews with three administrators, four teachers, and twenty-four students were conducted. Data were reconstructed and analyzed based on Carspecken’s (1996) reconstructive analysis. The findings showed great satisfaction with the socio-cultural aspects of content learning and enhanced English abilities but unanimous concerns over the discipline-specific knowledge and English abilities, rendering unsatisfactory feelings toward the proportional design of the immersion program with the implementation of the English-only policy. The paper, thus, calls for additional attention to EM curriculum design and implementation involving the joint efforts of language and content teachers. Pedagogical implications and directions for future research are also provided.
... These programs are mainly early total immersion or early partial immersion, in which only half of the school day is spent in the immersion language. According to Met and Lorenz (1997), teachers involved in partial-immersion programs reported that their students could handle concrete objectives in the immersion language in the primary grades, but students were frustrated in the learning of abstract concepts in higher grades, probably because their cognitive development was at a level higher than their language proficiency. To facilitate learning in higher grades, some teachers used English when dealing with abstract concepts or allowed their students to communicate in English. ...
... While most EMI students can master concrete concepts, their ability to construct, apply, and present the more abstract and complex scientific ideas in English is frustrated by their limited language proficiency (Willig, 1985). These problems of learning science in a second language have been reported in a number of late-immersion programs (e.g., Marsh et al., 2000;Met & Lorenz, 1997;Swain & Johnson, 1997). ...
Article
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This paper is the first of a series of articles reporting the findings of a longitudinal study on the impact of a new language policy about the medium of instruction on science learning of secondary students in Hong Kong. This paper compares the science achievement of Chinese students learning science through a second language, English, with that of students receiving instruction in their mother tongue, Chinese. Based on the scores on a science achievement test made up of multiple-choice and free-response questions, the English-medium students, despite their higher initial ability, were found to perform much more poorly than their Chinese-medium peers. They were particularly weak in problems that assess understanding of abstract concepts, the ability to discriminate between scientific terms, and the ability to apply scientific knowledge in novel or realistic situations. This result implies that the English-medium students were handicapped in science learning by their low levels of English proficiency, and learning English as a subject through the primary years is not sufficient to prepare them for a full English immersion program in secondary school.
... • High expectations and a high level of commitment. In particular, programme leaders need to be wholeheartedly committed to bilingual education, and ensure that their schools adopt 'rigorous' and 'challenging standards in all curriculum domains' (Cloud et al., 2000; see also Met and Lorenz, 1997). • Support of central authorities and frequent communications with schools (Howard, 2007;Mehisto, 2012). ...
...  High expectations and a high level of commitment. In particular, programme leaders need to be wholeheartedly committed to bilingual education, and ensure that their schools adopt 'rigorous' and 'challenging standards in all curriculum domains' (Cloud et al., 2000; see also Met and Lorenz, 1997). ...
Technical Report
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This report was produced in response to the Invitation to Tender: External Evaluation of a Proposal for Reorganisation of Secondary Studies in the European Schools for Secondary Years 4, 5, 6 and 7, ref: BSGEE/201401. Here is an executive summary: 1. The main aim of this evaluation was to establish and demonstrate the impact of the proposed new structure for secondary studies (i.e. Levels S4-S7) compared to the status quo. In order to do this, we drew on all the studies and documents undertaken and formulated during the work of the Working Group, as well as various stakeholders including Interparents, the Commission, Directors and Deputy Directors, Careers Advisors, teachers, inspectors, and students. We also spoke with these stakeholders, and accepted written evidence and representations. 2. During our analysis, we determined whether and to what extent the proposals: • Met the principles stated in the Convention; • Ensured access to European secondary and tertiary education systems; • Fulfilled the mandate given by the Board of Governors; • Took into account the needs of students faced with the demands of the modern world; • Guaranteed in the last two years, leading to the European Baccalaureate, a general education around the eight key competences for lifelong learning. 3. In the interests of completeness, we also evaluated the proposals in an academic sense in terms of how they: • Were relevant, coherent, comprehensive, and allowed breadth of study for all pupils in the system; • Conformed to the accepted and logical principles of curriculum design. 4. In our evaluation, we also made reference to S1-S3, on the grounds that forms of progression and curriculum coherence require consideration of lower secondary as well as upper secondary studies. 5. We concluded that the proposed structure offered some advantages over the current one; however, we considered neither to be fully satisfactory and therefore we have proposed an alternative model that we consider meets the requirements more closely. 6. The current and proposed arrangements suffer from the same problems (but to different degrees): • In both models, a number of pedagogical practices are in use for which there is no supporting research evidence, or indeed where such practices are contra-indicated, such as: students repeating years, using hours of instruction as a proxy for difficulty, excessive numbers of oral examinations that do not take into account students’ dominant language sufficiently well, and ability grouping systems that lack transparency. • Offering subjects at different levels may affect and distort progression, comprehensiveness and breadth. This may in turn have a negative impact on student mobility to and from the European Schools, as well as restricting access to national secondary and higher education systems in Member States, as this is not universal throughout Europe. The proposed model goes some way towards recognising this, but not far enough. • In both models, the subjects available to students, and their related content, do not map closely enough to contemporary degree subjects on offer within Higher Education contexts throughout Europe, particularly in the case of subjects such as Science, Mathematics and Engineering. • In both models, allowing choices on the scale that currently exists indicates a degree of early specialisation, which students may later regret. It may also lead to problems with subject progression from S1-S7. • In both models, some student groups may experience indirect disadvantage; in smaller schools, for example, students without a language section, students with special educational needs, students from countries with more than one national language, and students in small language sections. This is because they risk experiencing fewer choices than other students, and their dominant language is not taken into account sufficiently well during the assessment process. • In both models the eight competences for lifelong learning are marginalised. The proposed model is more in tune with them than the current model, but it is not explicit enough. 7. It is clear in the light of our analysis that more extensive reform of the upper secondary programme of study within the European Schools is needed than is represented by the proposed model, but we recognise this is by no means a simple undertaking. We therefore recommend an alternative proposal, in which: • The problems associated with clashing options and with option choices between incompatible subjects would be reduced or eliminated. • Subject progression from S1-S7 is more easily facilitated. • Class sizes can conform to an educational rationale (optimum size for learning) rather than a bureaucratic one (fitting a large number of option choices into a workable scheme). • The curriculum of the individual student is now more likely to conform to the curricula offered by European Universities or by European Institutes of Higher Education. • Language (of instruction) needs in the schools can be more easily accommodated, and discriminatory practices reduced or eliminated. 8. For change to be successful, it should be holistic rather than piecemeal, and it needs to be supported by improvements to teacher capacity and in-service training. 9. Long standing problems to do with failure rates, equality, inclusion, student mobility, access to national systems, student choice, EU expansion and relevance to study at higher education level can all be addressed if the current and proposed solutions are rejected and instead the alternative set of recommendations accommodated and acted upon.
... Internationally, the feasibility of EMI has been questioned by a number of researchers who postulate that limitations in English-language skills may inhibit student ability to explore abstract disciplinary concepts (Duff 1997;Met and Lorenz 1997). ...
Article
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Recently, in the wake of the Bologna Declaration and similar international initiatives, there has been a rapid increase in the number of university courses and programmes taught through the medium of English. Surveys have consistently shown the Nordic countries to be at the forefront of this trend towards English-medium instruction (EMI). In this paper, we discuss the introduction of EMI in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). We present the educational setting and the EMI debate in each of these countries and summarize relevant research findings. We then make some tentative suggestions for the introduction of EMI in higher education in other countries. In particular, we are interested in university language policies and their relevance for the day-to-day work of faculty. We problematize one-size-fits-all university language policies, suggesting that in order for policies to be seen as relevant they need to be flexible enough to take into account disciplinary differences. In this respect, we make some specific suggestions about the content of university language policies and EMI course syllabuses. Here we recommend that university language policies should encourage the discussion of disciplinary literacy goals and require course syllabuses to detail disciplinary-specific language-learning outcomes.
... In order to teach and learn cognitively complex and demanding disciplinary content, a high level of proficiency is indispensable. Research evidence suggests that limitations in language ability may hinder students from expressing and exploring complex concepts (Met & Lorenz, 1997;Airey, 2009), and this conclusion is equally applicable to staff, who has also been found to face difficulties with non-subject related interactions and classroom management language (Dafouz & Núñez, 2009;Strotmann et al., 2014). In this respect, although TOEFL 550 seems to be a common benchmark in some institutions (Marsh et al., 2013, p. 18), the target for staff to reach a CEF C1 seems entirely reasonable. ...
Article
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This paper presents both the challenges faced by the introduction of subjects taught through the medium of English in one group of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education at the University of Málaga and the design of an innovation project aimed at responding at such challenges. Firstly, the paper acknowledges the growing trend towards English Medium Instruction (EMI) in Higher Education and explains the defining characteristics of the institutional context in which the aforementioned degree course was offered. Secondly, the conclusions of the evaluation of the first year of the implementation of this partially English-taught programme revealing difficulties and improvement areas pertaining to teachers, learners and resources will be discussed. Thirdly, objectives and concrete actions of the innovation project that a group of teachers is currently implementing will be outlined; the project lies emphasis on collaborative work, language support, collective training in aspects related to, and systematic monitoring and evaluation of the experience. The paper concludes with a reflection on the need to assure the quality of programmes that are completely or partially taught through the medium of English and on interdisciplinary innovation projects as potential interventions intended to face challenges posed by them.
... In the most sophisticated of these, Willig (1985) carried out a meta-analysis of US bilingual programmes, concluding that participation in bilingual education programmes consistently produced results that favoured bilingual education. However, Met & Lorenz, (1997) and Duff (1997) challenge these results, claiming that limitations in L2 may inhibit students' ability to explore abstract concepts in non-language subjects. ...
Thesis
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This thesis presents an investigation of undergraduate student learning with respect to physics lectures attended in English and Swedish. The work studies three connected areas: student learning patterns, bilingual scientific literacy and disciplinary discourse. Twenty-two physics students at two Swedish universities attended lectures in both English and Swedish as part of their regular undergraduate programme. These lectures were vide-otaped and used to contextualize in-depth, semi-structured interviews with students. When taught in English the students asked and answered fewer questions and reported be-ing less able to simultaneously follow the lecture and take notes. Students adapted to being taught in English by; asking questions after the lecture, no longer taking notes in class, read-ing sections of work before class or—in the worst case—by using the lecture for mechanical note taking. Analysis of student oral descriptions of the lecture content in both languages identified a small number of students who found it almost impossible to speak about disciplinary concepts in English. These students were first-years who had not been taught in English before. How-ever, the findings suggest that, above a certain threshold level of disciplinary language com-petence, it does not appear to matter which language students are taught in. Finally, the thesis makes a theoretical contribution to educational research. The initial lan-guage perspective is broadened to include a wide range of semiotic resources that are used in the teaching of undergraduate physics. Student learning is then characterized in terms of becoming fluent in a disciplinary discourse. It is posited that in order to achieve an appropri-ate, holistic experience of any given disciplinary concept, students will need to become fluent in a critical constellation of disciplinary semiotic resources.
... The U.S. Department of Education (2015) has declared bilingual education as a high priority field experiencing teacher shortages. Likewise, dual language administrators have been emphasizing the lack of adequately prepared teacher candidates for 25 years (Coffman, 1992;Met & Lorenz, 1997;Sakash & Chou, 2007). ...
Article
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In recent years, the benefits of bilingualism through dual language (DL) education models have been well documented. Despite evidence of bilinguals' heightened cognition and achievement, Midwestern English language learners (ELLs) are relegated to language programs that do nothing to enhance or maintain students' native language. This descriptive study employed a survey to collect data on existing DL programs across the state of Illinois (the largest population of ELLs in the Midwest), to better understand the challenges facing DL educators and administrators in the nation's middle. Data suggests the predominant obstacle encountered by school administrators is a lack of qualified DL educators, including an inadequate knowledge of dual language pedagogy and/or limited academic language biliteracy. Dual language program expansion across the Midwest can only continue if the teacher shortage and development needs are addressed. This study presents recommendations for DL teacher preparation and professional development.
... (b) the Genre-Based Approach to Literacy Instruction (GBALI) (Christie, 1992); (c) Language Immersion Programs --LIP (Met, 1997); and (d) Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach --CALLA (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990). Although some of these models are directed to Second, Bilingual or Foreign Language contexts, (e.g., EAP), they can be significantly useful for First Language education; in fact, some of them (e.g., LIP) are meant for K-12 instructional situations. ...
Conference Paper
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One of the quality-related problems in Morocco’s school system is traceable to weaknesses in teaching literacy and in facilitating learners’ knowledge acquisition. These weaknesses include not only the questionable pedagogy for each of these two educational domains, but also the “false dichotomy” between the two of them and the inattention to their interdependent relationship. The result is reflected in the dual underperformance of our school children in various evaluations of literacy skills and content subjects. This underperformance is most notable in national and international assessments such as PNEA, PIRLS, and TIMSS, covering content subjects like science as well as literacy and numeracy. The present paper seeks to shed light on these troubling weaknesses and explore pedagogical approaches to enhance literacy and the acquisition of academic knowledge in Morocco’s basic education. For this purpose, the paper will (a) describe the complex nature of literacy, with a focus on its place in the school context and its changing scope and functions, (b) identify the requirements for effective knowledge acquisition, (c) demonstrate the interactive relationship between literacy (reading, writing and thinking skills) and content knowledge, (d) propose -- on the basis of insufficiencies in our pedagogical system, current research and international “best practices” -- some educational approaches for the leveraging of the interaction between literacy and content knowledge in our schools. These approaches include (a) the use of content-rich reading and writing, (b) literacy instruction across the curriculum, (c) the promotion of content-based language teaching, (d) the improvement of teaching vocabulary as the interface between literacy and knowledge (content literacy), and (e) aligning instruction and school-based assessment with the standards of international evaluations. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how these approaches contribute to educational quality, especially their role in enhancing skill development and the depth of school learning. Key words: Morocco - Literacy- Knowledge Acquisition - Educational Quality – Integrative Approaches
... Programmes need appropriate teaching certificates or credentials, including bilingual and/or EFL credentials, appropriate content knowledge, classroom management skills, suitable instructional strategies and training in bilingual education (Cloud et al., 2000;Lindholm-Leary, 2005;Met & Lorenz, 1997). Lack of background in bilingualism and in bilingual education, a very common feature of bilingual education worldwide, can lead to the poor development of programme structure, curriculum and instructional strategy choices (Lindholm-Leary, 2005). ...
Chapter
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Any review of the current literature on bilingual education shows clearly that there is a wide variety of bilingual education programmes around the world (Baker, 2001; Brisk, 1998; Cummins, 2000b; Moran & Hakuta, 1995; Roberts, 1995). The studies in question typically explain who the programme is aimed at, how it was developed, what its scope is, what the languages in question are, the results of the programme, etc. In this chapter, we have decided to focus on the people in charge of implementing these programmes, i.e. the teachers. We propose a preliminary exploration of the profile of teachers working on different types of bilingual programmes in Argentina, in the conviction that the teachers are a key component in the design of any educational programme. However, even if this statement may seem a truism to most, it is not unusual, in our experience at least, for bilingual programmes to be designed and set up without clearly defining a priori what the profile of the teachers should be, or even whether the individuals with such a profile exist. A second aim is to explore the possible overlaps in the needs of (inservice) training of teachers which may lend themselves to becoming opportunities for collaboration and synergy across different bilingual programmes. We believe that a prerequisite for this sort of cooperation to be feasible is greater clarity about what profile teachers are expected to have and how they are supposed to attain this profile. We will firstly describe the bilingual programmes currently in place in Argentina, as a backdrop to presenting the profiles of teachers who work within them. We then move on to discuss the profiles of teachers currently teaching in this kind of programme in relation to what has been said in the literature as regards the competencies required of teachers in bilingual programmes.
... This recently prompted one vice-chancellor to predict that all their programmes would be delivered in English within 10-15 years (Flodström, 2006). Met and Lorenz (1997) and Duff (1997) have suggested that when taught in English, limitations in this second language may inhibit students' ability to explore abstract concepts in their area of study. This suggestion appears to be supported to some extent in the literature (Vinke, 1995;Klaassen, 2001;Gerber et al. 2005;Neville-Barton and Barton, 2005). ...
Article
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In Sweden, science undergraduates meet two languages in their education: English and Swedish. The most common division between these languages is to have lectures in Swedish with course texts in English. However, the presence of a single exchange student on an undergraduate course can change the lecture language to English. Unfortunately, there is very little research available into the disciplinary effects of changing the teaching language in this way, although a number of researchers have suggested that limited second-language competence may affect students' ability to explore abstract concepts in their chosen discipline.
... In addition, the learners' limited language proficiency needs to be systematically taken into account in this model. Examples of this model include those 'immersion' language programmes in which subject knowledge is taught in a foreign language (Swain & Lapkin, 1982;Genesee, 1987Genesee, , 1994Met & Lorenz, 1997;Johnson & Swain, 1997) and those non-language disciplinary programmes taught through a second or foreign language at postsecondary levels (Edwards et al, 1984, Ready & Wesche, 1992Krueger & Ryan 1993;Stryker & Leaver, 1997). Sheltered courses often play prominent roles in K-12 settings (Murphy & Stoller, 2001) in which school subjects are only taught in foreign languages instead of the native language. ...
... Para enseñar en programas de educación bilingüe se considera indispensable que los docentes posean conocimientos en la lengua adicional en la que enseñan y den cuenta de sus saberes acerca de la disciplina y su didáctica, así como de estrategias adecuadas para la enseñanza y formación en educación bilingüe (Met& Lorenz, 1997;Cloud et al, 2000;Lindholm-Leary, 2005). La falta de formación docente específica en bilingüismo y educación bilingüe, un rasgo muy común en todo el mundo, puede (2007): ...
Article
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Actualmente, existe una gran variedad de programas de educación bilingüe a nivel mundial y Argentina no es una excepción. Allí, la etique “educación bilingüe” suele aplicarse a una amplia gama de programas que abarcan diversas poblaciones y necesidades específicas. El educador se presenta como elemento clave, así como la importancia de su formación docente que, en algunos casos, ha sufrido modificaciones en los últimos años. Estos cambios se han dado de forma paulatina y como consecuencia de políticas educativas que, además, asisten en la búsqueda de docentes con perfiles específicos. Este artículo presenta un estado de la cuestión actualizado en lo referido a los programas considerados “bilingües” en Argentina. Se detallaron los objetivos y alcances de cada uno de los programas. En segundo lugar, se describieron las características de los docentes que se desempeñan en estos contextos y el tipo de formación que reciben en la actualidad. Por último, se analizaron las posibles áreas de convergencia de los programas bilingües en Argentina, a saber, la relación de poder relativa de las lenguas involucradas y las áreas de base de conocimiento que resultan indispensables para enseñar en los diversos programas de educación bilingüe de Argentina.
... Immersion teacher qualification and certification requirements vary from country to country, and within a country. Specialised pre-service training for immersion is not a requirement for teacher certification in the United States (Met & Lorenz, 1997) but in Canada, immersion teacher candidates have to complete teacher education programs specialising in French, before obtaining teacher certification through the College of Teachers. Regardless, standards for FSL certification, including procedures, course credits, and competency requirements, vary from one province to another (Moeller, 1989). ...
Article
Despite the fast growth of English immersion in China, only limited research has been conducted regarding immersion teachers' educational background, instructional contexts, professional development, and their perceptions about English immersion. This study explored the above key issues from three primary immersion schools. Results indicated that the majority of immersion teachers in the study were women under the age of 30 with five or fewer years of teaching experience, and were typically teaching 50 students in each class with an average of 5.8 hours per week. Less than half of the participants had Bachelor's degrees and above. The teachers reported using communicative, interactive, and learner-centred approaches in their teaching, but they generally lacked opportunities to engage in authentic two-way interaction for professional development. In-service and ongoing program development was perceived as a critical area of study if China's immersion programs were to improve. Educational background and teacher characteristics together predicted 31.4% of teachers' professional development. The study provided valuable implications for English immersion education in China.
... Council of Europe 2006). Bilingual approaches differ widely across Europe and world wide (Met & Lorenz 1997, Swain & Johnson 1997, Walker & Tedick 2000, and while results on content and language learning have been highly positive in the evaluation of immersion programmes, it is at this point still difficult to make substantial statements about the effectiveness of other approaches with less intensive L2 input. The term "immersion," however, seems to be increasingly used as an umbrella term for a wide variety of different bilingual programmes, many of which do not rigorously apply the criteria mentioned above. ...
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Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. The second edited volume gives details on best practices in bilingual preschools as well as background and training on topics such as second language acquisition, intercultural communication, green immersion, material development and guidelines for language use and the implementation of bilingual preschools.
... A number of aspects have been pointed out concerning the practical implementation of immersion programmes which need to be borne in mind to avoid unnecessary impediments especially for newly implemented programmes. The following list is based on summaries in K. Kersten (2010) and K. Kersten et al. (2010bKersten et al. ( , 2010c; see also Met and Lorenz (1997), Walker and Tedick (2000) and Hughes and Madrid (2011: 362-363). ...
Chapter
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This chapter gives a concise overview of research results with regard to immersion teaching in preschool and primary school. After disentangling some terminological issues concerning, notably, the usage of the terms immersion and CLIL, the authors go on to discuss different forms of immersion programs, results of L2 attainment, content learning, competence in the L1, cognitive skills, and the attainment of so-called at-risk learners. In the second part of the chapter, practical, methodological and didactic considerations for the implementation of immersion programs are discussed. The authors conclude with making a case for intensive bilingual education.
... In these cases, researchers have articulated their goals slightly differently. For instance, Met and Lorenz (1997) stated that one of the four principal goals of immersion programs in the United States has been that "students learn about and understand the culture(s) of the people who speak the immersion language" (p. 259). ...
Article
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This mixed methods study explored the development of cross-cultural understanding in a unique population of students in the U.S.: English-dominant students who had attended French or Spanish elementary immersion schools. Despite the fact that immersion schools have as a goal cross-cultural understanding and appreciation and affirmation of diversity, research has shown that this goal is not always met. This study featured one hundred thirty-one students from five immersion schools who responded to surveys, and 33 of those students who were interviewed. Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interviews, a statistical analysis of the surveys, and an integrated consideration of the findings. It was found in both the quantitative and the qualitative data that the successful development of cross-cultural understanding in these immersion students was not necessarily a function of school activities. These students did not receive the same messages about the target culture(s), nor did they understand the concept of culture in the same way. However, cross-cultural understanding was certainly attainable, particularly with extracurricular exposure to the target language and culture, like living with members of the target culture(s) or undertaking meaningful travel experiences.
... Für den Erfolg von Immersionsunterricht an Grundschulen ist es von großer Bedeutung, dass die Lehrkräfte für ihre Aufgaben gut qualifiziert sind (Met & Lorenz 1997 ...
Book
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Leitfaden für die Einrichtung von Immersions-Angeboten in Grundschulen
... One of the reasons for this is that there is very little research available into the effects on disciplinary learning in higher education when the language used to teach a course is changed in this way. Both Met and Lorenz (1997) and Duff (1997) have suggested that limitations in a second language may inhibit students' ability to explore abstract concepts in non-language subjects. However, even without the added complication of a second language, the language aspect of disciplinary learning is particularly problematic and complex. ...
Article
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A direct consequence of the Bologna declaration on harmonization of European education has been an increase in the number of courses taught in English at Swedish universities. A worrying aspect of this development is the lack of research into the effects on disciplinary learning that may be related to changing the teaching language to English in this way. In the first Nordic study of the relationship between teaching language and disciplinary learning at university level, we highlighted a number of pedagogical issues— including reduced student/teacher interaction and a split-attention effect for student note- taking—when Swedish physics undergraduates were taught in English (Airey & Linder, 2006, 2007). In this article we attempt to map out the types of parameters that our research indicates would determine an appropriate language mix in one section of Swedish higher education—natural science degree courses. We do this from the perspective of the overall goal of science education, which we suggest is the production of scientifically literate graduates. Here we introduce a new term, bilingual scientific literacy to describe the particular set of language-related science skills that we hope to foster within a given degree course. As an illustration of our constructs, we carry out a simple language audit of thirty Swedish undergraduate physics syllabuses, listing the types of input provided for students and the types of production expected from students in both languages. We use this information to map out an 'implied student' for the courses with respect to bilingual scientific literacy. The article finishes by identifying issues for further research in this area.
... According to Met and Lorenz (1997) and Airey (2009), research has shown that limitations of our language ability may make expression and exploration of complex concepts so difficult for us. That is why EPMI is more positively justified than EMI in the Iranian EFL context. ...
Article
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Viabilidad de introducir el inglés como medio parcial de instrucción en las escuelas secundarias iraníes Viabilidade de introduzir o inglês como meio parcial de ensino nas escolas secundárias iranianas The use of Content and Language Integrated Learning has been increasing in many European countries simultaneous to the use of English as a medium of instruction in the non-Anglophone countries due to globalization and internationalization. Since the 1979 revolution, discussion on English as a medium of instruction in the Iranian formal education has been a taboo. This study aims to figure out the possibilities of introducing English as a partial medium of instruction (EPMI) for mathematics and science at senior high schools. The convergent mixed methods design was used to collect perspectives of students, content area teachers, parents, and administrative staff in Bojnord through e-mail interviews and survey questionnaires. The majority of the interviewees in the qualitative phase as well as most of the students, parents, teachers, and administrative staff in the quantitative phase have supported the possible use of EPMI. The findings of this study suggest future considerations to assist language education authorities in taking decisions to overcome students’ language proficiency constraints while developing efficient and effective programs for CLIL. To reference this article (APA) / Para citar este artículo (APA) / Para citar este artigo (APA) Ghorbani, M. R. (2019). Feasibility of adopting English as a partial medium of instruction for mathematics and science subjects in Iranian senior high school. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 12(2), 292-320. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2019.12.2.5 Received: 03/10/2019 Approved: 03/01/2020 Published: 11/05/2020
... Research on multilingual education in different contexts (i.e. August & Hakuta, 1997;Carey, 1997;Cummins, 1995;Martin-Jones, 2000;Met & Lorenz, 1997;Snow, 1990) suggests arguments for and against, and different possible ways of implementation. The clearest conclusion in the midst of ongoing debates is that the outcomes of multilingual education are a function of the sociolinguistic circumstances surrounding the use of one or more languages within a given language community. ...
Article
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In Spanish-monolingual Colombia, social pressures push for access to early 50 = 50 % Spanish–English medium instruction from the age of five. Parents and school administrators consider this the best way to achieve bilingualism. This article takes a first general look at the effects of this type of bilingual education on the Spanish and English oral narrative proficiency of 15-year-old adolescents. Data consist of 72 frog stories told following a picture-book (Mayer, 1969): 18 Spanish and 18 English stories from 15-year-olds with 10 years of bilingual education in a Colombian bilingual school constitute the main sample. The other 36 stories, 18 from 15-year-olds in Colombian monolingual schools and 18 from comparable English-monolingual adolescents from a high school in the Boston area, were used to compare the bilingual stories to monolingual productions. The range and variability of the stories in the bilingual group are discussed, as they are compared to the monolingual stories. General similarities and differences between Spanish and English monolingual and bilingual narratives are analysed. Bilingual stories in both languages show evidence of underdevelopment in relation to monolingual stories, as they are sparse in several linguistic variables that show narrative proficiency (i.e.description of events, evaluative language, logical connections). Qualitative discourse analysis is used to describe exemplary productions.
... Not surprisingly, research evidence suggests that limitations in language ability may hinder students from expressing and exploring complex concepts (Met & Lorenz, 1997;Airey, 2009), and this conclusion is equally applicable to staff, who has also been found to face difficulties with non-subject related interactions and classroom management language (Dafouz & Núñez, 2009;Strotmann et al., 2014). This coincides with our findings in that every bilingual programme discovers new ways to support language in its own unique search for quality. ...
Article
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This paper presents specific reference tools to provide institutional language integrated support with a specific language plan for a bilingual programme at the University of Malaga. This follows experts’ opinions that claim the need of such a plan. While studies show the importance of language support in bilingual instruction, they rarely address specific content professors' needs tending to remain distant from real teaching contexts. The title “The language of learning” highlights the reality of bilingual classrooms to address specific needs of this unique academic scenario. The article examines how language support has a dual focus that includes both students and instructors. The paper concludes with a reflection on interdisciplinary innovation projects that provide professors with the tools to ensure the quality of bilingual programmes.
... In the quest to discover the most effective means to advance one's proficiency level in a foreign language, it becomes evident that studies on methods to support language acquisition are numerous, among which a highly recommended strategy for increasing second language proficiency is immersion, either through dual language programs or visits to a foreign country (Bamford & Mizokawa, 1991;Bialystok, 2001;Genesee, 1987;Met & Lorenz, 1997). However, an immersion setting may not be a realistic option for some language learners. ...
Article
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Studies of the acquisition of the lenited allophones of Spanish voiced stops have traditionally focused on the production (Lord, 2010; Rogers & Alvord, 2014; Zampini, 1994), but not on the perception of these sounds. This pilot study examines relationships between (a) learner proficiency and perception of target sounds;(b) learner perception and production accuracy; and (c) allophone type (bilabial, interdental, or velar) and perception and production accuracy. Seventeen Englishspeaking L2 Spanish learners at the college level with various levels of language study (novice, intermediate, and advanced1) took perception and production tests. Data was analyzed via spectrography and the results were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that:(a) the level of study might have a direct effect on the perception or production of the Spanish lenited sounds only at the intermediate level of study;(b) a moderate relationship between the perception and production of the lenited allophones was observed; and (c) of the three allophones, the interdental [ð] seems to be the easiest to perceive, but the hardest to produce. Given the pilot nature of this study, we cannot draw definitive conclusions, although the results might be interpreted to indicate a need for more focus on pronunciation instruction (both perception and production) of these Spanish allophonic sounds. Pedagogical suggestions are offered.
... Here, claims of language learning gains with no effects on content learning do not seem to hold up. Met and Lorenz (1997) and Duff (1997) have suggested that at higher levels of education limitations in a Vol. 5(2)(2017): [297][298][299][300][301][302] second language (L2) may inhibit students' ability to explore abstract concepts. ...
Article
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Abstract In this chapter I discuss the European-inspired notion of content and language integrated learning (CLIL). What makes CLIL different from English-medium instruction (EMI) on the one hand and EAP on the other? A cursory examination of the acronym itself raises a number of questions. I start my description by first examining the definition of CLIL. Thereafter I map out the relationship between CLIL, EMI and EAP and discuss the rise of English-medium instruction (EMI). Then, after summarizing research into the disciplinary learning outcomes of EMI, I focus on who should teach CLIL and the source of difficult relationships between content and language experts. The chapter finishes by suggesting the concept of disciplinary literacy as a way for content teachers to problematize CLIL and begin to view themselves as teachers of disciplinary discourse.
... Immersion teacher qualification and certification requirements vary within and from country to country. Specialised preservice training for immersion is not a requirement for teacher certification in the USA (Met and Lorenz 1997) but in Canada, immersion teacher candidates must complete teacher education programmes specialising in French before being certified by a provincial College of Teachers. Regardless, standards for FSL certification, including procedures, course credits and competency requirements, vary from one province to another (Moeller 1989). ...
Article
Research has demonstrated that second language immersion is an effective means of facilitating primary school students’ second language acquisition without undermining their competence in their first language. Despite the rapid growth of Chinese–English bilingual programmes in China, limited empirical research has been conducted thus far by which to evaluate the programme effectiveness in relation to students’ academic achievement, their cognitive development and the teaching and learning processes with regard to teacher education. This article presents evidence from several related empirical studies recently conducted in three schools affiliated with the China–Canada–United States English Immersion (CCUEI) project. These studies focus on three broad categories of findings: first, on student academic achievement represented by English (L2), Chinese (L1) and mathematics (both literacy and numeracy); second, on cognitive predictors of English reading and listening achievement of these immersion students; and third, on immersion teachers who teach within the context of Chinese–English bilingual education. These combined results present a complex developmental picture of students’ academic achievement and cognitive development; and an insight into the teachers who teach within the context of an aggressive fast growth of Chinese–English bilingual programmes in China.
... Others focus on the relationship between two-way bilingual programs and parents and community (Graham & Brown, 1996;Peña, 1998). There are also a few research efforts examining the managerial aspects of two-way bilingual programs (Castro Feinberg, 1999;Met & Lorenz, 1997), and TWI teachers' perspectives (Howard & Loeb, 1998;Jackson, 2001). This topical review of trends in the available research indicates an increasing interest in TWI as a potential solution for the challenge of educating large numbers of immigrant children in non-segregated environments. ...
Article
Two-wayimmersion(TWI)programsenjoyincreasingpopularityinmany United States' public schools as a successful model of bilingual education thatpromotestheintegrationoflinguisticminorityandmainstreamchildren. However,thesegregatednatureofpublicschoolinlargeurbanareaspresents a challenge to implementation of TWI that benefits all students. This article focuses on urban school population trends in the United States, and the scarce published research examining the variables of race, linguistic variety, and poverty, and it proposes a research agenda that might strengthen future TWI designs in urban settings.
... The success of immersion teaching at primary school largely depends upon the level of qualification of the teachers (Met & Lorenz 1997). Teachers need to be experienced as primary school teachers; they should have 'instructional competence', as well as the ability to use a broad range of methods. ...
Book
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Contents Part A: BACKGROUND FOR IMMERSION 1. Preface 2. Why Multilingualism? 3. The Concept of Immersion 3.1 Selection of language and quantity of foreign language input 3.2 Prior knowledge from preschool 3.3 What distinguishes bilingual preschools from bilingual primary schools? 3.4 Selection of subjects 3.5 Literacy training 3.6 Didactic-methodological principles of immersion 3.7 Increase in learning 3.7.1 What results can be expected in the target language? 3.7.2 What results are to be expected in German? 3.7.3 Which results can be expected in the other subjects? 3.7.4 Reports for the results in the foreign language Part B: PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF IMMERSION PROGRAMMES 1. Prerequisites 1.1 Legal and school political prerequisites 1.2 Planning time 1.3 Close cooperation between bilingual preschool and bilingual school 1.4 Setting up a private school with an immersion profile 1.5 Integrating an immersion programme into an existing school 2. Additional Efforts for the School 2.1 Additional subject costs 2.2 Selection of teachers 2.3 Additional costs for personnel 2.4 Work load for teachers 2.5 Team building 2.6 Selection of children 2.6.1 Suitability of children 2.6.3 Dyslexia 2.6.4 Children with non-German native language 3. What do Parents Expect and What is Expected of Parents? 4. Research and Exchange 5. Follow-up after Primary School 6. Other Questions 7. Conclusion 8. Lesson Materials and Practical Help 9. References
... Die Forschung hat verschiedene Faktoren identifiziert, die für die Vermittlung und die daraus resultierenden Fähigkeiten von Bedeutung sind (Übersichten z. B. in Burmeister 2006, Kersten im Druck, Kersten et al. 2009a, 2009b, Met/Lorenz 1997, Piske et al. 2001, Wesche 2002 Die frühe, regelmäßige intensive und aktive Verwendung beider Sprachen und das häufige Wechseln zwischen beiden Sprachen in einem positiven, stimulierenden, motivierenden und wohlwollenden Rahmen über einen langen Zeitraum hat sich somit in diesem Beitrag als grundlegend für die Verbesserung der kognitiven Fähigkeiten herauskristallisiert. ...
Chapter
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Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet die Auswirkungen von Zweisprachigkeit auf die kognitiven Fähigkeiten von Kindern, die im zweisprachigen Unterricht oder in der Familie eine weitere Sprache erwerben. Dazu wird zunächst erläutert, was unter verschiedenen kognitiven Fähigkeiten zu verstehen ist. Dann wird darauf eingegangen, wie diese in zweisprachigen Familien und in verschiedenen Formen von bilingualem Unterricht erworben werden. Zum Schluss wird die Bedeutung dieser Ergebnisse auf den Unterricht mit CLIL Modulen übertragen.
... They suggested that this type of program might contribute to this population's proper academic training and development of positive attitudes required to be more successful in high school. In contrast, Met and Lorenz (1997) reported teachers' concerns about fifth and sixth grade students in partial immersion programs, who are faced with academic challenges as the curriculum content becomes more abstract. These students' proficiency in the language of instruction might not be at an appropriate level for them to engage in academic tasks that require higher level cognitive skills in that language (e.g., reading comprehension, discussion, and writing). ...
Chapter
The longitudinal study presented in this chapter focuses on the acquisition of writingskills in a group of preschoolers. Eighteen four-to-five year old preschoolers copied sixletterCatalan words (disyllabic and trisyllabic) on a digitiser. The words were presentedand copied in capital letters. Data were collected at three different times over twoacademic years (February; November; and May). We compiled eight kinematic andperceptual variables in each of the three sessions, including measures of execution time(both on paper and in air), pressure, fluency, number of strokes, gaze lifts to the stimulusand duration of intervals between letters (ILI). These measures were compared over thethree sessions in order to assess the development of handwriting skills.The results show that motor and perceptual parameters developed positively.However, at the last session there was a decrease in the quality of movement execution(longer duration, less fluency, more segmentation of the stroke), which is interpreted interms of the impact that linguistic knowledge has on writing execution. The duration ofthe intervals between letters shows the effect of syllable structure on the programming ofthe stroke at the different sessions of data collection.
Article
This study reviews the emerging studies on the topic of Chinese immersion programs in the U.S. The effectiveness of Chinese immersion programs has been proved to have positive impacts on students’ language proficiency, academic performance, and cognitive development. However, challenges in curriculum and instructions, behavior management, and cross-cultural communication have been limiting the performance of Chinese language immersion programs. To address these challenges, Chinese immersion teachers should be provided with preparations and training on the knowledge of designing multi-subject curriculum in the Chinese language, utilizing instructional strategies in immersion settings, and developing cross-cultural competency.
Article
This article starts with definitions of bilingualism with a focus on the analysis of bilingual competence. Then the aims and types of bilingual education in developing bilingual competence are introduced with focus on analyses of immersion and content-based instruction. Subsequently, the contextual settings of the study are briefly presented. Finally, the study suggests that modifications must be made to integrate some concepts and features of content-based instruction with those of immersion to meet the needs of English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching for non-English majors in China's higher education. The article concludes with the recommendation that a composite EFL teaching approach should be implemented in China's EFL teaching in higher education.
Article
Empirical evidence has been forthcoming that supports the sustained use of native language instruction for Spanish language origin children in the US. This paper argues that prospective bilingual education teachers are not generally afforded the type of Spanish language development opportunities needed to provide sustained native language instruction characterizing the most effective program models. Rather, the academic Spanish language development opportunities they do receive are aimed primarily at serving the needs of early-exit transitional bilingual education programs, the most common and least effective type of bilingual program in the US.
Article
This article starts with a review of definitions of bilingualism. It then discusses the definition of bilingual education with its focus on the analysis of bilingual competence. It is subsequently suggested that a theoretical hard nut to be cracked in today’s bilingual research is to establish the scope of discussion of bilingualism models meeting the specific needs in a specific context instead of simple acceptance of the current EFL teaching models learned from other countries or regions.
Chapter
In this chapter I discuss the European-inspired notion of content and language integrated learning (CLIL). What makes CLIL different from English-medium instruction (EMI) on the one hand and English for academic purposes (EAP) on the other? A cursory examination of the acronym itself raises a number of questions. The Ls in CLIL—language and learning—are straightforward enough, but what about the I and the C? The I in CLIL stands for integrated: this signals CLIL’s dual emphasis on disciplinary learning outcomes along with language learning. Which brings us to the C in CLIL—content. More than anything else, it is this focus on the teaching of disciplinary content that makes CLIL unique. Can EAP professionals teach content? Can disciplinary experts teach language? Or does the CLIL approach necessarily imply collaboration between language and content teachers? These are some of the questions I address in this chapter. Before I start my description of CLIL, I feel I should declare my background. Although I have worked for many years as a teacher and researcher in the EAP sector, I am also a trained physicist. In fact, I have two quite different affiliations—senior lecturer in English at Linnæus University and reader in physics at Uppsala University. As such, I have a built-in bias towards the content teachers that EAP professionals often find themselves cooperating with. My interests in EAP are focused towards disciplinary teaching and learning and the role of language in these processes. It is perhaps unsurprising, then, that in the ensuing description of CLIL I often adopt the stance of a disciplinary insider, focusing on the oftenneglected ‘C’ in CLIL. I start my description by first examining the definition of CLIL. Thereafter I map out the relationship between CLIL, EMI and EAP and discuss the rise of EMI. Then, after summarizing research into the disciplinary learning outcomes of EMI, I focus on who should teach CLIL and the source of difficult relationships between content and language experts. The chapter finishes by suggesting the concept of disciplinary literacy as a way for content teachers to problematize CLIL, and to begin to view themselves as teachers of disciplinary discourse.
Chapter
Before discussing the latest developments in Māori-medium education in Aotearoa/New Zealand, three key areas of clarification are required. The first is that Aotearoa/New Zealand is one of the only national contexts that specifically distinguishes between bilingual and immersion education. Elsewhere, immersion education is regarded simply as one form of bilingual education. However, in Aotearoa/New Zealand, the two forms are consistently juxtaposed. This distinction is instantiated by the recognition, and associated funding, of four levels of immersion: Level 1: 81–100 per cent; Level 2: 51–80 per cent; Level 3: 31–50 per cent; Level 4: 12–30 per cent.
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Purpose This chapter explores the realm of friendships and peer culture within a total immersion setting in Aotearoa New Zealand as reported by children and families. Based on the gifted and talented model, this One Day School of Te Reo Māori Excellence named Ka Puananī o Te Reo Māori, caters for children in years 1–6 from across Dunedin city. Methodology/approach There were two points of data collection, at the start and end of the first year, undertaken via in-depth semi-structured interviews with six children, three teenagers and 11 family members. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, with the raw data sorted into thematic categories, including highlighted quotes and important text. Findings Three themes were identified: engagement, cultural identity and whanaungatanga relationships. The children and families clearly maintained friendships within this immersion school of excellence, but also recognized that many of these relationships permeated beyond the classroom walls, subsequently growing a community of te reo Māori speakers. The findings from this study align with international research on ethnic schools, highlighting a deeper level of friendship and kinship, expressed through a curricula based on inclusive and traditional family values. Originality/value This chapter concentrates on the findings of whanaungatanga relationships; the necessity to establish friendships and develop a strong sense of belonging. The research explored the successes and challenges from the perspective of the participants, of the initial year of this unique bilingual pilot programme. This chapter attempts to addresses the gap in international research on children’s reported experiences within an Indigenous total immersion programme.
Chapter
In this chapter, a qualitative approach was used to enlist Chinese immersion practitioners in the identification and elaboration of issues and challenges in Chinese immersion language teaching. Through extensive individual interviews and reflection writings, six pre--1 Chinese immersion teachers recruited from China in five school settings served as informants. Data analyses revealed that the Chinese immersion teachers encountered significant challenges in six major areas of their immersion teaching: curriculum development, use of the target language, classroom management, subject area teaching, teaching style, and working with American partners and parents. These varied challenges suggest that professional development for Chinese immersion teachers needs to include training in cross-cultural classroom management skills, curriculum development, content-based Chinese language teaching, and host country school culture education.
Chapter
This chapter describes the program on which the research projects described in the book were based. The goal is to contextualize the It began with a brief description of the history of the school, and of the Chinese immersion program. It also details the program’s policies on admission, language use and script use, its curriculum based on the 50-50 immersion program model, its teachers, and its assessment practices particularly in Chinese, its student outcome based on school-wide data, and parental involvement in the Chinese immersion program.
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the properties of printed school materials used in the focal program and compares it with those used in other educational settings. The results yielded from the analysis and comparison suggest that the total number of characters immersion students were taught in their elementary school years was about 60% of what native Chinese children were taught, however, within the immersion corpus, there was a lack of clear rationale conducive to the children’s learning and their ultimate understanding of the Chinese orthography.
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Approximately 1000 students study in the English program at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged. Acquiring Medical Hungarian is essential for them: they are required to take medical history from patients and give them instructions during physical examination at the clinics in Hungarian. Furthermore, this is the language mutually used by nurses and the administrative staff helping them. For several years, it has been a difficulty for clinicians that students in the English program are not able or do not wish to communicate with patients in Hungarian; therefore, bedside teaching has not been effective enough. To improve the situation, the Department for Medical Communication and Translation Studies started to conduct language field trips, during which foreign students interview the patients at the clinic in Hungarian under the guidance of their Hungarian teacher. Since 2019, each student should attend 6 language field trips per year. In addition to the field trips, on the recommendation of the Dean of the Faculty, a new pilot program has been launched: the language immersion program. Within the framework of this initiative, a small group of the third-year English program students attend the Introduction to Internal Medicine seminars with the Hungarian students. In the present paper, the results of the first semester pilot program are described with the challenges and expected benefits and difficulties.
Article
This state-of-the-art paper is centered on bilingual education teachers’ linguistic qualifications with special reference to Spanish competencies needed to meet the needs of emergent bilingual education learners in the U.S. The paper spans over a forty-year period drawing on the experiences and related publications of the principal author beginning in the mid 1980s and up to the present. In doing so, key themes, questions and challenges related to the special issue are highlighted based on the series of publications from 1993 to 2020. Insights into the ways language ideologies and politics of bilingual education teacher preparation entities undermine this need are addressed. Drawing on language education policy planning, the author then offers three paths forward given that not much progress has been made since the inception of bilingual education in the U.S. with regard to the preparation of linguistically qualified bilingual education teachers with specific reference to their Spanish competency.
Article
Launched in the late 1990s in Xi'an, the first and the most influential English immersion programs CCUEI were carried out in some big cities in the mainland of China. Fifteen years of implementation witnessed the success as well as the challenges, which need reflect and draw the implications for pedagogy and teacher education.
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