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Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Self-Regulated Learning and Intrinsic Motivation

  • Amity University Kolkata
  • Amity University,India, Kolkata

Abstract and Figures

Metacognition is an act of thinking about your thinking, reasoning or decision making or simply cognition. It may also be understood as being aware of your cognitive mechanism and using it to learn in a more proactive way. Metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation are the two types of metacognitive strategies. Self-regulation as a construct implies controlling and maintaining one's behaviour. The theory of intrinsic motivation posits that there is a natural pull and push to achieve mastery in areas of perceived competence. The aim of the present research is to study the impact of metacognititive strategies on self-regulated learning and intrinsic motivation. The primary motive of the study was to explore whether metacognitive strategies effect self-regulated learning behaviour and intrinsic motivation of undergraduate students. For all analysis, the significance level was kept at 0.05. The statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS v. 25.0. Data were collected from 440 undergraduate students divided in two group i.e. experimental and control. The result revealed that in all domains of metacognitive strategies, mean of experimental group was higher than the control group.
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Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Self-Regulated
Learning and Intrinsic Motivation
Sweta Saraff,* Rishipal**, Malabika Tripathi*, RK Biswal***,
and Anupama Srivastava Saxena****
Metacognition is an act of thinking about your thinking, reasoning or decision
making or simply cognition. It may also be understood as being aware of your
cognitive mechanism and using it to learn in a more proactive way. Metacognitive
knowledge and metacognitive regulation are the two types of metacognitive
strategies. Self- regulation as a construct implies controlling and maintaining one’s
behaviour. The theory of intrinsic motivation posits that there is a natural pull and
push to achieve mastery in areas of perceived competence. The aim of the present
research is to study the impact of metacognititive strategies on self- regulated
learning and intrinsic motivation. The primary motive of the study was to explore
whether metacognitive strategies effect self-regulated learning behaviour and
intrinsic motivation of undergraduate students. For all analysis, the significance
level was kept at 0.05. The statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS v. 25.0.
Data were collected from 440 undergraduate students divided in two group i.e.
experimental and control. The result revealed that in all domains of metacognitive
strategies, mean of experimental group was higher than the control group.
Keywords: Education, Intrinsic Motivation, Metacognitive strategies, Self-Regulated
The complexities of Nature’s adaptive tendencies has intrigued all. Theory of learning
has moved beyond stimulus (S) – response (R) paradigm of Behavioural Theorists to
selecting information based on its value or usefulness. Adaptation to environment is
not limited to human beings only, even microorganisms like bacteria can select their
Journal of Psychosocial Research
Vol. 15, No. 1, 2020, 35-46
DOI No. :
Corresponding author. Email :
ISSN 0973-5410 print/ISSN 0976-3937 online
©2020 Dr. H. L. Kaila
Sweta Saraff, Rishipal, Malabika Tripathi, RK Biswal and Anupama Srivastava Saxena
J. Psychosoc. Res.
food (Monod, 1942, Shapiro, 2011, Cowley et al., 2017). Adaptive tendencies are akin to
abstraction and intelligence. Intelligence can be defined as the adaptive prowess of an
individual in any given situation or an environment. Sternberg, R. J. (2019) defines
intelligence as “the ability to learn from experience as well as to adapt to the surrounding
Thinking can also be assumed as information-processing, for consumption in some
active process of reasoning and decision – making which leads to learning. Some
behaviours are learned passively, merely by observation, without actively participating
in the process of deliberation. This study explores the role of motivation in application
of metacognitive strategies and self-regulated behaviour in learning of students. The
incessant competition to excel among students has forced them to race against time.
The quality of learning is deteriorating due lack of in-depth or insightful learning. To
gain new knowledge or skill, the experience of it must be a mixture of curiosity, facts,
processes and abstraction. The students’ motivation to learn has a deep impact upon
the quality and reproducibility of learning.
Metacognitive Strategies
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994) define metacognition as “the ability to reflect
upon, understand and control one’s learning”. It is an act of thinking about your
thinking, reasoning or decision making, simply cognition. It may also be understood
as being aware of your cognitive mechanism and using it to learn in a more proactive
way (Omrod, 2004). Metacognitive strategies have been further divided into
metacognitive knowledge & metacognitive regulation (Brown, 1987; Flavell, 1987;
Schraw, G. & Dennison, R. S., 1994; Young, A., & Fry, J. D., 2008).
Metacognitive knowledge has been conceptualised as an aggregation of
declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge (Schraw and Moshman, 1995).
Declarative knowledge is knowing about what we are learning or the concepts,
procedural knowledge is understanding the process or strategies of learning and
conditional knowledge is to be able to apply it. Having knowledge of metacognition
implies gaining an insight into ‘what’, ‘how’, ‘why’ and ‘when’ of any educational
concept or material.
Regulation of cognition include planning, information management strategies,
comprehension monitoring, debugging and evaluation (Schraw, G., 1994; Schraw, G.
& Dennison, R. S., 1994; Schraw and Moshman, 1995). Organising the learning material
like books in a library with proper indexing is equally valuable for memory retention
and recall whenever required. Information management provides an easy & quick
access to stored material in the brain whereas debugging and evaluation serve as
essential strategies to make it permanent & accurate.
Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Self- Regulated Learning and Intrinsic Motivation 37
J. Psychosoc. Res.
Self-Regulated Learning
Self- regulation as a construct implies controlling and maintaining one’s behaviour
(Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M., 1987). It is viewed in continuity from more to less autonomy
or control over one’s learning (Ryan & Connell, 1989). Children who perceive external
pressure have comparatively low motivation to initiate regular studies than those
who are eager to study on their own. Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987) proposes
that children’s self-initiating behavior towards learning can be observed by placing
them in an environment where there is no external pressure to perform. Learning is
conceived as an active process and is mostly successful when learners are motivated
and engaged in the act of knowing and remembering for later use (deCharms, 1976;
Thomas, 1980).
It was observed by Piaget (1971) that children have an innate desire to learn as
they grow in age and they also equip themselves with the skill to assimilate information.
Plant, R. W., & Ryan, R. M. (1985) credit the interest to learn to an internal locus of
control in the absence of external rewards or pressures. However parent’s influence
on children’s learning behaviour and outcome is paramount, Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan,
R. M. (1989) associate parent’s teaching strategies with child’s attitude and perception
towards education and its outcome. The main motive of education is to empower
children to develop autonomy and competency in specific fields for their personal
growth and development to sustain and flourish impeccably.
The theory of intrinsic motivation posits that there is a natural pull and push to
achieve mastery in areas of perceived competence (Ryan, R. M., Connell, J. P., &
Grolnick, W. S., 1992). According to Ryan & Deci (2000), the relevance of extrinsic
motivation in case of today’s students plays a determining role in shaping their career
interests and learning outcome. The pressure to perform by parents, peers, teachers
or self – set idealistic or comparative goals may many a times lead to resentment or
it may generate a push to perform to achieve a goal (Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M., 1987).
Many learning tasks are repetitive & boring in nature, they require continuous efforts
from educators to motivate children through extrinsic rewards like praise, marks &
other forms of appreciation which boosts their self- worth. Some children later
internalise and integrate the rewards as a part of their identity (Deci, E. L., & Ryan,
R. M., 1985, 1980).
Self-determination theory (SDT) of human motivation by Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R.
M. (2008) is based on empirical evidence and targets not only extrinsic/ intrinsic types,
it also discusses amotivation, controlled and autonomous motivation. These factors
affect performance, learning & well-being by focusing on key areas of perceived
Sweta Saraff, Rishipal, Malabika Tripathi, RK Biswal and Anupama Srivastava Saxena
J. Psychosoc. Res.
competency, autonomy & relatedness. The relationship of self –determination with
mindfulness has a significant impact on various applied fields like healthcare,
relationship, sustainability, education, etc. (Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M.,1980).
Aim of the Present Research
In the present study, impact of applying metacognitive strategies on two components
of self- regulated learning was observed. The two components are autonomous
regulation and controlled regulation. The difference between the autonomous
regulation and controlled regulation was calculated to find out relative autonomy within
the students. Also their effect on different dimensions of intrinsic motivation viz. interest,
perceived competence, effort, tension and perceived choice in classroom activities was
also studied. Metacognitive strategies include two broad components as metacognitive
knowledge and metacognitive regulation. Metacognitive knowledge includes
declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge. Metacognitive regulation
(regulation of cognition) includes planning, information management strategies,
comprehension monitoring, debugging strategies and evaluation (Schraw, G., &
Dennison, R. S., 1994). To assess the usefulness of this model, we conducted an
experiment, in a semi- controlled environment, to study the impact of self- regulated
learning and intrinsic motivation.
We propose the following hypotheses:
H1: Experimental and control group differ significantly in application of metacognitive
strategies, self-regulated learning and intrinsic motivation in their regular
classroom activities.
Research Design
For this research, an intervention programme was developed on the questions provided
in the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) by Schraw, G. & Dennison, R.S.
(1994). The questions were like “I ask myself periodically if I am meeting my goals.”,
“I consider several alternatives to a problem before I answer”, or “I try to use strategies
that have worked in the past.” Students were asked to contemplate whether they
check within a fixed time period (or monthly/fortnightly), that they were able to achieve
their goals. Then they were asked to write different alternatives for a problem and
choose the most likely (subjective) or the best/ correct solution.
The program was divided into six session with first two on discussion on different
components of metacognitive strategies and questioning self while solving problems,
learning difficult study material or evaluating self on a regular basis. Next two session
Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Self- Regulated Learning and Intrinsic Motivation 39
J. Psychosoc. Res.
was on scaffolding by providing students with certain problems and showing them
the plan of action. Last two session were spent on students evaluating and brainstorming
on their learning difficulties and blocks which they need to identify and overcome.
Each session was from one to one & a half hour. This study employed a quasi-
experimental non randomized research design with a control group.
The participants in this experiment were undergraduate Indian students from private
universities. Out of total 460 second year undergraduate students (science major) 440
were selected for the study. The students who did not complete all the classes of the
intervention programme and also those who were previously diagnosed with any
mental illness were not selected for the study. Two groups, experimental and control,
were prepared with 220 students approximately in one group. 57% of the students
(both the groups) were boys and 43% students were girls. Total eight classes were
selected for the study, out of which four had been assigned to experimental group
(group 1) and rest four were allocated to control group (group 2). The selection of the
experimental group was done, using lottery.
Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Schraw & Dennison, 1994) was used to assess
the metacognitive awareness of the tutees. MAI consists of 52 question that were used
to assess two domains and eight components of metacognition. The internal consistency
of the factors was high (α = 0.91), coefficient for the entire instrument was 0.95 and has
a high predictive validity too.
Learning Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-L) enquires about the reason behind
the learning motivation of college students (William & Deci, 1996). It was divided into
two subscales – Controlled Regulation and Autonomous Regulation. Both the subscales
were tested for reliability (α = 0.75 for controlled regulation and α = 0.80 for
autonomous regulation) and validity. A Relative Autonomy Index can be calculated by
subtracting scores of controlled regulation from autonomous regulation.
Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) measures interest, perceived competence,
effort, tension and perceived choice of the participants (Plant & Ryan, 1985; Ryan,
Connell, & Plant, 1990; Ryan, Koestner & Deci, 1991; Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone,
1994). The interest/ enjoyment scale measures intrinsic motivation, perceived
competence and choice are considered to positively figure out self-reports of intrinsic
motivation and vice- versa for efforts and tension scales. A research on psychometric
properties of IMI was done by McAuley, Duncan, and Tammen (1987) and predicted
validity of the instrument and adequate reliability for the scale.
Sweta Saraff, Rishipal, Malabika Tripathi, RK Biswal and Anupama Srivastava Saxena
J. Psychosoc. Res.
The primary motive of the study was to explore whether metacognitive strategies
effect self-regulated learning behaviour and intrinsic motivation of undergraduate
students. For all analysis, the significance level was kept at 0.05. The statistical analyses
were conducted with SPSS v. 25.0.
As per Table 1 in all domains of metacognitive strategies, mean of experimental
group was higher than the control group. For declarative knowledge mean of
experimental group was 6.91 in comparison to 5.32 (control group). Similarly for
procedural knowledge (3.76 vs 2.89) and conditional knowledge (group 1 (4.39)>
group 2 (3.34)). The second part of the strategy was regulation of cognition, where
also in planning group 1 scored 6.06 and group 2 scored 4.91. The scores of information
management strategies were (group 1:8.99 , group 2: 7.51), comprehension monitoring
(group 1: 5.86 , group 2: 5.07), debugging strategies (group 1: 4.75, group 2: 4.29), and
evaluation (group 1: 5.22, group 2: 4.23),
The mean score for relative autonomy for students in group 1 was 13.04, whereas
students in Group 2 were -8.73 suggesting lack of autonomy in self- regulation related
to learning tasks. Students of group 1 scored higher in interest (34.11) and perceived
choice (28.43). They scored lower in perceived competence (26.83), effort (21.60) and
tension (14.70).
Table 2 represents a summary of independent t test conducted to find out whether
there is significant mean difference in the groups in their metacognitive strategies,
self-regulated learning and intrinsic motivation of students after implementation of
the intervention program. The findings suggest significant mean difference (p < .001)
between metacognitive strategies used by students in group 1 and group 2. It also
indicates presence of relative autonomy (t = 23.13, p<.001) among students with higher
metacognitive knowledge (group 1), an implication of higher self-control.
It could also be inferred that students who used better metacognitive strategies
had more interest (t= 15.44, p < .00) and perception of choice (t=8.38, p < 0.00). Students
felt that they have to put more effort (t= -12.04, p < .00) and were tensed (t= -12.20,
p< .00), when their metacognitive strategies for learning were comparatively weaker.
Students in group 1 perceived themselves less competent (t=-21.41, p= .00) in comparison
with group 2. The findings reveal that although students who use better metacognitive
strategies had higher interest and perception of choice in their learning but they felt
comparative less competent. Although their feeling of effort and tension was
comparatively lower than the control group.
Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Self- Regulated Learning and Intrinsic Motivation 41
J. Psychosoc. Res.
Table 1.
Summary of descriptive statistics of Metacognitive Strategies, Self-regulated
learning and intrinsic Motivation (N=440)
GROUP N Mean Std.
Declarative Knowledge 1 221 6.91 1.251
2 219 5.32 1.672
Procedural Knowledge 1 221 3.76 .889
2 219 2.89 1.170
Conditional Knowledge 1 221 4.39 .811
2 219 3.34 1.262
Planning 1 221 6.06 1.327
2 219 4.91 1.506
Information Management Strategies 1 221 8.99 1.215
2 219 7.51 2.053
Comprehension Monitoring 1 221 5.86 1.477
2 219 5.07 1.504
Debugging Strategies 1 221 4.75 .555
2 219 4.29 .855
Evaluation 1 221 5.22 .915
2 219 4.23 1.566
Relative Autonomy 1 221 13.04 10.229
2 219 -8.73 9.487
Autonomous Regulation 1 221 37.09 6.172
2 219 26.89 7.034
Controlled Regulation 1 221 24.05 9.876
2 219 35.86 6.492
Interest 1 221 34.11 8.244
2 219 18.67 3.982
Sweta Saraff, Rishipal, Malabika Tripathi, RK Biswal and Anupama Srivastava Saxena
J. Psychosoc. Res.
Perceived Competence 1 221 26.83 6.429
2 219 48.23 10.781
Effort 1 221 21.60 5.974
2 219 33.63 7.723
Tension 1 221 14.70 6.109
2 219 26.89 6.423
Perceived Choice 1 221 28.43 7.850
2 219 20.06 7.216
1 = Experimental Group, 2= Control Group
Every decision has an output, the efficacy of which can be observed by the person
himself. This output has an impact on the further choices made by that person. Maehr,
M. L., & Meyer, H. A. (1997) explain motivation as ‘personal investment’, where the
authors assume that people have certain degree of motivation to invest time, energy,
knowledge & skill to invest in a specific task. The ‘investment’ is studied in the
“direction, intensity, persistence and quality of what is done and expressed”. This
paper assumes motivation as the drive or urge to invest. The choices which are made
by learners whether on –task or off- task, determine the direction of motivation. If the
choices made are self- satisfying or encouraging, the learner continues to be motivated.
This process of being able to freely choose among tasks can be experienced in a gaming
environment, which brings the player back to game. Similarly time and energy invested
or spent depends on competency level of the task. The need for the autonomy in
making a choice, developing a belief in self on the basis of personal competence is vital
for learning, thereby fostering the desire to look out for more challenging tasks (Valås,
H., & Søvik, N., 1994).
Exploring innovative scaffolding strategies to empower student’s learning is
vital in today’s radically changing environment in terms of technological advances
(Dwyer, S., 2018). Currently students feel they are burdened with extensive study
material, semester system, and continuous examination with interferences from various
external as well as internal factors (Winne, P. H., 2017). External factors may include
spending lot of time on social media, television, internet, etc. Some internal reasons
may be as lack of interest in a particular subject or course, feeling of incompetency
and perception of effort and tension. Accumulation of these factors create an unhelpful
situation where students lose their direction and feel as if they are incompetent to
study or the material is worthless. To avoid this situation, we worked upon
improvement of metacognitive strategies, which students employ while they
Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Self- Regulated Learning and Intrinsic Motivation 43
J. Psychosoc. Res.
Table 2
Independent samples t-test for difference between means of
Group 1 and Group 2
t df Sig. Mean Std.
(2-tailed) Difference Error 95% Confidence
Interval of the
Lower Upper
Declarative Knowledge 11.33 438 .00* 1.59 .14 1.31 1.87
Procedural Knowledge 8.78 438 .00* .87 .10 .67 1.06
Conditional Knowledge 10.40 438 .00* 1.05 .10 .85 1.25
Planning 8.54 438 .00* 1.16 .14 .89 1.42
Information Management 9.18 438 .00* 1.48 .16 1.16 1.79
Comprehension 5.56 438 .000* .79 .14 .51 1.07
Debugging 6.62 438 .000* .454 .069 .32 .589
Evaluation 8.13 438 .000* .993 .12 .75 1.23
Relative Autonomy 23.13 438 .00* 21.76 .94 19.91 23.61
Autonomous Regulation 16.17 438 .00* 10.20 .63 8.96 11.44
Controlled Regulation -14.81 438 .00* -11.80 .80 -13.38 -10.24
Interest 24.98 438 .00* 15.44 .62 14.23 16.66
Perceived Competence -25.32 438 .00* -21.41 .85 -23.07 -19.74
Effort -18.29 438 .00* -12.04 .66 -13.33 -10.74
Tension -20.41 438 .00* -12.20 .60 -13.37 -11.02
Perceived Choice 11.648 438 .000* 8.38 .719 6.962 9.79
are studying (Krathwohl, D. R., & Anderson, L. W., 2009; Bloom, B. S., Krathwohl,
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Implications of the study
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engaged in the process of continuous development. Contemplation on one’s problem
Sweta Saraff, Rishipal, Malabika Tripathi, RK Biswal and Anupama Srivastava Saxena
J. Psychosoc. Res.
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Sweta Saraff, Assistant Professor – AIPAS, Amity University, Kolkata
Prof. Rishipal, Professor Pedagogy & Dean – Humanities and Applied Sciences, SVSU, Haryana
Malabika Tripathi, Assistant Professor – AIPAS, Amity University, Kolkata
Dr. Rama Krishna Biswal, Assistant Professor – Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, NIT, Rourkela.
Dr. Anupama Srivastava Saxena – Associate Professor & HOD – AIBAS, Amity University, Haryana
... From this point, this research aims to investigate the metacognitive learning strategies and the level of self-regulated online learning of prospective teachers in relation to some variables and then correlate them with each other to reveal the relationship and contribute to the field.Studies have been seeking the role of cognition (Hofer, Yu & Pintrich, 1998;Wirth et al., 2020), motivation in SRL (Aguilar et al., 2021;Ariani, 2016;Daumiller & Dresel, 2019;Pintrich, 1999;Wolters, 2003), and both (Finn, 2020). However, a few studies address metacognition and self-regulated learning (Akamatsu, Nakaya & Koizumi, 2019;Mekala & Radhakrishnan, 2019;Saraff et al., 2020;Sperling et al., 2004) by the best knowledge of the researchers. Moreover, they were all conducted to regulate learning through in-person instructions. ...
... As a result, it is thought students' levels of SRL would be affected. Another important finding was that some external factors affect students' focus on learning, such as spending too much time on the Internet or social media, which affects not only their study time but also their SRL and use of metacognitive strategies (Saraff, et al., 2020). In line with the findings of the present study, Ay and Baloglu-Ugurlu (2016) and Doganay and Demir (2011) have shown that prospective teachers who study more than two hours a day use MLS more than the rest and achieve academic performance.Examining the third question posed in the current study, there is a significant, positive, and moderate relationship between MLS and SROL. ...
... This finding of the current study seems to be consistent with the research which found that students using metacognitive strategies have higher self-control in their learnings. They also claimed that students use learning strategies to regulate their learnings (Saraff et al., 2020). Zheng et al. (2020) also demonstrated that the more learners are competent self-regulated, the more effective strategies they adopt and the more accomplished they become. ...
... Effectively, such type of learning equips students with the ability to choose their own motivation, set learning goals, and monitor and control their own learning, all of which need a high level of metacognitive awareness and cognition. Self-regulation is a volitional process that entails goal formulation, planning, and monitoring (Roeser & Peck, 2009;Saraff, Biswal, Tripathi, 2020). Selfregulated learning was determined to be the most relevant mode of learning to explore in this research based on this criteria, as metacognitive strategies involving planning and comprehension of such tactics have a major impact on students' self-regulated learning. ...
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This study emphasized the challenges involved in teaching and learning fundamentals of programming as a consequence of the lack of metacognitive awareness, which is associated with problem solving abilities. These abilities can be enhanced through the use of thinking maps, but they are typically used only in school and under the supervision of a teacher. Additionally, the practice is conducted in a typical manner, with no interesting features incorporated into the process, and it does not promote the development of metacognitive awareness. Thus, this study implementing the use of educational tool which embedding motivated strategies for learning theories including multimedia principles and elements called Motivated Strategies Thinking Maps Tool (MoSTMaT) and apply it experimentally in order to determine the tool's effectiveness towards guiding students in using thinking maps to solve fundamental programming problems. A total of 128 students participated in the quasi-experimental research. To compare the differences between groups, participants were given the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and the Motivated Strategies for Learning (MSLQ) questionnaires for pre- and post-testing. Appropriate analyses were performed to seek the relations among factors studied. The results indicated that motivated strategies for learning are indeed a mediating factor between the implementation of using thinking maps in learning and metacognitive awareness among computing students.
... Instead, it is acquired in autonomous learning environments. In order to control and regulate learning behavior, learners need to use various learning strategies [55][56][57]. Theobald et al. [5] distinguish three types of learning strategies: cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, and resource management strategies. While resource-oriented strategies are applied to regulate and maintain the learning process, cognitive and metacognitive strategies are directly influenced by the learning content [31,58,59]. ...
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Self-regulated learning (SRL) requires learners’ active participation, i.e., they need to activate cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. These strategies can be activated and supported by using cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Extensive research concerning the effects of prompts on SRL is necessary to determine connections between these two concepts. Our study investigates the effects of cognitive and metacognitive activities—i.e., prompts—on learning performance during SRL. Therefore, we developed three types of learning environments that use different types of prompts—cognitive or metacognitive prompts—or no prompts. Moreover, we also used a questionnaire to examine prior knowledge and post-knowledge. Pre- and post-tests show that self-confidence in prior knowledge has a significant effect on self-confidence in post-knowledge, cognitive prompts reduce extrinsic motivation, and knowing how to use cognitive learning strategies enables using cognitive prompts more effectively. These results are partially in line with existing research findings on the effects of prompts in SRL.
... Self-regulation in metacognitive strategies is therefore self-regulated learning. erefore, language acquisition through metacognitive strategies can foster learning autonomy [46]. ...
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The present study was designed to develop an Indonesian language learning module based on metacognitive strategies to support student learning autonomy. The development of this module is based on Oxford’s (1990) strategy development model. Data were generated through quantitative and qualitative approaches. The analysis showcases that (1) module requirements were determined based on information of student needs, of whom 53% stated to agree and 31% strongly agree in case of the development of an Indonesian language learning module based on the metacognitive strategy; (2) the development of the module was conducted by integrating metacognitive strategy training and implementation in learning, evaluations, and revisions; (3) module accuracy was shown by the validation results from language experts (85%), design experts (93%), media experts (86%), and practitioners (77%), which is stated as valid; and (4) the module effectiveness was based on the results of SPSS 20 analysis: if t-value is −7.267, smaller than t-table of −2.045, itmeans that there is a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores. This finding unpacks that there is a difference between student learning outcomes before and after the implementation of learning with Indonesian language learning modules based on metacognitive strategies. Implications from these findings are discussed.
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Although voice and speech are fundamental communication tools, spoken-voice management and development doesn't always feature prominently in professional interpreter training programs. My thesis is dedicated to the effects of spoken-voice intervention on interpreting students’ vocal performance during interpreting. A mixed-method study design was applied, with both quantitative and qualitative data reflecting the learners’ performances in consecutive interpreting. The students’ interpreting was recorded at two specific moments during their training, and three external assessors – a voice coach, an interpreting instructor and a lay assessor – evaluated their performances. Based on the conclusions, the spoken-voice intervention approach yielded a highly positive intervention outcome, resulting in significant levels of improvement in vocal performance in relation to the delivery of interpreting delivery for the three intervention groups. However, the level of improvement varied due to the different intervention activities, regimens, and instruction approaches. This study recommends incorporating metacognitive instruction into interpreter training. It is not only beneficial for students’ speaking-voice skills but may also enhance students’ interpreting skills.
Introduction. The article addresses the problem of improving the quality of initial teacher education, which is especially important in the conditions of increasing requirements for teachers’ proficiency and competence. In particular, the article investigates how the development of metacognitive processes influences students' learning outcomes. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationships between metacognitive processes of Education students and their academic performance in psychological disciplines. Materials and Methods. The article presents the study of Education students’ metacognitive processes, which involves using various methods and techniques based on the BACEIS cognitive model (Hartman H., Sternberg R.). The diagnostic part of the study consisted in didactic tests in psychological disciplines and a questionnaire of metacognitive involvement. In order to process the results, the rank correlation coefficient and the statistical criterion of signs were used. The study involved a total of 86 first- and second-year students studying Education (44.02.05, double-major programme). Results. The results of the study suggest that the majority of students demonstrate the average level of metacognitive processes; and indicators of metacognitive knowledge are slightly better developed than indicators of metacognitive regulation. Based on the results of the formative experiment, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of using the BACEIS cognitive model in order to develop indicators of metacognitive involvement. Moreover, the first stage of the diagnostic study revealed correlations between students' academic performance in psychological disciplines and metacognitive indicators. Nevertheless, despite the increase in metacognitive processes determined by thoroughly organized formative work, no significant increase in student academic performance was detected. Conclusions. Finally, the authors conclude that, despite the identified links between successful completion of the didactic test and high indicators of metacognitive processes, the increase in the level of metacognitive processes does not affect the learning outcomes in psychological disciplines.
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The COVID-19 summer semester 2020 posed many challenges and uncertainties, quite unexpectedly and suddenly. In a sample of 314 psychology students, it was investigated how they experienced learning and preparing for an end-of-semester exam, which emotions and strain they experienced, how academic performance was affected, and how personal antecedents of learning as important facets of a learner’s identity could support or prevent overcoming adverse circumstances of learning. The participants of the study filled in a questionnaire about their achievement emotions and strain they experienced during learning and exam preparation as well as academic self-concept, motivation, gender, proneness to anxiety. Points achieved in the exam were also recorded. The interaction between the variables was investigated by a structural equation model.
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
This study assessed three dimensions of parent style, autonomy support, involvement, and provision of structure in 64 mothers and 50 fathers of elementary-school children in Grades 3-6, using a structured interview. Construct validity data for the interview ratings suggested that the three parent dimensions were reliable, relatively independent, and correlated with other parent measures in hypothesized ways. Aspects of children's self-regulation and competence were measured through children's self-reports, teacher ratings, and objective indices. Parental autonomy support was positively related to children's self-reports of autonomous self-regulation, teacher-rated competence and adjustment, and school grades and achievement. Maternal involvement was related to achievement, teacher-rated competence, and some aspects of behavioral adjustment, but no significant relations were obtained for father involvement. The structure dimension was primarily related to children's control understanding. Results are discussed in terms of the motivational impact of the parent on school competence and adjustment and in terms of transactional models of influence.
This paper presents an interpretive summary of the progress that has been made in the study of motivation, especially as this work relates to the area of education. Motivation research has “come of age” with theoretical frameworks rooted in an established body of findings, and with the development of core methodologies for pursuing further knowledge. It has begun to provide a firm base for guiding educational practice. Current work is clearly in accord with mainstream psychology in that cognitive models of motivation are the predominant guides for research. Future work is likely to focus increasingly on how the meaning construction process affects engagement in tasks. Researchers should consider a wider array of research procedures and give greater attention to understanding motivation as it occurs in natural settings, especially as educational interventions are attempted. A serious deficiency in the motivation literature is that relatively little attention has been given to differences related to sociocultural backgrounds.
We constructed a 52-item inventory to measure adults′ metacognitive awareness. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader categories, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Two experiments supported the two-factor model. Factors were reliable (i.e., α = .90) and inter-correlated (r = .54). Experiment 2 reported the knowledge of cognition factor was related to pre-test judgments of monitoring ability and performance on a reading comprehension test, but was unrelated to monitoring accuracy. Implications for educational assessment and future research were discussed.
Two studies examined the influence of emotions on nondirected learning. Nondirected learning is conceptualized as learning which occurs in the absence of external prompts, reinforcements, or specific instruction. In Study 1, one of two expository texts was given to ninety-two undergraduate subjects for the ostensible purpose of obtaining attitudinal and emotional ratings. Two separate measures of motivational and emotional factors and perceived comprehension were administered immediately following the subjects' reading of the text. No mention of later testing occurred. After a brief delay, subjects' recall of the texts was obtained and scored using a propositional coding scheme. Correlational results revealed that factor-analytically derived dimensions of interest-enjoyment and task involvement were positively associated with perceived comprehension text recall, while ego-involvement, shame, and hostility were negatively related to these same variables. Study 2 was conducted: first, to replicate the emotion dimensions ob- tained in Study 1 on a larger, combined sample; second, using the larger samples to specify and test a "path model" of the indirect influence of emotions on nondirected learning through perceived comprehension; and, third, in Study 2 alone, to a~. :ss the stability of the recall measure over a ten-day period and the effects of verbal aptitude on the relations between the variables in the path model. The discussion focuses on the significance of motives and emotions for nondirected learning and the implications of the current study for organismic learning theories.