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The Effect of Macrocelebrity and Microinfluencer Endorsements on Consumer–brand Engagement in Instagram



Several brands are striving in their endeavors to find new ways to improve their consumer engagement through social media. They are using different tools including influencer marketing through social networking sites (SNSs). Therefore, this chapter addresses a gap in the academic literature as it distinguishes between two types of online influencers. The researchers investigate the effects of celebrity endorsers' and of micro influencers' posts on a brand's page in Instagram. They examine the number of followers, clicks, comments and likes that are generated following their influencer marketing. The results suggest that both influencers have generated varying levels and types of interactions. In sum, this exploratory study revealed that the chosen celebrity's posts attracted more followers to the brand's Instagram page, when compared to the micro influencer's publications. However, the latter has garnered more clicks, comments and likes, thereby increasing the consumer-brand engagement through social media. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to influencer marketing.
The effect of macro celebrity and micro influencer endorsements on
consumer-brand engagement in Instagram
Inês Rios Marques
IPAM Porto, Portugal
Beatriz Casais
University of Minho, Portugal
Mark Anthony Camilleri
University of Malta, Malta
This is a prepublication version.
How to Cite: Rios Marques, I., Casais, B. & Camilleri, M.A. (2020). The effect of macro celebrity and micro
influencer endorsements on consumer-brand engagement on Instagram. In Camilleri, M.A. (Ed.) Strategic Corporate
Communication in the Digital Age, Emerald, Bingley, UK.
Several brands are striving in their endeavors to find new ways to improve their consumer engagement through
social media. They are using different tools including influencer marketing through social networking sites
(SNSs). Therefore, this chapter addresses a gap in the academic literature as it distinguishes between two types
of online influencers. The researchers investigate the effects of celebrity endorsers’ and of micro influencers’
posts on a brand’s page on Instagram. They examine the number of followers, clicks, comments and likes that
are generated following their influencer marketing. The results suggest that both influencers have generated
varying levels and types of interactions. In sum, this exploratory study revealed that the chosen celebrity’s posts
attracted more followers to the brand’s Instagram page, when compared to the micro influencer’s publications.
However, the latter has garnered more clicks, comments and likes, thereby increasing the consumer-brand
engagement through social media. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to
influencer marketing.
Keywords: Digital Influencers, Celebrity Endorsements, Micro Influencers, Luxury Brand Engagement,
Social Media Marketing, Instagram.
1. Introduction
The advances in technology have changed the role of customers, as they have become more
active and participative, not only in the process of purchasing products and services, but also in
the activities that are promoted by the brands (Verhoef, Reinartz & Krafft, 2010). It is through
consumer involvement that brands can create emotions and relationships with customers (Barger,
Peltier & Schultz, 2016). Therefore, it is vital for companies to understand how they can improve
their interactions with their online community and to identify what factors influence online
consumer engagement (Cheng, Wu & Chen, 2018). For a brand to be successful, it has to build
relationships with customers. Social network sites (SNSs) have increased the brands’ presence in
many people's daily lives. They have created a whole new range of opportunities for companies to
enhance their business (Dwivedi, Johnson, Wilkie & De Araujo-Gil, 2019). This is also true in the
case of luxury brands, which are increasingly using social media marketing to increase their brand
equity (Godey, Manthiou, Pederzoli, Rokka, Aiello, Donvito & Singh, 2016).
The Internet has become the most widely used media. Many individuals are benefiting of
its online channels and SNSs to communicate their content among larger audiences (Jiménez-
Castillo & Sánchez-Fernández, 2019). In a similar vein, businesses are also using the Internet to
increase their impact on their consumers. Very often, they partner with social media opinion
leaders, who are also called digital influencers, to promote their products and services (Lin,
Bruning & Swarna, 2018). Several luxury brands have decided to incorporate digital media into
their communication strategies with the aim of updating and improving their online presence
(Balasyan & Casais, 2018; Kapferer & Valette-Florence, 2016). Unlike commodities, luxury
brands are special, rare and exclusive. The prestige brands are utilizing the videos to engage with
their online followers (Lee & Watkins, 2016). Their social networking enables them to build
relationships with consumers (Arrigo, 2018). For example, YouTube users who watch luxury
product vlogs are more likely to purchase from luxury brands than other online users (Lee &
Watkins, 2016).
Currently, there is a gap in the academic knowledge about what type of digital influencer
is best suited to increase awareness of luxury brand. The endorsers’ image ought to be consistent
with the brands’ positioning (Carrilat, O’Rourke & Plourde, 2019). Therefore, the aim of this study
is to explore whether it is more appropriate to use micro influencers and/or celebrities to promote
a luxury jewelry company. This research identifies two types of digital influencers: the micro
influencers and the macro-influencers. These two types of influencers have different
characteristics and have a different impact on consumers. For example, consumers identify with
micro influencers as they are similar to common people and are often perceived as authentic and
genuine, while celebrities represent aspirational social models with distinct lifestyles that
distinguish them from normal individuals (Bernazzani, 2017). Micro influencers are online opinion
leaders with a small number of followers. They may usually maintain a real relationship with their
audience and express themselves in a personal way (Chen, 2016). On the other hand, celebrities
are well known and are considered as endorsers who are capable of drawing large online audiences
because of their work and elusive lifestyles. Celebrities are considered powerful influencers and
can motivate the consumers’ attitudes and may have an impact on their buying behaviors (Vaghela,
2. Literature Review
2.1 Celebrity endorsements
The celebrity endorsement is one of the most important tools in corporate marketing and
communication strategies (Arshad, Ikram, Yahya & Nisar, 2017). Most brands today are
committed to associate themselves with famous personalities. They may consider sport
personalities, athletes and celebrities from the movie industry (Vaghela, 2012), because they are
trusted by their followers when they promote products (Schimmelpfennig & Hollensen, 2013)
and/or social causes (Casais & Proença, 2012). It is also important to understand that the use of
celebrity endorsement enhances the consumers’ attitudes toward the brand, fosters credibility in
the brand, and can ultimately increase their purchase intention (Wang & Scheinbaum, 2018). The
celebrity endorsement is recognized as a theoretically powerful communication tool for brand
marketers (Carroll, 2009). The public are fascinated by famous people and celebrities. They may
consider them as role models. Therefore, brands are using popular celebrities to advertise their
products. The celebrities’ endorsements are improving the brands’ return on investment as well as
the success rates of their marketing campaigns (Pringle & Binet, 2005).
Several studies have concluded that celebrity endorsements influence the consumers’
buying decisions (Bergkvist & Zhou, 2016). Those studies stress that online users recall those
products that are promoted by the celebrity endorsers. The credible endorsers can influence their
followers’ perceptions about the quality of the brands’ products as they may associate the endorsed
products with the image of the celebrities’ images (Hollensen & Schimmelpfennig, 2013). They
can also be branded because they can be professionally managed and they possess the attributes
and particularities of a brand (Schimmelpfennig & Hollensen, 2013).
Macro-celebrities are reference people who attract the public. They are considered
influential as they can entice the consumers’ buying attitudes and trigger behavioral changes
(Chung & Cho, 2017). The credibility of the source depends on three factors: expertise, reliability
and friendliness. Expertise evidences the communicator's ability to support that content that is
transmitted through advertising. Reliability is related to the communicator's objectivity and
honesty, and friendliness describes the attractiveness of the source (Vaghela, 2012). To gain a
broad and loyal following, macro celebrities create interesting and engaging content. As a result,
they became very popular, particularly among younger individuals who are increasingly following
them through different social media.
2.2 Micro influencers in the digital environment
Individuals including micro influencers are accessing SNSs through their mobile devices.
They are using them as their main platform to raise their profile among other social media users.
Very often, these micro influencers are considered more important in the digital environment than
popular celebrities (Dunkley, 2017). The digital influencers are sources of inspiration and advice
for other digital consumers. The originality and the uniqueness of their posts are key factors for
their effective content marketing. The micro influencers are often considered as online opinion
leaders. Hence, they can influence consumer intentions and behaviors (Casaló, Flavián & Ibáñez-
Sánchez, 2018). They use their online profile to connect with other social media users and to raise
awareness about the brands’ products. These influencers are considered important in the online
community (Khamis, Ang & Welling, 2017). Therefore, many companies are increasingly
approaching influential bloggers to promote their products and services. Very often, they are
expected to create new marketing content, including texts and images on behalf of their sponsor
(Gustafsson & Khan, 2017).
SNSs have provided a platform for ordinary online users as it enabled them to share their
personal stories and content with other individuals (Casaló et al., 2018). The strategic and targeted
development of social media content can improve the digital influencers’ (including the micro
celebrities’ or micro influencers’) public visibility and attention (Khamis et al., 2017). The
advantage of micro influencers is that they have created ‘real’ relationships with their audience
and expressed themselves more personally than most conventional celebrities (Djafarova &
Rushworth, 2017). Micro celebrities have become very popular through Instagram, but these days
they can also be found on YouTube, Twitter and other social platforms. They are benefiting of
several lucrative opportunities that were made widely available through different social media
(Djafarova & Rushworth, 2017). Hence, more individuals are becoming micro celebrities as they
gain popularity among other users through social networks. Micro celebrities would not be in a
position to raise their profile and be famous, if the SNSs did not exist. Arguably, individuals can
use different social media to become noticeable by maintaining interactive, personal relationships
with followers (Camilleri, 2018; Djafarova & Rushworth, 2017). They may be considered as
influencers when their followers take heed of their recommendations and referrals (Jin & Phua,
The online influencers may possess certain traits and characteristics that can appeal to
specific brands (Bernazzani, 2017), in terms of identification, credibility and product-endorser fit
(Schouten, Janssen & Verspaget, 2020). For example, micro influencers will usually have fewer
followers, when compared to macro influencers. However, the former ones tend to engage in
synchronous communications with their followers, as opposed to the macro influencers. The micro
influencers would also produce relevant content that appeals to online users (Barker, 2016). For
this reason, they are increasingly being employed by businesses as their endorsements are
perceived as credible and trustworthy by their followers. Hence, they contribute to raise awareness
about the brands’ products and services. All of this is only possible if marketing managers choose
the most appropriate celebrity to represent their brands (Anagnostopoulos, Parganas, Chadwick &
Liu, 2016). The brands’ partnerships with certain influencers may be based on their individual
characteristics. Bernazzani (2017) suggested that the consumers will usually identify themselves
with the micro influencers. Therefore, they would follow their advice. However, the author noted
that they would also be affected by the celebrities’ endorsements and referrals. In a similar vein,
Bergkvist, Hjalmarson & Mägi (2016) reported that the celebrity endorsements are having an
impact on the consumers' buying decisions, particularly when they realize that the celebrities are
not motivated by the money they receive, but by the quality of the products that they endorse.
The celebrities who have a large follower base are more news-oriented and are usually less
social than the micro influencers (Kay, Mulcahy & Parkinson, 2020). They may have a team of
collaborators who will help them create their digital advertisements. On the other hand, the
bloggers would attract fewer followers than celebrities, but they usually focus on more specific
topics and niches (Khamis et al., 2017). Hence, the bloggers may be considered as micro
influencers as they attract those followers who are searching for more candid and detailed product
content, and/or who may be willing to interact with them (Goodman, Booth & Matic, 2011). In
sum, many businesses are partnering with respected digital influencers, including celebrities and/or
micro influencers to raise awareness about products, and increase their sales (Hsu, Lin & Chiang,
2013). At the same time, they businesses are using the influencers to improve their customer-brand
2.3 Online Customer-Brand Engagement
The consumer engagement can be defined as the means to create, build, and enhance the
consumer relationships with the brands (Brodie, Ilic, Juric & Hollebeek, 2013; Hollebeek, Glynn
& Brodie, 2014). This concept signals a change in marketing research as the brands (as well as the
consumers) are constantly looking for new ways to boost their engagement (Harmeling, Moffett,
Arnold & Carlson, 2017). Hence, many brands are increasingly using various social networks as
communication channels to reach a wide range of prospective customers (Kabadayi & Price,
2014). Very often, the consumers themselves are disseminating information about the brands’
offerings with other consumers, because they post their opinions, reviews and questions about
certain products and/or companies. As a result, other customers respond to their comments or user
generated content.
The social media has presented new opportunities for consumer-brand engagement (Rather
& Camilleri, 2019). The consumers are not only searching for products and services. They are also
interacting with their favorite brands and exchanging information. Thus, the consumer-brand
engagement is facilitated by the social media (Hollebeek et al., 2014). This new form of
engagement involves a wide range of specific activities and behaviors including liking photos,
sharing posts, and comments that are posted in the brands’ social media profiles. Such social media
engagement has become a very popular phenomenon during the last decade (Gummerus, Liljander,
Weman & Pihlstrom, 2012). Several SNSs have provided significant opportunities for brands to
engage with their consumers. They enable them to receive comments, feedback and suggestions
from online followers. Therefore, the brands can respond to the consumers’ queries, concerns
and/or critical remarks, and can provide them with a better service (Kabadayi & Price, 2014).
Muntinga, Moorman and Smit (2011) contended that there are different levels of consumer-
brand engagement. Their consumers’ online brand related activities (COBRA) model identified
three dimensions namely, consuming, contributing and creating online content through social
networks. The authors argued that minimum level of online activity is represented by those social
media subscribers who merely read online content. These users do not respond or interact with the
digital content that is presented to them. They maintained that the intermediate level is represented
by those social media users who are engaging with the brand through their likes and comments.
These users would usually contribute to the brand's online content and may communicate with
others about the brand. They went on to suggest that the last level of online brand-related activity
involves more engagement as it is represented by those users who create user generated content
for the brand. This level consists of social media users who actively produce and publish brand-
related content. They may publish articles about the brand, create blogs, publicly review products,
create images, videos and music about the brand, et cetera (Chen, 2016).
3. Methodology
Brand managers need to determine whether it is beneficial for their company to interact
with a celebrity or micro influencer. The online users may typically relate with those influencers
who have fewer followers, as the influencers’ popularity is inversely proportional with their
interactive engagement (Chen, 2016; Basil & Herr, 2006). On the other hand, the celebrities who
have a larger follower base are more visible and recognizable in SNSs (Mackey, 2016). For this
reason, this research builds on the extant knowledge about the social media subscribers’
engagement with micro influencers and celebrities (Arrigo, 2018). Specifically, it addresses the
research gap in digital marketing as it explores online users’ engagement with social media
influencers in the context of luxury, jewelry brands.
The methodology has followed Mutinga et al. (2011) and Gummerus et al. (2012) research
approaches to capture and analyze the online users’ involvement through social media. In this
case, the data was gathered through Instagram. It is important to note that for the time being, there
are just a few studies that have investigated the online users’ engagement in Instagram (Sheldon
& Bryant, 2016). Hence, this exploratory study sheds light on the individuals’ interactions with a
brand that is using an Instagram page to showcase its products. The researchers have analyzed the
followers, clicks, likes and comments that were posted in the brand’s page.
In sum, the number of followers of the jewelry brand Instagram page has grown over the
years. At the beginning of 2017 the page had less than 2,500 followers. Over the following 2 years
the page has garnered 6,312 followers. This meant that in 2 years the brand's Instagram page grew
by about 4,000 followers. The growth in 2017 was virtually stagnant. However, during this year,
there was a surge in the number of followers. Since the creation of the Instagram page, the brand
has not invested in any online advertising, all the influencers' publications were voluntary, and the
brand has never invested in Instagram marketing to increase its followers. The majority of
followers were mostly females (75%) who were between 25 and 34 years old (40%). This group
was followed by those who were between 35 and 44 years of age (34%).
The brand employed two digital influencers to endorse its jewelry products, namely (i)
Raquel Strada, a Portuguese celebrity; and (ii) Michelle Zwaal, a Dutch top model that was
considered as a micro influencer. At the time of writing, Raquel Strada had 405k followers while
Michelle Zwal had 51.1k followers. These two digital influencers were chosen because they were
associated with the jewelry brand. Raquel Strada joined the brand through a charity project and
Michelle Zwaal was one of the models who posed for the brand in one of its communication
campaigns. It is important to mention that these two influencers have voluntarily published their
photos. They were not paid for endorsing the mentioned brand.
4. Results
4.1 The effect of micro influencer endorsement on social media interactions
The effectiveness of the social media endorsers can be measured by the number of users
who will follow the brand’s page after they share their post. Michelle Zwaal has published her
endorsements through Instagram on May 11, 2018 and on May 15, 2018. In both posts she has
clearly identified the jewelry brand and promoted its products. After her posts, there was an
increase in the number of Instagram subscribers who started following the brand’s page. The first
post has increased the number of followers from 4,948 to 4,966 and with the second publication,
the number of followers soared to 5,007. The number of followers remained the same between the
and the 14
May. This was due to the fact that in those days the brand was not mentioned in
any publication and there was no traffic to the brand’s page. The publication of May 15th, 2018
attracted more followers to the brand's page as there was an increase of 41 new followers. The
publication of May 11th, 2018 did not attract as many users to the brand's page as much as the
May 15th publication, but this post still garnered 18 new Instagram users who started following
the brand's page. Overall, the micro influencer has increased the brand's Instagram page by 59
Other key indicators that were used to analyze online users’ engagement on the brand’s
page included the page clicks, likes, and comments on posts. There is a big difference between the
page visits/clicks, likes or comments on posts. Figure 1 illustrates that, in May 2018, the metrics
indicated that there was a significant increase in the users’ engagement with the brand’s Instagram
page. This increase may be attributed to the publications of the micro influencer, who shared her
photos during the week of May 13-19, 2018. The clicks, comments, and likes for that week were
the highest that were registered in May. The comments increased to 36, the number of visitors
increased to 1,435, and the number of likes was 1,165. These figures were much higher than those
recorded during the previous weeks. Subsequently, between May 20 and May 26, the figures
declined but remained higher than what happened in April and in early May. The numbers have
dropped again in June (from May) but remained higher in June (when compared to April). These
results clearly suggest that Michelle's posts have led to an increase in the number of clicks, likes
and comments (when compared to the previous months).
Insert Figure 1 here.
4.2 The effect of celebrity endorsement in social media interactions
Raquel Strada was the personality that represented the celebrity endorser in this study. This
celebrity has voluntarily posted a photo (on her Instagram page) that clearly identified the jewelry
brand on December 13th, 2018. As a result, the number of followers on the brand’s page have
increased from 5,756 to 5,910 with only one publication on Instagram. The researchers noted that
after the endorsement of Raquel Strada, the number of followers on the brand's Instagram page
grew by 154 users.
During the month of the publication, the clicks, likes, and comments have increased
significantly, compared to the previous months (as reported in Figure 2). The number of visits,
comments and likes were at their highest when the celebrity shared her photo (i.e. during the week
of December 9-15, 2018). Over the course of this week, the comments rose to 32, the visits
increased to 923, and the likes were 556. As the number of page visits increased, the researchers
expected that the number of comments had to increase as well. However, this was not the case. It
is also important to mention that there was a large discrepancy between the number of clicks and
likes when compared to the number of comments. Notwithstanding, the number of comments were
at their lowest averages in January 2019 (i.e. the month after the celebrity’s image was published
in Instagram). In the weeks following publication, there was less engagement from the part of the
brand’s followers. For example, the number comments that were registered at the beginning of
December was very similar to the number of comments that were recorded in January.
Insert Figure 2 here
5. Discussion
This research has analyzed the difference between a micro influencer and a macro influencer,
who have endorsed a jewelry brand through Instagram. Both social media influencers’ posts have
increased the number of followers and interactions with the brand’s page. Therefore, they have
communicated the brand’s message to a larger audience on Instagram.
The micro influencer has increased 59 new followers in May 2018, whilst macro influencer
(i.e. the celebrity) has garnered 154 new followers in December 2018 on the brand’s page. These
figures have somewhat reflected the number of followers of both endorsers as Raquel Strada
(celebrity) had more followers (i.e. 405k) than Michelle Zwaal (i.e. 51.1k). The jewelry brand’s
Instagram page had 53k followers at the time of this study. The celebrity had more followers than
the micro influencer and the jewelry brand, hence she could reach a larger number of Instagram
users. In fact, she has attracted new followers to the brand's Instagram page. In this sense, this
finding corroborates with the relevant literature on influencer marketing, as the celebrity
endorsement was more effective than the micro influencer post, in terms of increased followers
for the brand's Instagram page. Nevertheless, both influencers' posts have resulted in more
engagement from the part of the Instagram subscribers on the brand's page.
Although, the brand did not invest in advertising, it has benefited from the influencers’
endorsements. It is important to remember that a high followership suggests that many individuals
are interested in the content that is being disseminated through different SNSs (Graham, 2014).
An increase in the number followers on the brands’ social media pages can have positive
implications for them. The social media are increasing the brands’ chances to reach more
individuals (including prospective consumers) and to increase their brand equity through regular
interactions with them (Veirman, Cauberghe & Hudders, 2017).
This study shed light on the Instagram users’ engagement in terms of visits, likes and
comments with the brand's Instagram page posts. The results were surprising because these metrics
(excluding new followership) that were generated by the micro influencer were better than the
values that were garnered by the celebrity. These results were not expected as the celebrity had a
larger audience and had more followers than the micro influencer. This finding is consistent with
what was reported in the previous literature review (Bernazzani, 2017). In this case, the audience
perceived the micro influencers as more trustworthy, honest and truthful than the celebrities.
Evidently, these influencers were respected by the Instagram users. However, Table 1 indicated
that the celebrity post had registered better results than the micro influencer posts in terms of new
followers for the brand's Instagram page. The celebrity attracted a higher number of Instagram
users who started following the brand’s page. On the other hand, the micro influencer has increased
the number of visits, likes and comments on the brand’s page.
Insert Table 1 here
6. Conclusions
There is scope for the brands to collaborate with online influencers to help them increase
their engagement with the subscribers of Instagram. The celebrities as well as the micro influencers
can support them in reaching wider audiences. The brands will benefit if they increase their number
of followers, visits, comments and likes. These online metrics can improve the consumer-brand
engagement. The findings of this study have clearly indicated that the macro and micro
influencers’ posts have resulted in more Instagram users who have engaged with the jewelry brand.
The results have shown that the Instagram users’ involvement and interactions depended on the
type of influencer that was used.
This study revealed that the celebrity’s post attracted more followers, whereas the micro
influencer’s publication has led to more visits to the brand’s Instagram page. The latter has
registered a higher increase than the celebrity, in terms of the number of comments and likes. In
sum, this contribution proves that both online influencers can increase the consumers’ engagement
with brands. However, different types of influencers may result in distinct interactions and varying
levels and types of engagement.
6.1 Limitations and Future Research
This exploratory study sheds light on the effects of macro and micro endorsements on a
luxury brand’s page in Instagram. This study ought to be replicated in other contexts. Future
studies may include more subjects to ensure rigorous findings. Further research can explore more
consistent celebrity and micro influencers’ online endorsements of different types of brands. This
research has distinguished between the macro (celebrity) endorser and the micro influencer in
Instagram. There might be other factors that should also be considered in prospective studies, such
as the type of images, written content, hashtags, et cetera that are disseminated through Instagram
or other SNSs. Future research may delve into the effect of videos, insta-stories, or boomerangs
on consumer engagement. This study has shed light on influencer marketing of a jewelry brand
that was carried out via Instagram. However, other brands may use different social media platforms
to increase their consumer engagement. Hence, future research can explore whether the same
endorsers would have the same effect in other SNSs. The social media platforms, including
Facebook and Snapchat, among others, are also encouraging the use of images and video sharing.
Therefore, researchers are encouraged to investigate the online influencers’ effect on consumer
engagement through different social networks.
The authors would like to thank the reviewers of this chapter for their constructive remarks and
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... The compatibility of a personality attribute that is not socially acceptable (poor extroversion, for example) reduces the efficiency of Influencer marketing. Casais et al. (2021) have conducted a study on how celebrities and influencers' endorsements effect the engagement of the consumers towards the brand in Instagram. A recent study has shown that the Instagram users' engagements rely and depend on the type of influencer they choose to see or follow. ...
... However, the compatibility of a personality trait that is not considered socially desirable (i.e., low extroversion) decreases the effectiveness of influencer marketing. Casais et al. (2021) conducted a study on the effect of macro celebrity and micro influencer endorsements on consumerbrand engagement in Instagram. The findings of this study have shown that the macro and micro influencers' posts garnered more Instagram users with engagement with jewelry brands. ...
The study aims to determine just how effective influencer marketing is in the digital age, where authenticity and intention can be conflicting factors. With the rapid development in the digital marketing age, the market cannot afford to miss out on a single piece of information considering that it is data that determines the trajectory of businesses. A total of 423 respondents have answered the survey and the data gathered were analyzed using ANOVA and regression. The findings asserted the following: (1) Among the four metrics included in this study, companies tend to choose an influencer/KOL with a good reputation and high credibility over the other influencer metrics, (2) Target customers buy, use, and recommend products of Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs) who have good reputation and high credibility over the other influencer metrics, (3) Target customers buy, accept and recommend products endorsed by influencers over celebrities, (4) Among the influencer/KOL metrics, the target customers prefer reputation and credibility over other metrics, (5) reputation and credibility are significantly associated with influencer marketing, and (6) advertising disclosure, reputation and credibility, and transparency as Key Opinion Leader (KOL) metrics have all positive effect to influencer marketing. Keywords: authentic creator content, digital age, influencer, influencer marketing
... Because meso-(vs. micro-) influencers are perceived as more knowledgeable source of information, Instagram users use the available cues (verbal and visual) equally to evaluate the quality of the advertising message (Marques et al., 2021). On the contrary, micro influencers are perceived as less knowledgeable source of information and when a detailed description of the product is missing users pay more attention to the visual cues in order to evaluate the quality of the F I G U R E 6 Moderation effect of influencer type and argument quality on FP photo . ...
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Companies are increasingly relying on influencer marketing as a relevant pillar of their marketing communication strategy. It is therefore of vital importance to practitioners to understand better under what conditions a larger number of followers can trigger more positive responses in consumers than a smaller number and vice versa. Through a laboratory study, the authors recorded simultaneously eye‐tracking and electroencephalogram data from 109 participants to test the research question with a 2 (type of influencer: micro vs. meso) × 2 (argument quality: weak vs. strong) between‐subject design using mediated moderated linear regression analysis. The results highlight that the photo of the influencer using the product attracts more attention (i.e., fixation percentage) in the weak (vs. strong) argument quality only for micro‐ and not for meso‐influencers. Moreover, we found a statistically significant index of moderated mediation through the level of attention, which suggests that the percentage of fixations on the photo mediates the joint effect of influencer type and argument quality on behavioral activation system (BAS). Specifically, we found that when the advertising post presents weak argument quality the enhanced attention to the photo of the micro‐influencer leads to an increase in the BAS, with possible implications on advertising effectiveness and online message design. Our findings offer important theoretical and practical contributions to the influencer marketing domain by showing how the different verbal and visual elements of influencer posts affect Instagram users' responses to such posts.
... Some studies have also used EEG to measure engagement. It has been studied in many different settings: gaming [116][117][118], training [119], news reading [120,121], electronic and mobile health interventions [122], online shopping [123], social media [124,125], and advertising [126,127]. Depending on the context, there are various engagement measures. ...
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Public communication campaigns are among the tools for promoting electricity saving. A crucial task in the process of creating a campaign is to design a simple message to effectively reach the average consumer. It is a beneficial practice to create alternative messages and pretest them to find the most effective. The research methodology during pretesting includes both quantitative and qualitative methods. However, it is believed that the outcomes obtained with the use of conventional techniques are not fully reliable. Therefore, the following question arises: What additional research methods should be applied at the stage of testing the message of a communication campaign so that its effectiveness can be assessed more reliably and/or improved even before its broadcast? In this study, we aim to present the possibility of applying cognitive neuroscience methods in conjunction with a questionnaire to experimentally check the effectiveness of the message using the example of selected electricity-saving communication campaigns. The key results of this study indicate that merging conscious and subconscious reactions to media messages allows us to gain new knowledge that can be used in the future to improve the communication campaign effectiveness. Our investigation showed the benefits that can be obtained by synergizing traditional research methods with neuroscientific approaches.
... As in the private sector, it has been observed that, in the academic field, the influencer types and the effects and relationships of these types from different perspectives have been discussed in the last 2 years. Looking at the literature, it has been determined that the effects of the relationship between influencer types and various variables (factors such as sponsored content warning, influencer's approval, identification, credibility, product categories, personal presentation, perceived brand image, perceived similarity, interaction, attractiveness, credibility, etc.) on purchasing and brand attitude, and the effects of influencer types are examined in terms of product placement, labeling policies, follower numbers, and follower interactions (Glover, 2009;Gräve, 2017;Hollensen, S. & Schimmelpfennig, 2013;Theocharis & Papaio-Maou, 2020;Rios, Casais & Camilleri, 2021;De Vierman, Cauberghe & Hudders, 2017;Britt, Hayes, Britt, Park, 2020;Kay vd, 2020;Coursaris, Wietske & Kourganoff, 2018). It has been determined that all of these studies have been examined according to the number of followers. ...
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This research was carried out to learn to what extent the musical sensations of individuals with autism who are interested in music can be improved with effective music education. An individual with autism who has an interest in music was selected for the research from a pilot study. During the research process, solfeggio, piano, and elementary vocal training lessons were given with the active participation of the individual. The research is an experimental study with a single subject. Action research, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in this study. To collect data, audio and visual materials, researcher observation form, expert opinion form, parent interview form, and descriptive analysis were used. A descriptive content analysis was performed on the collected data. The findings of the study reveal that the solfeggio, piano, and basic vocal training lessons given to individuals with autism are effective in improving their musical senses. In the light of this research, it is understood that a one-to-one, regular, and continuous musical education specific to individuals with autism will greatly contribute to the socio-cultural development of these individuals.
... SJME Other research investigated the individuals' gratifications from social networking services (SNS) including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Linkedin, as well as blogs and review websites (Bevan-Dye, 2020; Capriotti et al., 2020;Belanche et al., 2019;Sanz-Blas et al., 2019;Leung, 2013;Park et al., 2009). Many authors have used UGT to explore the gratifications of social media subscribers as more individuals are becoming devoted, engaged and highly motivated to upload content in specific SNS services (Rios Marques et al., 2020;Malik et al., 2016). They are also listening to music and watching videos (Khan, 2017;Krause et al., 2014), sharing links (Baek et al., 2011), participating in groups (Karnik et al., 2013;Park et al., 2009), sharing news (Lee and Ma, 2012) and photos (Malik et al., 2016) through social media. ...
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Purpose: The outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and its preventative social distancing measures have led to a dramatic increase in subscriptions to paid streaming services. Online users are increasingly accessing live broadcasts as well as recorded video content and digital music services through Internet and mobile devices. In this context, this study explores the individuals’ uses and gratifications from online streaming technologies during COVID-19. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research has adapted key measures from the ‘Technology Acceptance Model’ (TAM) and from the ‘Uses and Gratifications Theory’ (UGT) to better understand the individuals’ intentions to use online streaming technologies. A structural equations partial least squares’ (SEM-PLS 3) confirmatory composite approach was used to analyze the gathered data. Findings: The individuals’ perceived usefulness and ease of use of online streaming services were significant antecedents of their intentions to use the mentioned technologies. Moreover, this study suggests that the research participants sought emotional gratifications from online streaming technologies, as they allowed them to distract themselves into a better mood, and to relax in their leisure time. Evidently, they were using them to satisfy their needs for information and entertainment. Research implications: This study contributes to the academic literature by generating new knowledge about the individuals´ perceptions, motivations, and intentions to use online streaming technologies to watch recorded movies, series, and live broadcasts. Practical implications: The findings imply that there is scope for the providers of online streaming services to improve their customer-centric marketing by refining the quality and content of their recorded programs, and through regular interactions with subscribers and personalized recommender systems. Originality/Value: This study integrates the TAM and UGT frameworks to better understand the effects of the users’ perceptions, ritualized and instrumental motivations on their intentions to continue watching movies, series and broadcasts through online streaming technologies, during COVID-19.
... These channels are often perceived as highly trustworthy sources by prospective customers (Filieri, 2016). The emergence of user-generated content in fora, newsgroups, social media and crowdsourcing have led to positive or negative word of mouth publicity on brands, products and services (Rios Marques, Casais & Camilleri, 2020). ...
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Businesses are increasingly using corporate communication technologies to interact with prospective customers. Therefore, this study explores the corporate executives' readiness to use interactive media for engagement with online users. The methodology relied on valid and reliable measures to explore the participants' pace of technological innovation, perceived usefulness, ease of use and social influences, as these factors can have an effect on their engagement with interactive technologies. The findings supported the scales' content validity as the structural equations modeling approach has reported a satisfactory fit for this study's research model. The results indicated that the pace of technological innovation, perceived usefulness, ease of use of online technologies as well as social influences were significant antecedents for the marketing executives' engagement with online users through digital media. This contribution implies that corporate communications executives ought to continuously monitor conversations in social media and review sites, and should respond to their online followers in a timely manner. In conclusion, it identifies its limitations and suggests possible research avenues to academia.
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Nowadays, most Iranian people consider Instagram as the best platform for Hidden employment as well as the easiest one to earn money online. Since a few years ago, only macro-celebrities were able to make that much money from cyberspace, especially by focusing on a specific platform like Instagram, but now the time has come for micro businesses and micro influencers. According to some official research centers, the income from advertising by Instagram influencers per year is about seven hundred to one thousand billion tomans and the income of the top six hundred Iranian Instagram influencers is almost equal to the income of IRIB advertisements. More than two hundred & fifty thousand small businesses are also earning money this way. Now you may be wondering how it is possible to make money on social media as a so-called micro actor. To achieve this goal, first You should gain a clear perception of the reason why to work, how to use hashtags, how to create minimal visualizations to match the content hamburger, how to make proper network advertising, how to layout your posts and simultaneously you should be able to work with analytic tools for content and feedback analysis of Comments and Likes. If you are interested in above mentioned phrases, this article would be helpful to you to some extent.
Purpose This paper aims to examine a two-way interaction between social influencers’ number of followers (micro vs meso) and argument quality (weak vs strong) on consumers’ self-reported and brain responses to advertising posts on Instagram. Further, drawing upon source credibility theory and contemporary theories of persuasion, the Instagram users’ perceptions of the influencer’s credibility are predicted to mediate the hypothesized effects. Design/methodology/approach Through an online (N = 192) and a lab study (N = 112), the authors examined Instagram users’ responses to an advertising post from Instagram influencers in terms of perceived source credibility and electronic word-of-mouth intention, using validated multi-item scales from existing literatures and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures. The hypotheses were tested with a 2 (type of influencer: micro vs meso) × 2 (argument quality: weak vs strong) between-subject design using mediated moderated linear regression analysis. Findings The results highlight that meso-influencers are perceived as a credible source of information only when their product-related post provides strong argument quality. Moreover, this process involves an increase in users’ cognitive work (measured with EEG), with possible implications on marketing communication strategies and online message design. Research limitations/implications The limitations of the work can serve as ideas for future research. First, this study did not account for the influencer’s relevance and resonance. Second, the authors studied consumer responses to online communication produced by Instagram influencers within a single product category. Another important product type distinction that requires further attention is between hedonic and utilitarian products. Finally, the two studies only used positive review content. Further research should study how consumers evaluate the source credibility of a micro- vs meso-influencer when they are exposed to negative reviews containing weak vs strong arguments. Practical implications The results suggest that marketers should carefully consider Instagram influencers based on the trade-offs between credibility and reach. Specifically, micro-influencers are perceived as more credible sources of information than meso-influencers, which means that they have greater potential to affect Instagram users’ behavior. Moreover, the results suggest that meso-influencers should leverage argument quality to enhance their credibility and draw greater positive outcomes for the products and brands they endorse. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate how the interaction between the type of social media influencer and the argument quality affects consumers’ self-reported and brain responses to advertising posts on Instagram. Moreover, using neuroscience, this study aims to shed light on the neurophysiological processes that drive consumer responses to product-related communication posted by different influencer types.
Social media influencer (SMI) advertising is on the rise; however, extant theory regarding the determinants of SMI advertising effectiveness is undeveloped. The present research establishes when and how the type of SMI based on the number of followers influences SMI advertising effectiveness. Specifically, the findings of four experimental studies show that micro-influencers (those who have 10,000 to 100,000 followers) are more persuasive than mega-influencers (those who have more than 1 million followers) because endorsements by micro-influencers (versus mega-influencers) bestow higher perceptions of authenticity on the endorsed brand, which “rubs off” from the perceptions regarding influencer authenticity. However, this differential effect of SMI type through influencer and brand authenticity occurs only when the endorsed product is perceived as hedonic (as opposed to utilitarian) consumption. From a theoretical perspective, these findings extend prior research on how endorsements from different SMI types vary in terms of their persuasiveness, shed light on the underlying mechanism, and identify consumption type as an important boundary condition. From a practical perspective, we offer managerial implications for enhancing the effectiveness of SMI advertising strategies by taking into consideration SMI types, consumption contexts, and message framing styles.
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Academics, practitioners and standard setters have highlighted the importance of focusing on the relevance of nonfinancial reporting disclosures, calling for a debate on how best to develop corporative communicative skills with different stakeholders to conduct proper materiality analysis. To this end, the need for an inclusive process is widely acknowledged, where engagement and close relationships between an organization and its various stakeholders are crucial to identifying the main issues that the company should consider in a materiality analysis. In this chapter, an analysis of integrated reporting will be performed as an innovative corporate communication instrument that offers a complete picture of corporate performance and the important role of the concept of materiality. Then, the concept of the materiality process will be explored in a set of Spanish early adopters of integrated reporting (IR), which will help us understand IR technology within the organizational realm and will shed some light on the materiality determination process as a communicative tool. The study revealed five main themes connected to the materiality determination process: materiality conceptualization, sources of evidence on materiality, prioritization of stakeholder engagement, the perceived advantages of the process, and its problems. The final section will set out the future challenges of IR engagement and the research opportunities that are associated with this innovative form of communicative reporting.
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There are growing discussions of social media influencers and their effectiveness in endorsing products. Further, recent policy regulations are requiring social media influencers to disclose sponsored content when using a form of native advertising. This research examined the effect of macro-influencers (high likes) and micro-influencers (low likes) and their disclosure of native advertising sponsorship on consumer evaluations of products. Results from a 2 × 2 experiment first show that consumers exposed to the micro-influencer condition report higher levels of product knowledge, and consumers exposed to the disclosure condition reported the products endorsed by social media influencers to be more attractive. The results also show that when exposed to micro-influencers who disclose, consumers have higher levels of purchase intentions than when exposed to macro-influencers who do not disclose, as well as higher purchase intentions than for posts where sponsorship is not disclosed by influencers. The important findings of this research for theory, practice and policy are discussed.
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This research integrates the congruity and the social identity theories to better understand the consumer-brand relationships. A structural equation modelling approach was used to explore the drivers of brand loyalty in the context of upscale hotels. The findings suggest that the customers are increasingly engaging with the brands that reflect their identity and personal values. The consumer-brand value congruity and the hospitality businesses’ delivery of high service quality were found to be significant antecedents of consumer-brand identification and engagement. Moreover, we reported that consumer-brand identification is a precursor of consumer-brand engagement and brand loyalty. In conclusion, this contribution implies that luxury hotels ought to satisfy their customers’ needs for distinctiveness and self-enhancement whilst exceeding their expectations on service quality. Abbreviations: CBE - Consumer-Brand Engagement; CBI - Consumer-Brand Identification; CA - Conscious Attention; EP - Enthused Participation; SC - Social Connection; BL - Brand Loyalty; VC - Consumer-Brand Value Congruity; SQ - Perceived Service Quality
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In their marketing efforts, companies increasingly abandon traditional celebrity endorsers in favor of social media influencers, such as vloggers and Instafamous personalities. The effectiveness of using influencer endorsements as compared to traditional celebrity endorsements is not well understood. Therefore, the present research investigated the impact of celebrity vs. influencer endorsements on advertising effectiveness (attitudes toward the advertisement and product, and purchase intention), moderated by product-endorser fit. Moreover, this research investigated two potential mediators underlying this relationship: identification (perceived similarity and wishful identification) and credibility (trustworthiness and expertise). Two experiments (N = 131, N = 446) investigated celebrity vs. influencer endorsers with good vs. poor fit with a beauty and a fitness product (Study 1), or a food and a fashion product (Study 2). Overall, our results showed that participants identify more with influencers than celebrities, feel more similar to influencers than celebrities, and trust influencers more than celebrities. In terms of advertising effectiveness, similarity, wishful identification, and trust mediate the relationship between type of endorser and advertising effectiveness. Product-endorser did not explain the relationship between type of endorser and any of the mediating and dependent variables. In all, our results show the added value of using influencer endorsers over celebrity endorsers and the importance of similarity, identification and trust in this process.
Conference Paper
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This study explores the relationships between the consumer-brand identification (CBI) construct and the customers’ satisfaction, commitment, trust and loyalty toward hospitality brands. The methodology included a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) that assessed the reliability and validity of previous tried and tested measures in marketing sciences. This study has supported the scales' content validity. A two-step structural equation modelling approach was used to analyze the relationships among the latent and observed constructs. The findings have reported a satisfactory fit for this study's research model. The empirical results shed light on the direct and indirect effects on brand loyalty. This contribution implies that brand trust had the highest effect on brand loyalty, and this was followed my other determinants, including; consumer-brand identification, consumer satisfaction and commitment. In conclusion, this paper identifies its research limitations and puts forward possible research avenues.
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Brands are facing the challenge of using mass marketing strategies and simultaneously accentuating the exclusivity dimension of their products in order to get a higher market value. This fact rises the need of a better understanding about the presence of luxury brands in the electronic commerce. While some luxury fashion groups have already launched their e-commerce websites, most of luxury goods’ companies still lack guidance on how to preserve luxury brand identity within the ubiquitous digital world. This paper is focused on e-commerce in luxury clothes industry and analyses how companies may overcome the ambivalence between the importance of exclusivity in luxury brands and ubiquity allowed by the Internet. was used as a case study. Based on secondary data from, a luxury fashion company, the authors discuss eight propositions created based on literature review. Findings show that it is possible to keep the sense of exclusivity in online platforms, providing appropriate service related to the concepts of luxury. Other factors that enable the existence of luxury in ubiquitous environment and differ luxury e-commerce platforms from mass market are product range, the web design, delivery and return policies. The paper explores challenges for the theory and practice of e-commerce in luxury brands.
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Purpose Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly communicating and interacting with stakeholders through digital media. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the SME owner-managers’ attitudes toward the pace of technological innovation, and it examines their perceived use and ease of digital media for stakeholder engagement. Design/methodology/approach The research methodology integrated measuring items from the technology acceptance model, the pace of technological innovation and corporate social responsibility, to better understand the SME owner-managers’ rationale for using digital media. The respondents were expected to reveal their attitudes toward commercial, ethical and social responsibilities. Findings A factor analysis indicated that the SME owner-managers were perceiving the usefulness of digital media to engage with marketplace stakeholders. Whilst, a stepwise regression analysis reported positive and significant relationships between the pace of technological innovation and the SMEs’ perceived usefulness of digital media for communication purposes. The results also revealed that young owner-managers from large SMEs were more likely to utilize digital media than their smaller counterparts. Originality/value This contribution implies that both small and micro businesses are utilizing digital media to improve their stakeholder engagement. This study indicates that the pace of technological innovation, the SMEs’ perceived ease of use of digital media, as well as their commercial responsibility were significant antecedents for the SMEs’ online communication.
Despite the growing interest in digital influencers as a brand communication tool in recent years, much remains to be explored to understand how they can build a bond with their followers that shapes their perceptions and behaviors towards the endorsed brands. This study aims to determine how effective digital influencers are in recommending brands via electronic word-of-mouth by examining whether the potential influence they have on their followers may affect brand engagement in self-concept, brand expected value and intention to purchase recommended brands. The results from a sample of 280 followers show that the perceived influential power of digital influencers not only helps to generate engagement but also increases expected value and behavioral intention regarding the recommended brands. Moreover, brand engagement in self-concept raises brand expected value and both variables also affect the intention to purchase recommended brands. The study contributes to a deeper understanding of the persuasive power of digital influencers, which is still limited. It can be also useful for companies when developing their own social media communication strategy.
Can a negatively publicised celebrity endorser ever lead to favourable brand attitudes toward a luxury fashion product (i.e. a perfume)? An online experiment was conducted with a sample of 260 target-relevant female consumers where two factors were manipulated: the brand’s positioning objective (image reinforcement versus revitalisation) and the type of celebrity endorser (naturally versus incidentally controversial). Consumer attitudes towards the luxury fashion brand were generally more positive when the type of celebrity endorser was consistent with the brand’s positioning strategy, that is, when a naturally controversial celebrity endorses a brand with a reinforcement strategy and when an incidentally controversial celebrity endorses a brand with a revitalisation strategy. Furthermore, this effect was mediated by consumers’ appreciation of the celebrity-positioning match-up (i.e. the consistency between the celebrity’s persona and the brand’s strategy) but not by their perceptions of appropriateness (i.e. the traditional match-up hypothesis). Several implications suggested by these findings are developed.
Online social networking sites (SNSs) has become one of the most popular activities for people accessing the Internet. In this regard, many Businesses create their online brand communities in order to build further relationship with their customers. The objective of this study is to examine the potential factors of customers' loyalty intentions in online brand communities. Current study proposed a research framework in which information quality, need for social capital, emotion, and perceived critical mass were expected to influence customer satisfaction and relationship commitment, which will in turn result in loyalty intention. Data was collected from customers in two Facebook fan pages (Xiaomi and MyBeautyDiary.taiwan) that represent wristband (search product) and facial mask (experience product). Results indicated that information completeness and need for bridging social capital were significant predictors of satisfaction and relationship commitment for both brand communities, while pleasure and perceived critical mass were influential factors of customer satisfaction across two brands. Further, believability and need for maintaining social capital were significant indicators only for facial mask community consumers, while arousal was important only for wristband fans. Findings from this study provided directions for online brand communities to develop customer loyalty strategies.