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The Effect of Macrocelebrity and Microinfluencer Endorsements on Consumer–brand Engagement in Instagram

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Abstract

Several brands are striving in their endeavors to find new ways to improve their consumer engagement through social media. They are using different tools including influencer marketing through social networking sites (SNSs). Therefore, this chapter addresses a gap in the academic literature as it distinguishes between two types of online influencers. The researchers investigate the effects of celebrity endorsers' and of micro influencers' posts on a brand's page in Instagram. They examine the number of followers, clicks, comments and likes that are generated following their influencer marketing. The results suggest that both influencers have generated varying levels and types of interactions. In sum, this exploratory study revealed that the chosen celebrity's posts attracted more followers to the brand's Instagram page, when compared to the micro influencer's publications. However, the latter has garnered more clicks, comments and likes, thereby increasing the consumer-brand engagement through social media. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to influencer marketing.
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The effect of macro celebrity and micro influencer endorsements on
consumer-brand engagement in Instagram
Inês Rios Marques
IPAM Porto, Portugal
Beatriz Casais
University of Minho, Portugal
BCasais@eeg.uminho.pt
Mark Anthony Camilleri
University of Malta, Malta
Mark.A.Camilleri@um.edu.mt
This is a prepublication version.
How to Cite: Rios Marques, I., Casais, B. & Camilleri, M.A. (2020). The effect of macro celebrity and micro
influencer endorsements on consumer-brand engagement on Instagram. In Camilleri, M.A. (Ed.) Strategic Corporate
Communication in the Digital Age, Emerald, Bingley, UK.
Abstract
Several brands are striving in their endeavors to find new ways to improve their consumer engagement through
social media. They are using different tools including influencer marketing through social networking sites
(SNSs). Therefore, this chapter addresses a gap in the academic literature as it distinguishes between two types
of online influencers. The researchers investigate the effects of celebrity endorsers’ and of micro influencers’
posts on a brand’s page on Instagram. They examine the number of followers, clicks, comments and likes that
are generated following their influencer marketing. The results suggest that both influencers have generated
varying levels and types of interactions. In sum, this exploratory study revealed that the chosen celebrity’s posts
attracted more followers to the brand’s Instagram page, when compared to the micro influencer’s publications.
However, the latter has garnered more clicks, comments and likes, thereby increasing the consumer-brand
engagement through social media. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to
influencer marketing.
Keywords: Digital Influencers, Celebrity Endorsements, Micro Influencers, Luxury Brand Engagement,
Social Media Marketing, Instagram.
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1. Introduction
The advances in technology have changed the role of customers, as they have become more
active and participative, not only in the process of purchasing products and services, but also in
the activities that are promoted by the brands (Verhoef, Reinartz & Krafft, 2010). It is through
consumer involvement that brands can create emotions and relationships with customers (Barger,
Peltier & Schultz, 2016). Therefore, it is vital for companies to understand how they can improve
their interactions with their online community and to identify what factors influence online
consumer engagement (Cheng, Wu & Chen, 2018). For a brand to be successful, it has to build
relationships with customers. Social network sites (SNSs) have increased the brands’ presence in
many people's daily lives. They have created a whole new range of opportunities for companies to
enhance their business (Dwivedi, Johnson, Wilkie & De Araujo-Gil, 2019). This is also true in the
case of luxury brands, which are increasingly using social media marketing to increase their brand
equity (Godey, Manthiou, Pederzoli, Rokka, Aiello, Donvito & Singh, 2016).
The Internet has become the most widely used media. Many individuals are benefiting of
its online channels and SNSs to communicate their content among larger audiences (Jiménez-
Castillo & Sánchez-Fernández, 2019). In a similar vein, businesses are also using the Internet to
increase their impact on their consumers. Very often, they partner with social media opinion
leaders, who are also called digital influencers, to promote their products and services (Lin,
Bruning & Swarna, 2018). Several luxury brands have decided to incorporate digital media into
their communication strategies with the aim of updating and improving their online presence
(Balasyan & Casais, 2018; Kapferer & Valette-Florence, 2016). Unlike commodities, luxury
brands are special, rare and exclusive. The prestige brands are utilizing the videos to engage with
their online followers (Lee & Watkins, 2016). Their social networking enables them to build
relationships with consumers (Arrigo, 2018). For example, YouTube users who watch luxury
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product vlogs are more likely to purchase from luxury brands than other online users (Lee &
Watkins, 2016).
Currently, there is a gap in the academic knowledge about what type of digital influencer
is best suited to increase awareness of luxury brand. The endorsers’ image ought to be consistent
with the brands’ positioning (Carrilat, O’Rourke & Plourde, 2019). Therefore, the aim of this study
is to explore whether it is more appropriate to use micro influencers and/or celebrities to promote
a luxury jewelry company. This research identifies two types of digital influencers: the micro
influencers and the macro-influencers. These two types of influencers have different
characteristics and have a different impact on consumers. For example, consumers identify with
micro influencers as they are similar to common people and are often perceived as authentic and
genuine, while celebrities represent aspirational social models with distinct lifestyles that
distinguish them from normal individuals (Bernazzani, 2017). Micro influencers are online opinion
leaders with a small number of followers. They may usually maintain a real relationship with their
audience and express themselves in a personal way (Chen, 2016). On the other hand, celebrities
are well known and are considered as endorsers who are capable of drawing large online audiences
because of their work and elusive lifestyles. Celebrities are considered powerful influencers and
can motivate the consumers’ attitudes and may have an impact on their buying behaviors (Vaghela,
2012).
2. Literature Review
2.1 Celebrity endorsements
The celebrity endorsement is one of the most important tools in corporate marketing and
communication strategies (Arshad, Ikram, Yahya & Nisar, 2017). Most brands today are
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committed to associate themselves with famous personalities. They may consider sport
personalities, athletes and celebrities from the movie industry (Vaghela, 2012), because they are
trusted by their followers when they promote products (Schimmelpfennig & Hollensen, 2013)
and/or social causes (Casais & Proença, 2012). It is also important to understand that the use of
celebrity endorsement enhances the consumers’ attitudes toward the brand, fosters credibility in
the brand, and can ultimately increase their purchase intention (Wang & Scheinbaum, 2018). The
celebrity endorsement is recognized as a theoretically powerful communication tool for brand
marketers (Carroll, 2009). The public are fascinated by famous people and celebrities. They may
consider them as role models. Therefore, brands are using popular celebrities to advertise their
products. The celebrities’ endorsements are improving the brands’ return on investment as well as
the success rates of their marketing campaigns (Pringle & Binet, 2005).
Several studies have concluded that celebrity endorsements influence the consumers’
buying decisions (Bergkvist & Zhou, 2016). Those studies stress that online users recall those
products that are promoted by the celebrity endorsers. The credible endorsers can influence their
followers’ perceptions about the quality of the brands’ products as they may associate the endorsed
products with the image of the celebrities’ images (Hollensen & Schimmelpfennig, 2013). They
can also be branded because they can be professionally managed and they possess the attributes
and particularities of a brand (Schimmelpfennig & Hollensen, 2013).
Macro-celebrities are reference people who attract the public. They are considered
influential as they can entice the consumers’ buying attitudes and trigger behavioral changes
(Chung & Cho, 2017). The credibility of the source depends on three factors: expertise, reliability
and friendliness. Expertise evidences the communicator's ability to support that content that is
transmitted through advertising. Reliability is related to the communicator's objectivity and
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honesty, and friendliness describes the attractiveness of the source (Vaghela, 2012). To gain a
broad and loyal following, macro celebrities create interesting and engaging content. As a result,
they became very popular, particularly among younger individuals who are increasingly following
them through different social media.
2.2 Micro influencers in the digital environment
Individuals including micro influencers are accessing SNSs through their mobile devices.
They are using them as their main platform to raise their profile among other social media users.
Very often, these micro influencers are considered more important in the digital environment than
popular celebrities (Dunkley, 2017). The digital influencers are sources of inspiration and advice
for other digital consumers. The originality and the uniqueness of their posts are key factors for
their effective content marketing. The micro influencers are often considered as online opinion
leaders. Hence, they can influence consumer intentions and behaviors (Casaló, Flavián & Ibáñez-
Sánchez, 2018). They use their online profile to connect with other social media users and to raise
awareness about the brands’ products. These influencers are considered important in the online
community (Khamis, Ang & Welling, 2017). Therefore, many companies are increasingly
approaching influential bloggers to promote their products and services. Very often, they are
expected to create new marketing content, including texts and images on behalf of their sponsor
(Gustafsson & Khan, 2017).
SNSs have provided a platform for ordinary online users as it enabled them to share their
personal stories and content with other individuals (Casaló et al., 2018). The strategic and targeted
development of social media content can improve the digital influencers’ (including the micro
celebrities’ or micro influencers’) public visibility and attention (Khamis et al., 2017). The
advantage of micro influencers is that they have created ‘real’ relationships with their audience
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and expressed themselves more personally than most conventional celebrities (Djafarova &
Rushworth, 2017). Micro celebrities have become very popular through Instagram, but these days
they can also be found on YouTube, Twitter and other social platforms. They are benefiting of
several lucrative opportunities that were made widely available through different social media
(Djafarova & Rushworth, 2017). Hence, more individuals are becoming micro celebrities as they
gain popularity among other users through social networks. Micro celebrities would not be in a
position to raise their profile and be famous, if the SNSs did not exist. Arguably, individuals can
use different social media to become noticeable by maintaining interactive, personal relationships
with followers (Camilleri, 2018; Djafarova & Rushworth, 2017). They may be considered as
influencers when their followers take heed of their recommendations and referrals (Jin & Phua,
2014).
The online influencers may possess certain traits and characteristics that can appeal to
specific brands (Bernazzani, 2017), in terms of identification, credibility and product-endorser fit
(Schouten, Janssen & Verspaget, 2020). For example, micro influencers will usually have fewer
followers, when compared to macro influencers. However, the former ones tend to engage in
synchronous communications with their followers, as opposed to the macro influencers. The micro
influencers would also produce relevant content that appeals to online users (Barker, 2016). For
this reason, they are increasingly being employed by businesses as their endorsements are
perceived as credible and trustworthy by their followers. Hence, they contribute to raise awareness
about the brands’ products and services. All of this is only possible if marketing managers choose
the most appropriate celebrity to represent their brands (Anagnostopoulos, Parganas, Chadwick &
Liu, 2016). The brands’ partnerships with certain influencers may be based on their individual
characteristics. Bernazzani (2017) suggested that the consumers will usually identify themselves
with the micro influencers. Therefore, they would follow their advice. However, the author noted
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that they would also be affected by the celebrities’ endorsements and referrals. In a similar vein,
Bergkvist, Hjalmarson & Mägi (2016) reported that the celebrity endorsements are having an
impact on the consumers' buying decisions, particularly when they realize that the celebrities are
not motivated by the money they receive, but by the quality of the products that they endorse.
The celebrities who have a large follower base are more news-oriented and are usually less
social than the micro influencers (Kay, Mulcahy & Parkinson, 2020). They may have a team of
collaborators who will help them create their digital advertisements. On the other hand, the
bloggers would attract fewer followers than celebrities, but they usually focus on more specific
topics and niches (Khamis et al., 2017). Hence, the bloggers may be considered as micro
influencers as they attract those followers who are searching for more candid and detailed product
content, and/or who may be willing to interact with them (Goodman, Booth & Matic, 2011). In
sum, many businesses are partnering with respected digital influencers, including celebrities and/or
micro influencers to raise awareness about products, and increase their sales (Hsu, Lin & Chiang,
2013). At the same time, they businesses are using the influencers to improve their customer-brand
engagement.
2.3 Online Customer-Brand Engagement
The consumer engagement can be defined as the means to create, build, and enhance the
consumer relationships with the brands (Brodie, Ilic, Juric & Hollebeek, 2013; Hollebeek, Glynn
& Brodie, 2014). This concept signals a change in marketing research as the brands (as well as the
consumers) are constantly looking for new ways to boost their engagement (Harmeling, Moffett,
Arnold & Carlson, 2017). Hence, many brands are increasingly using various social networks as
communication channels to reach a wide range of prospective customers (Kabadayi & Price,
2014). Very often, the consumers themselves are disseminating information about the brands’
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offerings with other consumers, because they post their opinions, reviews and questions about
certain products and/or companies. As a result, other customers respond to their comments or user
generated content.
The social media has presented new opportunities for consumer-brand engagement (Rather
& Camilleri, 2019). The consumers are not only searching for products and services. They are also
interacting with their favorite brands and exchanging information. Thus, the consumer-brand
engagement is facilitated by the social media (Hollebeek et al., 2014). This new form of
engagement involves a wide range of specific activities and behaviors including liking photos,
sharing posts, and comments that are posted in the brands’ social media profiles. Such social media
engagement has become a very popular phenomenon during the last decade (Gummerus, Liljander,
Weman & Pihlstrom, 2012). Several SNSs have provided significant opportunities for brands to
engage with their consumers. They enable them to receive comments, feedback and suggestions
from online followers. Therefore, the brands can respond to the consumers’ queries, concerns
and/or critical remarks, and can provide them with a better service (Kabadayi & Price, 2014).
Muntinga, Moorman and Smit (2011) contended that there are different levels of consumer-
brand engagement. Their consumers’ online brand related activities (COBRA) model identified
three dimensions namely, consuming, contributing and creating online content through social
networks. The authors argued that minimum level of online activity is represented by those social
media subscribers who merely read online content. These users do not respond or interact with the
digital content that is presented to them. They maintained that the intermediate level is represented
by those social media users who are engaging with the brand through their likes and comments.
These users would usually contribute to the brand's online content and may communicate with
others about the brand. They went on to suggest that the last level of online brand-related activity
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involves more engagement as it is represented by those users who create user generated content
for the brand. This level consists of social media users who actively produce and publish brand-
related content. They may publish articles about the brand, create blogs, publicly review products,
create images, videos and music about the brand, et cetera (Chen, 2016).
3. Methodology
Brand managers need to determine whether it is beneficial for their company to interact
with a celebrity or micro influencer. The online users may typically relate with those influencers
who have fewer followers, as the influencers’ popularity is inversely proportional with their
interactive engagement (Chen, 2016; Basil & Herr, 2006). On the other hand, the celebrities who
have a larger follower base are more visible and recognizable in SNSs (Mackey, 2016). For this
reason, this research builds on the extant knowledge about the social media subscribers’
engagement with micro influencers and celebrities (Arrigo, 2018). Specifically, it addresses the
research gap in digital marketing as it explores online users’ engagement with social media
influencers in the context of luxury, jewelry brands.
The methodology has followed Mutinga et al. (2011) and Gummerus et al. (2012) research
approaches to capture and analyze the online users’ involvement through social media. In this
case, the data was gathered through Instagram. It is important to note that for the time being, there
are just a few studies that have investigated the online users’ engagement in Instagram (Sheldon
& Bryant, 2016). Hence, this exploratory study sheds light on the individuals’ interactions with a
brand that is using an Instagram page to showcase its products. The researchers have analyzed the
followers, clicks, likes and comments that were posted in the brand’s page.
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In sum, the number of followers of the jewelry brand Instagram page has grown over the
years. At the beginning of 2017 the page had less than 2,500 followers. Over the following 2 years
the page has garnered 6,312 followers. This meant that in 2 years the brand's Instagram page grew
by about 4,000 followers. The growth in 2017 was virtually stagnant. However, during this year,
there was a surge in the number of followers. Since the creation of the Instagram page, the brand
has not invested in any online advertising, all the influencers' publications were voluntary, and the
brand has never invested in Instagram marketing to increase its followers. The majority of
followers were mostly females (75%) who were between 25 and 34 years old (40%). This group
was followed by those who were between 35 and 44 years of age (34%).
The brand employed two digital influencers to endorse its jewelry products, namely (i)
Raquel Strada, a Portuguese celebrity; and (ii) Michelle Zwaal, a Dutch top model that was
considered as a micro influencer. At the time of writing, Raquel Strada had 405k followers while
Michelle Zwal had 51.1k followers. These two digital influencers were chosen because they were
associated with the jewelry brand. Raquel Strada joined the brand through a charity project and
Michelle Zwaal was one of the models who posed for the brand in one of its communication
campaigns. It is important to mention that these two influencers have voluntarily published their
photos. They were not paid for endorsing the mentioned brand.
4. Results
4.1 The effect of micro influencer endorsement on social media interactions
The effectiveness of the social media endorsers can be measured by the number of users
who will follow the brand’s page after they share their post. Michelle Zwaal has published her
endorsements through Instagram on May 11, 2018 and on May 15, 2018. In both posts she has
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clearly identified the jewelry brand and promoted its products. After her posts, there was an
increase in the number of Instagram subscribers who started following the brand’s page. The first
post has increased the number of followers from 4,948 to 4,966 and with the second publication,
the number of followers soared to 5,007. The number of followers remained the same between the
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th
and the 14
th
May. This was due to the fact that in those days the brand was not mentioned in
any publication and there was no traffic to the brand’s page. The publication of May 15th, 2018
attracted more followers to the brand's page as there was an increase of 41 new followers. The
publication of May 11th, 2018 did not attract as many users to the brand's page as much as the
May 15th publication, but this post still garnered 18 new Instagram users who started following
the brand's page. Overall, the micro influencer has increased the brand's Instagram page by 59
followers.
Other key indicators that were used to analyze online users’ engagement on the brand’s
page included the page clicks, likes, and comments on posts. There is a big difference between the
page visits/clicks, likes or comments on posts. Figure 1 illustrates that, in May 2018, the metrics
indicated that there was a significant increase in the users’ engagement with the brand’s Instagram
page. This increase may be attributed to the publications of the micro influencer, who shared her
photos during the week of May 13-19, 2018. The clicks, comments, and likes for that week were
the highest that were registered in May. The comments increased to 36, the number of visitors
increased to 1,435, and the number of likes was 1,165. These figures were much higher than those
recorded during the previous weeks. Subsequently, between May 20 and May 26, the figures
declined but remained higher than what happened in April and in early May. The numbers have
dropped again in June (from May) but remained higher in June (when compared to April). These
results clearly suggest that Michelle's posts have led to an increase in the number of clicks, likes
and comments (when compared to the previous months).
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Insert Figure 1 here.
4.2 The effect of celebrity endorsement in social media interactions
Raquel Strada was the personality that represented the celebrity endorser in this study. This
celebrity has voluntarily posted a photo (on her Instagram page) that clearly identified the jewelry
brand on December 13th, 2018. As a result, the number of followers on the brand’s page have
increased from 5,756 to 5,910 with only one publication on Instagram. The researchers noted that
after the endorsement of Raquel Strada, the number of followers on the brand's Instagram page
grew by 154 users.
During the month of the publication, the clicks, likes, and comments have increased
significantly, compared to the previous months (as reported in Figure 2). The number of visits,
comments and likes were at their highest when the celebrity shared her photo (i.e. during the week
of December 9-15, 2018). Over the course of this week, the comments rose to 32, the visits
increased to 923, and the likes were 556. As the number of page visits increased, the researchers
expected that the number of comments had to increase as well. However, this was not the case. It
is also important to mention that there was a large discrepancy between the number of clicks and
likes when compared to the number of comments. Notwithstanding, the number of comments were
at their lowest averages in January 2019 (i.e. the month after the celebrity’s image was published
in Instagram). In the weeks following publication, there was less engagement from the part of the
brand’s followers. For example, the number comments that were registered at the beginning of
December was very similar to the number of comments that were recorded in January.
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Insert Figure 2 here
5. Discussion
This research has analyzed the difference between a micro influencer and a macro influencer,
who have endorsed a jewelry brand through Instagram. Both social media influencers’ posts have
increased the number of followers and interactions with the brand’s page. Therefore, they have
communicated the brand’s message to a larger audience on Instagram.
The micro influencer has increased 59 new followers in May 2018, whilst macro influencer
(i.e. the celebrity) has garnered 154 new followers in December 2018 on the brand’s page. These
figures have somewhat reflected the number of followers of both endorsers as Raquel Strada
(celebrity) had more followers (i.e. 405k) than Michelle Zwaal (i.e. 51.1k). The jewelry brand’s
Instagram page had 53k followers at the time of this study. The celebrity had more followers than
the micro influencer and the jewelry brand, hence she could reach a larger number of Instagram
users. In fact, she has attracted new followers to the brand's Instagram page. In this sense, this
finding corroborates with the relevant literature on influencer marketing, as the celebrity
endorsement was more effective than the micro influencer post, in terms of increased followers
for the brand's Instagram page. Nevertheless, both influencers' posts have resulted in more
engagement from the part of the Instagram subscribers on the brand's page.
Although, the brand did not invest in advertising, it has benefited from the influencers’
endorsements. It is important to remember that a high followership suggests that many individuals
are interested in the content that is being disseminated through different SNSs (Graham, 2014).
An increase in the number followers on the brands’ social media pages can have positive
implications for them. The social media are increasing the brands’ chances to reach more
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individuals (including prospective consumers) and to increase their brand equity through regular
interactions with them (Veirman, Cauberghe & Hudders, 2017).
This study shed light on the Instagram users’ engagement in terms of visits, likes and
comments with the brand's Instagram page posts. The results were surprising because these metrics
(excluding new followership) that were generated by the micro influencer were better than the
values that were garnered by the celebrity. These results were not expected as the celebrity had a
larger audience and had more followers than the micro influencer. This finding is consistent with
what was reported in the previous literature review (Bernazzani, 2017). In this case, the audience
perceived the micro influencers as more trustworthy, honest and truthful than the celebrities.
Evidently, these influencers were respected by the Instagram users. However, Table 1 indicated
that the celebrity post had registered better results than the micro influencer posts in terms of new
followers for the brand's Instagram page. The celebrity attracted a higher number of Instagram
users who started following the brand’s page. On the other hand, the micro influencer has increased
the number of visits, likes and comments on the brand’s page.
Insert Table 1 here
6. Conclusions
There is scope for the brands to collaborate with online influencers to help them increase
their engagement with the subscribers of Instagram. The celebrities as well as the micro influencers
can support them in reaching wider audiences. The brands will benefit if they increase their number
of followers, visits, comments and likes. These online metrics can improve the consumer-brand
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engagement. The findings of this study have clearly indicated that the macro and micro
influencers’ posts have resulted in more Instagram users who have engaged with the jewelry brand.
The results have shown that the Instagram users’ involvement and interactions depended on the
type of influencer that was used.
This study revealed that the celebrity’s post attracted more followers, whereas the micro
influencer’s publication has led to more visits to the brand’s Instagram page. The latter has
registered a higher increase than the celebrity, in terms of the number of comments and likes. In
sum, this contribution proves that both online influencers can increase the consumers’ engagement
with brands. However, different types of influencers may result in distinct interactions and varying
levels and types of engagement.
6.1 Limitations and Future Research
This exploratory study sheds light on the effects of macro and micro endorsements on a
luxury brand’s page in Instagram. This study ought to be replicated in other contexts. Future
studies may include more subjects to ensure rigorous findings. Further research can explore more
consistent celebrity and micro influencers’ online endorsements of different types of brands. This
research has distinguished between the macro (celebrity) endorser and the micro influencer in
Instagram. There might be other factors that should also be considered in prospective studies, such
as the type of images, written content, hashtags, et cetera that are disseminated through Instagram
or other SNSs. Future research may delve into the effect of videos, insta-stories, or boomerangs
on consumer engagement. This study has shed light on influencer marketing of a jewelry brand
that was carried out via Instagram. However, other brands may use different social media platforms
to increase their consumer engagement. Hence, future research can explore whether the same
endorsers would have the same effect in other SNSs. The social media platforms, including
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Facebook and Snapchat, among others, are also encouraging the use of images and video sharing.
Therefore, researchers are encouraged to investigate the online influencers’ effect on consumer
engagement through different social networks.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank the reviewers of this chapter for their constructive remarks and
suggestions.
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... The compatibility of a personality attribute that is not socially acceptable (poor extroversion, for example) reduces the efficiency of Influencer marketing. Casais et al. (2021) have conducted a study on how celebrities and influencers' endorsements effect the engagement of the consumers towards the brand in Instagram. A recent study has shown that the Instagram users' engagements rely and depend on the type of influencer they choose to see or follow. ...
... However, the compatibility of a personality trait that is not considered socially desirable (i.e., low extroversion) decreases the effectiveness of influencer marketing. Casais et al. (2021) conducted a study on the effect of macro celebrity and micro influencer endorsements on consumerbrand engagement in Instagram. The findings of this study have shown that the macro and micro influencers' posts garnered more Instagram users with engagement with jewelry brands. ...
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... Because meso-(vs. micro-) influencers are perceived as more knowledgeable source of information, Instagram users use the available cues (verbal and visual) equally to evaluate the quality of the advertising message (Marques et al., 2021). On the contrary, micro influencers are perceived as less knowledgeable source of information and when a detailed description of the product is missing users pay more attention to the visual cues in order to evaluate the quality of the F I G U R E 6 Moderation effect of influencer type and argument quality on FP photo . ...
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