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PRODUCTION OF CANDLES FROM SOYBEAN OIL

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: This research confirmed that candles produced from oil extract of soybeans are eco-friendly and healthier alternatives to commercial candles made from paraffin wax. The soybeans were sorted, washed, crushed, dehulled and grinded prior to extraction to increase the surface area. Soybean oil is about 30% of the total soybean composition. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil was then solidified with stearic acid to form wax inside a mold. Physical tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported the claims that soy candles are more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT)
ISSN: 2249 8958, Volume-9 Issue-2, December, 2019
5568
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication
Retrieval Number: B2382129219 /2019©BEIESP
DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
Abstract: This research confirmed that candles produced from
oil extract of soybeans are eco-friendly and healthier alternatives
to commercial candles made from paraffin wax. The soybeans
were sorted, washed, crushed, dehulled and grinded prior to
extraction to increase the surface area. Soybean oil is about 30%
of the total soybean composition. Soxhlet extraction method was
used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil was then solidified
with stearic acid to form wax inside a mold. Physical tests were
carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin
wax. The results supported the claims that soy candles are more
economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
Keywords: Soybeans, Soxhlet extraction, Oil extract, solvent,
Yield
I. INTRODUCTION
Candles are widely used for illumination of the environment
such as homes, offices among others. Although, due to
advancement in technology various other advanced
illuminating devices have been introduced as its substitute
[1]. Candle is mostly used for religious events and special
occasion such as decorations during holidays. Traditional
candles are mostly made of wax materials. Although, such
candles emit trace of organic compounds when burned this
include naphthalene, acrolein, formaldehyde and
acetaldehyde [2]. Considerable amount of candles release
lead which is a major source of concern in candle emissions
for public health environments [3].
Different types of pollutants occur indoors under
atmospheric conditions due to sources within or from the
external environments. Most pollutants have negative
consequences that are capable of causing various
complications and nuisance [4-7]. Some pollutants can also
Revised Manuscript Received on December 30, 2019.
* Correspondence Author
Modupe E. Ojewumi *, Chemical Engineering Department, Covenant
University, P.M.B 1023, Canaan Land, Sango, Ogun State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail:
modupe.ojewumi@covenantuniversity.edu.ng
1*Orcid: 0000-0002-9254-2450.
Ogirima O. Olanipekun, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Lagos, Akoka. Lagos.
Oyinlola R. Obanla, Chemical Engineering Department, Covenant
University, P.M.B 1023, Canaan Land, Sango, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Emmanuel O. Ojewumi, Food Science and Technology Department,
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State. Nigeria.
Ruth S. Bassey, Chemical Engineering Department, Covenant University,
P.M.B 1023, Canaan Land, Sango, Ogun State, Nigeria.
be informed of solid waste materials which have to be
removed either by physical or chemical means or by recycling
by conversion into useful materials [8, 9, 10, 11]. Mankind
have continuously experience various forms of insomnia and
psychological stress due to the stress experienced in
present-day life (be it imagined or real) [12]. Therefore,
numerous treatments have been proposed to supply
psychological relief accompanying the healing process [3,
14-16]. Several treatments such as the application of scented
candles have earned significant increase in the request for
indoor air fresheners and room décor. The annual rapid
growth in scented candles market in the U.S. is evaluated to be
approximately 2 billion USD [3]. Although, some other
sources have contributed to the amount of indoor air
pollution. For example, pollutants such as odorants,
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals are
major components released from charcoals used during
cooking process [16-21]. Combustion of these scented
candles in an interior area result in the release of different
aromatic constituents which can linger on within a building.
The compounds identified include several alcohols,
hydrocarbons and aldehydes. Also, various PAHs recognized
as carcinogens such as pyrene, anthrancene and naphthalene
were noted [21-25]. Besides, several other activities taking
place indoors promote ultrafine and fine particulates
emissions, igniting scented candles can stimulate emission of
particulate matter and several other gaseous pollutants [25,
26]. The amount of ultrafine density of particles from ignition
of pure wax candles are up to about 241,000 particles/cm3
[27]. Distinctive odour and enormous quantity of volatile
organic compounds has been liberated from scented candles
due to additives added such as aroma oil and fragrance [28].
Other pollution includes hydrocarbons which occur as result
of onsite or transportation spillage in the environment
[29-32]. The process of combustion is mostly characterized
by the presence of small sized particles, this has a negative
effect on the wellbeing of living organisms due to its
deposition in the alveolar, its inflammogenic potential, high
reactivity on the surface and chemical decomposition [33].
Particulate matter usually contain PAHs which can generate
development of large DNA mutations and adducts [34].
Production of Candle from Oil Extract of a
Legume - Soybean
M.E. Ojewumi, O.O. Olanipekun, O.R. Obanla, E.O. Ojewumi, R.S. Bassey
Production of Candle from Oil Extract of a Legume - Soybean
5569
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DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
The occurrence of lung tissue damage and inflammation
aggregate result to a considerable rise in proteins
accumulation in the alveolar region. Moreover, production of
excess oxygen reactive species by the immune cells or
particles may result into oxidative destruction to
biomolecules (e.g. DNA) [35]. Air pollution particles is
related stress, inflammation and high levels of DNA oxidative
are destroyed in cultured cells, humans and animals [35, 36].
Combustion processes of most candles have surpass the
USEPA’s growth risk for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, it
has also surpass the acrolein Reference Concentration (RfC)
[26].
The objective of this project considers the production of
candles from soybean oil extract which release less toxic
substances into the environments. Studies such as Johnson
[37] prepared candles by adding a binding agent to specific
quantity of paraffin wax; the temperature of the paraffin wax
and binding agent is increased, Soybean oil was added to the
hot mixture of paraffin wax and binding agent; the mixture of
paraffin wax, binding agent and soybean oil was increased to
a very high temperature, where a specific quantity of candle
scent was added to the hot mixture, the mixture was added to
water absorbing (wicked) containers for the manufacture of
candles. Other studies by Baumer [38], Dieter Tischendorf
[39], Jaeger [40], MacLaren [41] have also produced candles
from various types of vegetable oils. This study considers the
use steric acid on soy bean extract to produce wax, which are
used for candle making. The product release less hazardous
materials. Model is a diagnostic tool that helps researchers in
taking decision when dealing with issues that can be used to
optimize the extraction procedure to reduce the number of
experimental run [28, 29, 42, 43, 44].
II. METHODOLOGY
A. Source of raw materials
Raw soybean was obtained from an open market.
Fig. 1. Soybean seed
B. Preparation of Soybeans for extraction
The beans were handpicked to remove foreign materials such
as stone, leaves etc. The handpicked beans were washed in
water and dehulled with palms to remove the cotyledon [45,
46-50]. The washed and dehulled clean beans were oven dried
at 70ºC for 48 days prior to extraction. The seeds were
cracked in the mortar and pestle to weaken the binding power
of the seeds and increase the surface area.
C. Extraction of Soybean oil using Hexane
Oil was obtained from the seeds using a Soxhlet extraction
process. 20g of sample was weighed and put into the extractor
(the sample was wrapped in a filter paper shaped in a cuplike
manner). A condenser was placed on the extractor and
properly connected to a water tap [41-42, 44-46]. The total
yield of oil was expressed in percentage. The entire setup was
repeated, varying extraction times for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours.
Hexane used was recovered by a simple batch distillation
process, using a reflux condenser [40, 41]. The setup is
depicted below
Fig. 2. Solvent Extraction Setup
D. Solidification of the extracted Soybean oil with stearic
acid
The crude oil extract was subjected to reaction with stearic
acid to solidify it to wax. Other beautifying additives were
incorporated into it after characterization such as fragrances
and colour.
Fig. 3. Heating oil sample for solidification using stearic
acid
E. Comparisons with a petroleum-based wax e.g. paraffin wax:
The produced soy candle was compared with regular paraffin
candle on certain physical parameters.
F. Physical Comparison
Both samples of same length were burned for a period of 20
minutes. At the end of 20 minutes, the samples were
analyzed on
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT)
ISSN: 2249 8958, Volume-9 Issue-2, December, 2019
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DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
a. Length left after burning (by observation)
b. Quantity of soot produced (by observation) c. Colour of flame (by observation)
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
- Determination of oil yield by varying extraction time, weight of sample and quantity of solvent.
The oil yield for the extraction of soybean oil with hexane for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours is shown in the table below Table 1.
Table - 1: Table for the extraction
StdOrder
Run Order
Blocks
Weight of
seed [X1]
Time of
Extraction [X2]
Quantity of
Solvent used
[X3]
% Oil yield
[Response]
7
1
1
10
6
160
12.67
15
2
1
25
6
130
16.56
3
3
1
10
10
130
14.55
12
4
1
25
10
160
22.25
6
5
1
40
6
100
18.5
11
6
1
25
2
160
14.44
8
7
1
40
6
160
18.5
14
8
1
25
6
130
16.56
1
9
1
10
2
130
10.59
10
10
1
25
10
100
22.25
4
11
1
40
10
130
24.24
2
12
1
40
2
130
16.7
9
13
1
25
2
100
14.44
13
14
1
25
6
130
16.56
5
15
1
10
6
100
12.66
10
15
01 02 03
9
6
3
04
9
9
20
25
d% Oil yeil
rtxE fo emiT n )srH( oitca
)g( deeight W of se
Fig. 4. Surface Plot of % Oil yield against Time of extraction (hrs) and Weight of seed (g)
Production of Candle from Oil Extract of a Legume - Soybean
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DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
001 01
21
14
601
2
0
041
201
001
01
2
4
40
30
20
16
18
6
8
%O l i dleiy
)lm( tnevloS
)g( dees fo eiW ght
Fig. 5. Surface Plot of Oil yield against Solvent (ml) and Weight of seed (g)
6901 0
05.1
5.71
36
9
041
21 0
061
041
21 0
20.0
522.
yield% oil
actionrtxe fo emi )T rh( olven tS )lm(
Fig. 6. Surface plot of Oil yield against Solvent (ml), Time of extraction (hrs)
IV. RESULTS FROM PHYSICAL OBSERVATION
A sample of each candle was lit and observed. After a period of 5 minutes, the following observations were made.
Table- II: Results from Observation
Paraffin wax
Soy wax
Colour of flame
Predominantly yellow
An obvious combination of
blue and yellow
Soot production
Noticeable
Negligible
Length after 5 minutes
Obviously shorter
Slightly shorter
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT)
ISSN: 2249 8958, Volume-9 Issue-2, December, 2019
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DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
Test for Gas Emissions
Fig.7. Soybean candle Fig. 8. Paraffin wax
V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
The Effect of time on the %yield of Oil
Soybean oil is about 30% of the total soybean content. The
process of solvent extraction of this oil was carried out in the
laboratory using hexane as a solvent and varying the
extraction time. The extraction table (Table 1) shows more
yield came from samples extracted for 10 hours with sample
weight of 25 and 40 g which gave oil yield of 22.25 and
24.24% respectively. Solvent quantity had little or no effect
on percentage oil yield during extraction process.
Figures 4, 5 and 6 shows the surface plot relationship
between the three variables considered (Weight of
sample[X1], time of extraction [X2] and solvent quantity
[X3]).
The simple mechanism of this extraction is that the oil
dissolves readily in hexane solvent and is washed down from
the powdered seeds by the flowing hexane. This explains the
change in colour of hexane from a clear solution to yellow
during the extraction process. More contact of the hexane
with the seeds indicates dissolution of more oil from the
seeds, thus the increase in oil yields at longer contact periods.
Comparisons by Observation:
Color of flame: From our observation, the flame from
paraffin wax was predominantly yellow while that of soy wax
was an obvious blue and yellow mixture. The yellow flame is
a result of incomplete combustion of the wax, meaning there is
no proper air to wax ratio, causing the generation of fine soot
particles and other gases into the atmosphere as seen in the
chemical equation.
An inference drawn here is that though both candles emit
gases, the soy candles emit less incombustible gases than the
paraffin candles.
Quantity of soot produced: The colour of the gas flame
rightly explains the variation in soot production. More soot is
produced from the predominantly yellow flame while lesser
soot is produced from the predominantly blue flame. This
explains that it is safer to burn soy candle for domestic use
than the paraffin candle we use.
Length left after burning for 5 minutes: This is explained by
the fact that a paraffin wax has a melting point that is higher
than soy wax, thereby causing it to burn out’ faster than the
soy wax. This explains that using soy wax gives better yield
for money, making it more economical. Since the soy candles
produced are made inside containers, burning it only results
in melting of the oil, only to harden at room temperature and
form a new candle. Hence, soy candles burn in’ while
paraffin candles burn out.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
The yield of soybean oil depended on time of extraction; this
was the major determinant of the oil yield in this research.
From the flame Colour observations, soy wax is considered a
healthier alternative to the paraffin wax, hence soy candles
are more eco-friendly than the paraffin candles in the sense
that there are lesser or no toxic gases given off when burning
soy candles. It is safe to burn paraffin candles in open space
due to the rapid release of incombustible toxic gases. On the
other hand, soy candles are preferable for lighting in enclosed
space because they do not release much of toxic gases into the
environment. Nigeria could take on large scale soybean
cultivation for food and soy wax production. The returns are
promising as soybeans mature between 45-100 days.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors appreciate the sponsorship of CUCRID,
Covenant University, Ota
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Production of Candle from Oil Extract of a Legume - Soybean
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DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
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International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT)
ISSN: 2249 8958, Volume-9 Issue-2, December, 2019
5574
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication
Retrieval Number: B2382129219 /2019©BEIESP
DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.B2382.129219
47. Ojewumi, M.E., Omoleye, J.A., Ajayi, A.A. Optimum Fermentation
Temperature for the Protein Yield of Parkiabiglobosa Seeds (Iyere).
Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on African
Development Issues (CUICAD), 2016a; 584-587, Ota, Ogun-state,
Nigeria. ISSN 2449-075X.
48. Ojewumi, M.E., Omoleye, J.A., Ajayi, A.A. Optimization of
Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Protein Composition in
Parkia biglobosa Seeds using Response Surface Methodology.
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 12(22), 2017,
pp.12852-12859.
49. Ojewumi, M.E., Omoleye, J.A., Nyingifa, A.S. Biological and
chemical changes during the aerobic and anaerobic fermentation of
African locust bean. International Journal of Chemistry Studies. 2(2),
2018, pp.25-30.
50. Ojewumi, M.E., Odubiyi, A.O., Omoleye, J.A. Effect of Storage on
Protein Composition of Fermented Soybean (Glycine Max) Seed by
Bacillus Subtillis. Novel Techniques in Nutrition and Food Science.
2(4), 2018, 1-4, NTNF.000543.
AUTHORS PROFILE
Modupe Elizabeth Ojewumi [Ph.D], is a
Researcher and Lecturer in Covenant
University, Ota, Nigeria. Her areas of core
competence includes:
Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering,
Health/Environmental Engineering and New
products Development.
Dr. Olawole Ogirima Olanipekun, is a lecturer
at Department of Chemical & Petroleum
Engineering of the University of Lagos, Nigeria.
He lectures Biochemical and Biotechnology. He’s
trained in Bioremediation and he has over 20
publications in both locally and internationally
journals. Currently
Oyinlola Obanla holds first and second degree in
chemical Engineering. A versatile Researchers that
specializes in Polymer Engineering.
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