PreprintPDF Available

The role of forced, active gas, flux for the generation of AHE in LENR experiments: discussion on procedures to increase it

Authors:
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet.

Abstract and Figures

A) General overview of INFN-LNF experiments using Constantan wires and motivations. Several of key points shown at ICCF22 (September 8-13, 2019, Assisi-Italy), [DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26669.64485]. B) Experimental evidence of the role of the Deuterium gas flux and electrical excitations, by unbiased collection and analysis of (our) over 80 tests/experiments (July-September 2019): mostly published on J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 33 (2020) 1-28. C) Short description of the new circuitry, developed and used since October 2019 for new experiments: able to inject AC Voltage, Current limited (i.e. +-600 V, 200 mA), at overall efficiency quite larger than described in the JCMNS paper. Based on an array (seriesparallel) of High Voltage (120 V), High Current (50 mA), high speed (Tr=100ns) Constant Current Diode (SiC tech.); added booster capacitors to accomplish DBD regimes, if any.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
We restart from the Research to safeguard the Creation.
The role of forced, active gas, flux for the generation of AHE in LENR
experiments: discussion on procedures to increase it.
Francesco Celani(1,2,3,*)
C. Lorenzetti(2,3), G. Vassallo(2,3,4), S. Fiorilla(2,3), E. Purchi(2,3), S. Cupellini(2,3), P. Cerreoni(2,3), M. Nakamura(2,3),
R. Burri(2), P. Boccanera(2,3), A. Spallone(1,2,3), E. F. Marano(2).
(1) Ist. Naz. Fis. Nuc.-Lab. Naz. Frascati (INFN-LNF), Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati-Italy.
(2) Intern. Soc. for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ISCMNS_L1), Via Cavour 26, 03013 Ferentino-Italy.
(3) European Union, Program H2020, Project #951974: CleanHME.
(4) DIIS, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo-Italy.
(*) Email: franzcelani@libero.it; francesco.celani@lnf.infn.it
ANV4 ASSISI 2020, Workshop LENR&Earth, September 10-12, 2020.
Hotel Domus Pacis Assisi, Piazza Porziuncola 1, 06081 Santa Maria degli Angeli (PG)-Italy
2
Outline
A) General overview of INFN-LNF experiments using Constantan wires and motivations.
Several of key points shown at ICCF22 (September 8-13, 2019, Assisi-Italy),
[DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26669.64485].
B) Experimental evidence of the role of the Deuterium gas flux and electrical excitations,
by unbiased collection and analysis of (our) over 80 tests/experiments (July-September
2019): mostly published on J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 33 (2020) 1-28.
C) Short description of the new circuitry, developed and used since October 2019 for new
experiments: able to inject AC Voltage, Current limited (i.e. +-600 V, 200 mA), at overall
efficiency quite larger than described in the JCMNS paper. Based on an array (series-
parallel) of High Voltage (120 V), High Current (50 mA), high speed (Tr=100ns) Constant
Current Diode (SiC tech.); added booster capacitors to accomplish DBD regimes, if any.
D) Overall conclusions with possible line-guides to get AHE: discussed along the whole talk.
3
Path to get AHE, after 31 years of experiments.
(according to general and our specific know-how)
1) At first, it is necessary to load proper materials (Pd, Ti, Ni, alloys) with active gas (H2, D2,..);
Commons experience, worldwide, in almost all LENR experiments;
2) Induce Non-equilibrium conditions of loaded materials by: thermal or concentration
gradients, movement of charged species, phase transitions, voltage stimulation,……….....;
Mostly our specific evidence/suggestion, since April 1989, later-on “common sense”;
3) Observed experimentally that the “interaction” of active gas with the gas-loaded material,
as strong and fast as possible, is main factor governing the AHE generation: the active gas
FLUX seems to be the main parameter but it needs external energy to activate it;
Almost clear proof only after in-deep analysis of >80 experiments (IJCMNS, July 2020);
4) Efforts to develop innovative procedures to minimize the (electrical) external energy
needed to generate non-equilibrium of the, gas loaded, active material: both into the bulk
(like electromigration phenomena) and at the surface (at sub-micrometric size).
Current and next experiments at INFN-LNF.
4
Procedures
1) Explore, in some details, the role of Hydrogen (H) or Deuterium (D) flux through specific
sub-micrometric materials interacting, at their surface, with accelerated electrons
and/or ions, to produce AHE in a way as stable as possible, avoiding its reduction over
time. The kind of gas used depends mainly on the host material that [ab/ad]sorbes it.
2) Tentative simplifications of control/excitation parameter: mainly, simple, electrical
stimulation, unipolar (+,-) or bipolar up to 1200 Vpp at 50 Hz sinusoidal (at the moment;
in the future highers frequencies/volts and asymmetric shapes), by a counter electrode.
3) New geometrical set-up, with the core of the reactor as homogeneous as possible in
respect to local temperature gradients inside the reactor: NO knots, Capuchin knots,
super-Capuchin knots, as previously developed by our group since 2015.
5
4) Local thermal gradients, due to specific geometrical assembling (like several simple
knots, Capuchin knot), although don’t need extra energy to operate (i.e. intrinsically
they have very high efficiency), are quite difficult to be modelled and prone to aging
effects (due to thermal cycling), up to catastrophic failure of the active wires.
5) We need UNDERSTANDING of the effects: simplification (i.e. avoiding) of each extra
contributes, even if previously proved to be useful for AHE generation, is mandatory at
this stage of the research. We need to evaluate the “weight” of each contribute.
6) Focused on the roles of: A) Richardson’s (i.e. electron emission, due to the absolute
temperature of the kind of material at the Anode surface, adopting old nomenclatures
of vacuum tube) and Child-Langmuir laws (electron transport, apart specific constant
and surface area, are proportional to the Anode-Cathode Voltage^1.5 and distance^-2):
active at quite low pressures; B) Paschen regimes (DC and even AC, mainly due to H, D
and/or noble gas mixtures) operated at mild pressures, as later detailed;
6
7) Results on AHE values and its stability over time depend, among others, on the
waveform at the counter-electrode surface, especially high frequency components
(several times spontaneous) when some proper high voltage threshold are overcome:
sometimes we observed that non-linear effects, in proper conditions, could induce
positive feedback of our specific interest. It is one of the effects to be investigated in the
near-future experiments.
7
Evolution of the experimental set-up from the point of view of counter-electrode
Fig. 1. Constantan wire reactor (A); added counter-electrode grounded (B); counter-electrode polarized
with direct current (C); counter-electrode polarized with alternating current (D).
8
Basic starting points and conflicting requirements
A) In principle, to get some kind of anomalous effects (thermal and/or “nuclear”) in the
experiments using some specific elements (Pd, Ti, Ni, alloys,…) that interact with
Hydrogen and/or their isotopes, is quite simple: just allow that the H, D is LARGELY
absorbed on the surface (even bulk) of the specific material, especially with sub-
micrometric (or better nanometric) dimensionality, and “force” the H, D to move (i.e.
“flux”) inside/outside of the material, avoiding that the H, D fully escape out (e.g.
experiments made by G. F. Fralick-NASA 1989, Y. Iwamura, F. Celani, G. Preparata, M. Mc.
Kubre, M. Swartz,….). It was observed, few times, that also large flux of electrons is
beneficial to increase the effects.
9
B) Recently, in gaseous High Temperature LENR system we found and showed that, almost
always, the AHE, if and when obtained (under large operating difficulties), tends to
decrease over time, until reaches values close to Zero Watts: the system is self-stabilizing
toward ZERO AHE. Periodic external excitation” to resume (at least) flux is needed to
keep the AHE alive. Some details described/discussed at “2019 MIT Colloquium” (March
2019, USA), “Assisi nel Vento 3” Meeting (May 2019, Italy), ICCF22 (September 2019,
Assisi, Italy).
C) More generally, at least according to our experience/experimentations, we have
conflicting requirements about the operating conditions: it seems a target impossible to
achieve, as explained in D) and E).
10
D) High pressures (as high as possible) of H2 (or D2) are needed to allow loading of the active
material: historically pure Pd, Ti, Ni; now alloys like Ni-Cu at submicrometric.
size.*Adopted by us Cu55-Ni44-Mn1 alloy (named Constantan) further coated by large
amounts of Fe, Sr, K, Mn (multilayer construction, sub-micrometric dimensionality).
E) Low pressures are needed to allow emission of electrons, similarly to (old) vacuum tube
devices (i.e. Diode, Triode, ….) from the active material having Low Working Function, H
loaded, at high temperatures. But low pressures---high temperatures combinations cause
the de-loading of stored H in short times (hours at the best, depends on temperature).
F) The use of mild pressures and quite high voltages (Paschen curve) in the counter
electrode is a compromise among such conflicting requirements. Obviously the distance
among the 2 electrodes has to be kept as low as possible (few millimeters) to avoid
operations at prohibitive high voltages.
11
Fig. 2. Paschen curve. Direct current breakdown tension Vb, at RT, of several gases versus
pressure*distance (p*d) between electrodes . Ar mixtures enables discharges at lower voltages.
12
Short history about the specific use of Constantan and knots.
(Extr. from: ICCF21, June 2018; IWAHLM13, Oct. 2018; MIT 2019 Colloquium, March; ICCF22, Sept. 2019)
Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE) have been observed by us in wires of Cu55Ni44Mn1
(Constantan) exposed to H2 and D2 in multiple experiments along the last 9 years.
The Constantan, a quite low-cost and old alloy (developed around 1890 by E. Weston), has
the peculiarity to provide extremely large values of energy (1.56--3.16 eV) for the catalytic
reactions toward Hydrogen (and/or Deuterium) dissociation from molecular to atomic
state: H22H. In comparison, the most known and very costly Pd (a precious metal) can
provide only 0.424 eV of energy: computer simulation from S. Romanowsky et al., 1999.
The energy given out during fast recombination process is quite high (about 4.5 eV): one
of the largest among the chemical reactions. In deep space, at low Hydrogen pressures,
the measured temperature is 36000 K: equilibrium among dissociation< -- >recombination.
13
Some H (according to resistance reduction value up to 20-25 %; first measurements by
German Scientists on 1989) is almost stored inside the Constantan lattice, after its
absorption at high temperatures (> 180°C), few bars of pressure, several hours.
We made systematic studies (and published most of the know-how obtained, in
agreement with Live Open Science approach followed by MFMP collaboration), since 2011,
to study the absorption behavior versus temperature, pressure and surface “shape”.
The amount of ratio among the active volume (i.e. the thickness of sub-micrometric one)
and the bulk (used both as support and in-deep storage), increases reducing the diameter
of the wire. A qualitative sketch was introduced by us in Fig. 2. We observed (by SEM) that,
at least in our experimental conditions of wires preparation, the thickness of the most
active section is of the order of 10-30 m. Main drawback is the easiness of the wire
breaking at low dimensionality (<100 m). Moreover such deleterious effect is worsened
at the highest (and most useful!!) temperatures (>700°C) operated in the test.
14
Fig. 3. Qualitative sketch of the ratio among the most active region” (sub-micrometric sponge) for fast
Hydrogen absorption/storage (blue color, mean thickness 20 m), and the metallic bulk (brown color),
changing the initial diameter of the wire.
15
Improvements in the magnitude/reproducibility of AHE were reported by us in the past
and related to wire preparation and reactor design: work in progress.
In facts, an oxidation of the wires by several hundred pulses of high intensity electrical
current (up to 10-20 kA/cm2, even neglecting skin effects present because fast rise time,
<1 s, of the pulses) in air (and related quenching) creates a rough surface (like sponge). It
is featured a sub-micrometric texture that proved particularly effective at inducing thermal
anomalies (once the H, D is absorbed/adsorbed) when both temperatures exceeds 300-
400 °C and proper kinds of non-equilibrium conditions are promoted. The effects increase
as temperatures are increased, until adverse self-sintering effects (almost out of control, at
the moment) damage the sponge structures and most of the AHE usually vanish.
The hunted effect appears also to be increased substantially by deposing segments of the
wire with a series of elements: Fe, Sr (via thermal decomposition of their nitrates)
properly mixed with a solution of KMnO4 (all diluted in acidic heavy-water solution).
16
Side Effects. The magnetic proprieties of Constantan wires change dramatically after the
coating of Fe nitrate (further decomposed to FeOx) from “a-magnetic” to strong
ferromagnetic. The special geometry of Capuchin knot (see later-on), as speculation, could
enhance such aspects. It is noteworthy that FeOx are recently reported to have magnetic
properties enhanced up to 100-10000 times when at low dimensionality (10 micron down
to 10 nm) as in our specific fabrication procedures (thin multilayers).
Useful Co-Factors. Furthermore, an increase of AHE was observed after introducing the
treated wires inside a sheath made of borosilicate glass (mainly Si-B-Ca; BSC), and even
more after impregnating, the sheath with the same elements (Fe, Sr, K, Mn) used to coat
the wires. Liquid nitrated compounds were first dried and later-on decomposed to oxides
by high temperature (400-500 °C) treatments. The procedure was repeated several times:
multilayer approach.
17
Finally, AHE was augmented after introducing equally spaced knots (the knots were locally
coated with the mixture of Fe, Mn, Sr, K) to induce large thermal gradients along the wire
(knots become very hot spots when a current is passed along the wire).
Interestingly, the coating appears to be nearly insulating and it is deemed being composed
of mixed oxides of the corresponding elements (mostly FeOx, SrO).
Having observed a degradation of the BSC fibers at high temperature, an extra sheath
made of quartz fibers was used to prevent the fall of degraded fibers from the first sheath,
i.e. made a sort of coaxial construction. Main drawback was its larger dimensionality. We
recall that some specific borosilicate glass has the peculiarity of adsorbing Atomic
Hydrogen (dissociated from molecular state by the Constantan), as discovered by Irving
Langmuir (Nobel Laureate, on 1928, using W). In our procedures the possibility to have a
“thank” of atomic hydrogen, very close to the wire surface, is one of the main aspects.
18
Technological Improvement. The quite large problem of excessively tick insulating
material was solved thanks to a close collaboration among:
a) A Metallurgical Company (at North of Italy), for long time involved in LENR experiments
in their own laboratory, and which whom we collaborate since 2011,;
b) The SIGI-Favier Company (I, F) that produce insulating glass and SiO2-Al2O3 sheaths;
c) Our group.
It was developed an innovative insulating sheath that has both advantages of glass (i.e.
capability to absorb atomic Hydrogen, maximum temperature 700°C) and high temperature (up
to 1200 °C) performances of SiO2-Al2O3 material. Shortly, it was made a, close distance, net of
glass and SiO2-Al2O3 bundles, each of thin fibers (5 m diameter) crossed at an inter-distance of
only 500 m. In such a way, after high temperature conditioning (up to 800 °C), there are
enough empty space (about 30-40 %) of total, to allow free path for electrical conductions, to
get any of Richardson, Paschen, DBD regimes, without short circuit limitations.
19
Unexpected Effect. In 2014, the Authors introduced a second independent wire, “floating”
in the reactor chamber, and observed, just by chance, a weak electrical current (up to
hundreds of A, with several mV at the end of the wire), flowing in it while power, (i.e.
high temperatures induced), was supplied to the first.
At that time only the wires got coating of LWF materials: the sheaths were NOT
impregnated by nitrate/oxide mixtures, so, possible leakage currents were unlucky to
happen. The effect was also confirmed/certified (at Frascati Laboratory by their own
instrumentations and specific SW for data acquisition) and (later-on) independently
reproduced, by the MFMP group (M. Valat, B. Greeiner).
This current proved to be strongly related to the temperature of the first wire and clearly
turned to be the consequence of his Thermoionic Emission (where the treated wire
represents a Cathode and the second wire an Anode), according to the Richardson law.
20
Thermoionic emission applied to surface-coated Constantan wires.
The key parameter of thermoionic emission is the Work Function (), usually 1.5-5 eV, for
electron emission, from the surface of the materials:
J=AgT2exp(-/KBT)
with:
J=emission current density [A/m2];
T=absolute temperature, in K;
Ag= RA0 ; R is a correction factor depending on the material (0.51);
A0=(4qemekB
2)/(h3)=1.2*106 [A/m2K2], Richardson constant
qe=1.6*10-19
C, electron charge;
me=5.11*105 eV, electron mass;
kB=8.617*10-5 eV/K, Boltzmann constant.
21
Fig.4. Dependence of maximum electron emission (A/cm^2) at the surface of a wire changing
Temperature (300--1300 K) and Work Function (1--2.75 eV).
22
The presence of the thermoionic effect and a spontaneous tension between the two wires
did strongly associate to AHE: we guessed that it is a co-factor useful to induce AHE.
The thermoionic effect is enhanced, in our specific procedures, by deposition of Low
Working Function materials (LWFm), like SrO, at the surface of the Constantan’s wire,
several thin layers.
In the Cold Fusion-LENR-AHE studies the Researcher that first (1996) introduced,
intentionally, LWFm was Yasuhiro Iwamura at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Yokohama-
Japan). Since that time he used CaO and later-on also Y2O3, both in electrolytic and gas
diffusion experiments at mild (<80 °C) temperatures.
23
The role of thermal large gradients at short distances
The presence of thermal and/or chemical gradients has been stressed as being of
relevance, especially when considering the noteworthy effect of knots (by us introduced
since 2015) on AHE.
From that moment, attempts to further increase AHE focused on the introduction of
different types of knots, leading to the choice of the “Capuchin type (see Fig. 4) and, later,
the “advanced Capuchin knot” (but mechanically quite delicate-weak).
The knot design, specially Capuchin one, leads indeed to very hot spots along the wire and
features three areas characterized by a temperature delta up to several hundred degrees
(e.g 600
800
1000 °C in the photo shown).
Flux is induced by very large, short distance, thermal gradients: Capuchin knot
24
Fig. 5. Photo, in DC, I=1900 mA, of a piece of Constantan wire having a diameter of 193 µm. Capuchin knots
with 8 turns. Temperatures estimated by color. Darkest area is at temperature <600°C; external helicoidal
section is at about 800 °C; inmost section, linear, up to 1000 °C in some points. Distance is few mm.
25
General assembling of the reactor, keep constant from 9 months,
to inter-compare results changing only the core.
a) Energy balance measurements by air flow calorimetry.
b) Calibration by a Joule heater put inside a Borosilicate glass tube, with the same dimension
of main reactor. Both glass tube are close each other and thermally connected by several
Al foil darkened (paint 900 °C type, emissivity close to 95%), inside the main insulating box.
c) In and out of air inlet at the same height, large vortexes are promoted just by specific
geometry at the input of the air (several tubes of different lengths);
d) Monitored the speed of the fan (life-time rated at 5 years of continuous operation).
26
Fig. 6. Schematic of the assembling the 3 coaxial coils inside the glass reactor.
27
Fig.7. Photo of the reactor assembled, just before to be located into the air flow calorimeter.
28
Fig. 8. Photo of the reactor, and calibrator (Ni-Cr wire) put inside the calorimeter (advanced version, 2
insulating and reflecting walls)
29
Schematic drawing, Fig.9, of the new COAXIAL geometry of
each core of the reactor.
The coaxial geometry, up to now, is the most efficient geometrical configuration, i.e. the
most compact, to promote non-equilibrium situations by application of voltages (DC
and/or AC) among the active Constantan wire and the counter-electrode.
Because calibration purposes and cross check, we made 3 coils (Pt=T1, Constantans with
=200 m=T2 and =350 m=T3) with dimensions as similar as possible. The inmost main
support is a Fe tube.
T1: Pt (99.9% purity), =127 m; stress realized, smooth surface, no multilayer coating;
T2: Constantan, =200 m; surface sponge-like, multilayer coating of Sr, Fe, K, Mn;
T3: Constantan, =350 m; surface sponge-like, multilayer coating of Sr, Fe, K, Mn.
30
d)
Fig. 9. Sketch of the core of each active (or inert) wire: coaxial geometry.
31
Schematic of each core and auxiliary circuitry
Fig. 10. DC polarization network, for low power (i.e. R/Ro) measurements (based on
constant current diode J511) and High Power (based on 600V, 5A Diode).
Added several Zener diodes and resistances for protection purposes against possible excessive
interferences due to AC High Voltages (up to +-600 Vp) at the counter electrode, i.e. Fe tube.
Fig.11. Circuit for AC stimulation, mainly based on 2 low-power transformers in series and
limiting resistor (10 kOhm) at the output, used also as current measuring point (I=V/10^4).
Since October 2019 the limiting circuitry , and current measurements, were largely improved,
as later detailed.
32
Fig. 10. Schematic of the main circuitry adopted, both for R/Ro measurements (always connected to the
wires) based on JFET J511 (Constant Current diode, 3 in parallel, each providing 4.7 mA of current) and
main high power (by high power diode of 600V, 5A) to be injected along the wires, one each time.
In the Fig. the symbol B1, B2, B3 are equivalent respectively to V1, V2, V3, or T1, T2, T3:just different names.
The sections at low power and high power have has several protection networks (based on Zener diodes
and resistors) in common, to avoid catastrophic failures due to unexpected pulses coming from the AC
power (up to +-600 Vp) injected to the counter electrode to promote both Richardson (positive region of
the wave, low pressures) and Paschen regime.
33
Fig. 11. Circuitry to generate AC voltage (up to +-600 Vp), at low current (absolute limit 60 mA with 10
kOhm resistor) to promote both Richardson and Paschen regimes. The current injected has a typical value
up to 10-15 mA peak and RMS value up to 5-6 mA, as measured by Fluke 187 multimeter (BW=100 kHz).
The RMS Voltage is of the order 250-280 V, as measured by Tektronix DMM916 Multimeter (BW=20 kHz).
For higher accuracy, and better understanding of waveform, the signals at the end of 10 kOhm resistor are
sent to a Fluke 198c Digital Scope (BW=100 MHz).
34
Some typical results
A) 3 main Oscilloscope observations, Fig. 12, 13, 14, of waveforms and related effects in
respect to AHE, if any.
35
Fig. 12. Typical excitation with NO effects in respect to AHE generation.
36
Fig. 13. Typical excitation at high temperature (>700 oC) but too-low pressure. Mild effect on AHE stability.
Easy to deload Deuterium.
37
Fig. 14. One of the best regimes (temperature-pressure) that optimized both the Richardson and Paschen
regimes, with the largest AHE values reached (18 W) by the T2 wire. The drawback is the limited range of
operating regime. We are thinking to further optimize the regimes by A.I. approach. We guess that the HF
components could be related to Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) regimes.
38
Correlations among wire content variation of Hydrogen and AHE.
In the discussion we used indifferently the term of active gas used as Hydrogen or
Deuterium, depending on specific test.
The main observed parameter that correlates the amount of AHE with the true situation
of H stored is the R/Ro value, i.e. the variation of wire resistance R with the operating
point. Ro is its value at the beginning of the experiment, before H absorption.
The main discovery is that the AHE is correlated both with the variation speed of R/Ro
versus time and amplitude of “oscillation” over time, if present.
39
Short discussion among the most significant 80 tests performed
(reported in Tab. 1 as addendum)
In a particularly impressive experiment, 18 W of AHE were observed for an input power of 99.7 W
(line #38 of Table 2 in Appendix B), recorded when using a 200 µm wire (coil V2, =200 m) at a
temperature of 716°C. The counter-electrode excitation consists of +270 V bias and 3 mA current, the
behavior of R/ R0 was oscillating over time. The effect lasted over 5 hours
Afterward AHE decreased to 9.5 W (line #39), perhaps due to air intake from a leak. In fact, the
pressure increased from about 300 up to about 316 mbar. Anyway, the effect had a remarkable time
span of over 15 h.
When the polarity was changed from positive to negative (line #40), AHE decreased from 9.5 to 7.4 W.
The shift (line #41) from unipolar negative to bipolar oscillation (+- 600 Vp, 50 Hz) increased AHE from
previous 7.4 to 10.7 W, the effect lasted about 4 h.
Reducing the pressure from 341 to 98 mbar (line #42) the effect increased from 10.7 to 14.5 W,
always under AC oscillation and current (rms value) of 2-3 mA. The effect lasted 4 h.
40
After the interruption of the AC stimulus (line #43) leakage was observed, causing a pressure increase
from 98 to 250 mbar, this was followed by a reduction of AHE from 14.5 W to 2.4 W. AHE slowly
vanished following stabilization of R/R0 (that was unstable and oscillating proportionately to AHE).
When AC oscillation (line #44) was resumed at a constant pressure of 250 mbar, AHE rise again, from
2.4 to 9.2W.
Eventually the only way to recover large values of AHE (i.e. 14.4W, line #59), was to power 200 µm
wire (V2) add some Ar to the gas mixture, keep the pressure relatively low (36 mbar), and use AC
excitation to the counter electrode.
In general, much lower AHE values were observed when using the larger diameter wire coil V3 (350
µm). .
41
Conclusions #1, observations
From the collected data the following conclusions can be drawn:
a) The AHE occurrence is correlated with fast loading or unloading of the wire. In the case of
unloading however, after a short time, the AHE vanishes.
b) When loading/unloading occurs slowly, AHE is significantly reduced.
c) A state of oscillation seems to be the most efficient since it produces AHE for a longer time
with respect to fast loading or unloading (especially when a dielectric barrier discharge
occurs).
d) Loading and unloading occurrence, as assumed from R/R0 and variation in reactor pressure,
strongly support the key role of deuterium flux.
42
There are additional external conditions, such as high temperature, low pressure, purity of the
gas that facilitate the AHE. In any case, after some time, even the optimal conditions described
above are not sufficient to maintain AHE release. That being said, the major finding we would
like to emphasize is the ability of the counter-electrode stimulus to keep the AHE active for
longer times, perhaps indefinitely.
Also, the role of non-equilibrium conditions and flux were suggested by several Researchers
since the beginning of “Cold Fusion” experiments.
Convincing proofs being said, the set of experiments summarized in Table of the present work
consistently shows a strong correlation between a change in loading/pressure and the
occurrence of AHE, hence providing a strong support to the “flux model” or hypothesis.
Also, although most of the tests here described are in agreement with the “flux model”, some
results are still difficult to interpret. We think that this could be due to accidental
contamination of the deuterium due to an insufficiently air-tight glass reactor, especially at
high temperature and low pressure.
43
Conclusion #2, external conditions
Moreover, a critical analysis of the data collected in Table 2 (Appendix), allow us to highlight a
series of observations or possible generalizations on the best conditions enabling AHE release
for the selected reactor geometry:
a) Temperature must be as high as possible, provided that sintering of the spongy surface
does not occur. Also, high temperature is one of the key factors for electron emission from
low work function materials. We speculate that a high intensity emission may interact
with deuterium (or hydrogen) leading to useful phenomena. This last statement is purely
based on associations during experiments (i.e. between thermionic emission and AHE).
b) Low pressure is useful to increase the e- emissions. However, below a certain pressure the
effect may be deleterious due to excessive deuterium release (unloading) from the wires.
We would like to highlight that the occurrence of a dielectric barrier discharge (Fig. 13) is
associated with a remarkably intense AHE. Although at this stage we would like to avoid
venturing into a discussion of possible reaction mechanisms, we recognize some analogies
with previous work and that of Randell Mills and Jacques Dufour.
44
c) The addition of low-thermal conduction noble gases (like Ar or Xe) is generally useful both
to increase the temperature inside the reactor core and promote the Paschen regime,
when the counter-electrode has sufficiently high voltage.
d) High DC voltages along the active wire are useful (perhaps due electro-migration, NEMCA
and/or Preparata effects). As a consequence, thinner wires are usually more efficient at
producing AHE.
e) The effect of AC has to be fully explored in all of its potential (varying frequency, voltage,
waveform, bias and/or asymmetries). Nevertheless, we observed an unexpected but clear
correlation with the negative side of AC wave and an increase of the temperature in the
reactor core when certain conditions of temperature and pressures are fulfilled. In general,
AC stimuli seems to counteract the AHE decline observed in previous experimental
projects.
f) The flux of deuterium trough the active material (Constantan), seems to be the most
important factor driving the AHE generation. Based on experimental observations, we
speculate that inducing oscillations of flux may be the best method for triggering or
increasing AHE.
45
g) Contamination of the reactor atmosphere (e.g. by air and/or degradation of glassy
sheaths) has a deleterious effect on AHE. Unfortunately, due to budget constraints, up to
now we could not afford a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) placed in-line with the reactor to
diagnose this problem.
Near Future Work.
Our current work aims at preventing the issues of the described experimental setup such
as the frequent leakages and poor control of gas compositions.
This will be achieved with a new stainless steel reactor equipped with residual gas analysis
(RGA).
We are also working to improve the electronics used as AHE stimulus and for DBD plasma
generation, as well as at finding the optimal operating conditions both with conventional
high tension, medium-high frequency generators, as well with pulsed DC power supplies.
At present, we improved the 50 Hz, +-600 V, 200mA excitations by circuitry based on CCD
(Constant Current Diode) in SiC (Silicon Carbide) technology and used since October 2019:
very satisfactory results obtained from the point of view of understanding.
46
Fig. 15 Schematic of High Voltage (+-600V), Constant Current (+-200 mA), High frequency circuitry
with booster capacity for DBD regimes (if any). CCD are based on SiC technology.
47
Fig. 16 Computer simulation of circuit waveforms, V-I, with R_load=10 kOhm. Results in
agreement with experimental test using high power transformer at the input of CCD.
48
Fig. 17. Computer simulation of circuit waveforms, V-I, with R_load=1 kOhm. Results in
agreement with experimental test using high power transformer at the input of CCD.
49
Fig. 18. Example of Voltage (Red)-Current (Blue)-Power (Green) waveforms observed, at RT and free
air in flux (35 mbar of pressure) because calibration purposes. Results obtained using the SiC CCD
circuitry. The peak voltages largely decreases from +- 600 V (in conditions of high pressure, >300 mbar
or vacuum, i.e. no Richardson or Paschen regimes active) up to (about) 420 V (positive section) and
340 V (negative) because intrinsic power limitation of 2 transformers in cascade used (max 9VA each).
50
Acknowledgements
A) We continue to be indebted with the Metallurgical Company, located at the Nort-East of
Italy, for his continuous economical support (since 2011) and several “practical”
suggestions to help solving several of the critical aspects in developing our non-
conventional “AHE reactors”. Some specific test, performed in their own Laboratory,
helped us to be more confident in some specific aspects of so complex experiments.
B) Some of expenses needed to attend International Meetings/Workshops/Conferences,
(even abroad) and repairing damaged instrumentations were provided by IFA
(Water&Energy_Company)-Italy. Some technical discussions, with one of their
Researchers, about the possible role of localized RF excitation, were stimulating to us.
51
Addendum: key information of over 80 test/experiments performed.
Table 2 summarizes over eighty tests performed during two months of experiments using Constantan
wires, 1.7 m long, with a diameter of 200 or 350 m.
During these experiments the active wire polarity was kept negative and the extremity of each wire was
grounded; the power supply was operated in the constant-current mode.
The table includes the following data:
C1: Identification of the experiment, time [s] since the start of specific data logging;
C2: Wire diameter [mm];
C3: Electric input power [W], Voltage along the wire [V], Current [A];
C4: Gas type, pressure [mbar];
C5: Temperature at the core of each tube/cartridge used for the Constantan wires (inside the Fe counter-
electrode); the R/R0 value of the wire; the trend of its variation over time (reported on the last 10 ks) as
observed in the plot of raw data.
The wire loading during the experiments was classified, as follows:
C5.1 Increase of Loading (IL), corresponds to a R/R0 decrease; it can be Slow (S) or Fast (F)
(e.g. IL_S means slow increase of loading)
52
C5.2 Decrease of Loading (DL), corresponds to a R/R0 increase; it can be Slow (S) or Fast (F)
C5.3 Oscillation. The R/R0 values oscillate around a certain mean value. The larger is the amplitude of
oscillations, the larger AHE is.
C5.4. Constant. The R/R0 not varying significantly over time. In this conditions AHE is absent.
We assume that these behaviors are closely correlated with a flux of the active species thorough the surface
and/or bulk of the wire;
C6: Electric conditions of the counter-electrode, i.e. V, I, in DC or AC;
C7: AHE values [W], calculated using Eq. 10.1-3. Maximum value measured was +18 W with 100 W input.
C8: Short comments on the experimental conditions and results.
53
C1
Test #
*Time
r (s)
C2
Wire,
diam
eter
[mm]
C3
*Pw-
_in
[W]
* V
[V],
I [A]
C4
Gas
type,
Pres
sure
[mb
ar]
C5
*T_cor
e[°C];
*R/R0
wire;
*
loading
variati
on.
C6
Count
er
Electr
ode,
V, A;
DC or
50 Hz
AC
(rms),
C7
AH
E
[W
]
C8
Notes
#1
59928
0
0.350
40.6
19.5,
2.08
D2
181
0
318
0.885
DL_S
-
0.7
10 July 2019. File started 03 July 2019, 16h 44m after
several calibrations using Nichrome an Platinum
heaters
#2
61641
0
0.350
60.6
24.1,
2.51
D2
177
0
427
0.905,
DL_F
+8.
7
Gas leak. Fast Deuterium de-loading. Higher
temperatures and fast unloading effective to get AHE.
#3
69110
0
0.350
80.6
28.6,
2.8
D2
1100
544
0.9524
DL_F
+7.
8
Gas leak. Fast de-loading.
#4
76770
0
0.350
97.4
31.6,
3.08
D2
1100
630
0.964
DL_S
+0.
5
Gas leak. Slow unloading.
The rate of unloading is a key factor to get AHE.
#5
10058
40
0.350
49.4,
22.2,
2.2
Ar/
D2=
1.34
483
0.945
C
+0.
2
R/R0 almost constant. No AHE observed
54
1160
#6
10153
60
0.350
59.8,
24.6,
2.43
Ar/
D2=
1.34
121
0
546
0.953
DL_F
+4.
5
Fast unloading. AHE recovered.
#7
10206
70
0.350
70.2,
26.7,
2.62
Ar/
D2=
1.34
123
0
603
0.961
IL_S
+2.
8
Low speed loading, reduced AHE.
#8
10291
00
0.350
80.5,
28.7,
2.80
Ar/
D2=
1.34
127
0
656
0.966
IL_S
O
+8.
6
Increasing loading, noisy R/R0.
The AHE increased largely, perhaps due to R/R0
oscillations.
#9
10370
80
0.350
90.5,
30.6,
2.96
Ar/
D2=
1.34
130
0
702
0.972
C
O
+6.
6
R/R0 almost flat but with several instabilities. AHE
present.
#10
10978
10
0.350
97.7,
31.7,
3.08
Ar/
D2=
1.34
131
725
0.972
C
O
+4.
4
R/R0 almost flat but with instabilities. Also the
oscillations are useful to get AHE.
55
0
#11
1340
New
File
D2
fres
h
196
0
22
0.926
Calorimeter opened and re-closed to repair a large gas
leak. New file 170719_12:01
#12
18350
0.350
59.9,
24.4,
2.46
D2
261
0
420
0.906
IL_S
-
0.5
In almost static conditions and high pressure no AHE,
although some loading.
#13
24230
0.200
60.4,
40,1.
51
D2
244
0
439
0.949
IL_S
O
+0.
8
Gas leak. Pw at V2. Very slow loading. Some R/R0
instability. Similar to test #12 but some weak oscill.
#14
92900
0.200
60.1,
39.8,
1.51
D2
205
0
433
0.946
C
-
0.7
Gas leak. 50ks measurement. R/R0 flat. No AHE.
#15
17257
0
0.200
61.1,
40.1,
1.52
D2
261
0
438
0.947
C
0
Very long measures, 180ks. R/R0 flat. No AHE
#16
18512
0
0.200
80.5,
46.5,
1.73
D2
267
0
529
0.962
C
0
Long duration measures. R/R0 flat. No AHE.
#17
19537
0
0.200
99.7,
52.1,
1.91
D2
271
0
607
0.977
DL_S
+5.
3
R/R0 slowly increased.
Some oscillations were the source of AHE.
56
O
#18
19610
0
0.200
99.9,
52.2,
1.91
D2
197
0
611
0.978
O
+1
0.1
Forced pressure reduction.
R/R0 quite unstable: origin of AHE. Short time test.
#19
19655
0
0.200
100.0
,
52.3,
1.91
D2
147
0
617
0.978
DL_F
O
+9.
7
Forced pressure reduction.
R/R0 increased. Short test.
#20
19696
0
0.200
100.0
,
52.3,
1.91
D2
104
0
634
0.981
DL_F
+7.
7
Forced pressure reduction.
No thermal equilibrium
#21
19732
0
0.200
100.4
;
52.4,
1.91
D2
660
636
0.982
NA
+6.
0
Forced pressure reduction.
No thermal equilibrium
#22
19807
0
0.200
100.2
;
52.5,
1.91
D2
440
659
0.986
NA
+4.
0
Forced pressure reduction.
No thermal equilibrium
#23
19860
0
0.200
100.6
;
52.7,
1.91
D2
300
685
0.990
NA
+5.
9
Forced pressure reduction.
No thermal equilibrium
#24
0.200
100.2
D2
713
+5.
Forced pressure reduction.
57
19916
0
;
52.7,
1.90
196
0.995
NA
5
No thermal equilibrium
#25
19986
0
0.200
99.9;
52.7,
1.89
D2
156
733
0.997
NA
+8.
1
Forced pressure reduction.
No thermal equilibrium
#26
43119
0
0.200
81.2;
47.2,
1.72
D2+
air
216
612
0.983
C
+0.
5
Long measurement (>60H). Leakage: air intake, initial
158mbar at same temperatures. Some oscill.
#27
43292
0
0.200
81.2;
47.1,
1.72
D2+
air
214
612
0.982
O
+300
V,
0.250
mA
+3.
1
Counter electrode has positive Polarization: some AHE,
at least at for short time.
#28
44319
0
0.200
81.1;
47.1,
1.72
D2+
air
209
613
0.983
C
-300 V
0.210
mA
-
2.1
Counter electrode Negative Polarization: AHE
vanished, even endothermic effects.
#29
45111
0
0.200
81.0;
47.1,
1.72
D2+
air
218
614
0.983
C
-300 V
0.200
mA
-
0.9
Pol. Neg. long time (>2H).
Slowly AHE endothermic region vanished.
#30
59831
0
0.200
98.9;
52.1,
1.90
D2+
air
330
688
0.983
IL_S
+1.
7
Long measurement. Slow improvement of loading:
some AHE.
58
#31
77.7
61652
0
0.200
79.9;
46.5,
1.72
D2+
air
270
596
0.969
C
+1.
1
Leakage air intake observed. After an initial
improvement, later R/R0 flat.
#32
62008
0
0.200
80.1;
46.6,
1.72
D2+
air
184
609
0.972
O
+, -
300V
0.5-2
mA
+3.
4
Forced pressure reduction.
Several test with DC field Pos. and Neg. Indications
that a change of polarity could be useful to get AHE.
#33
62368
0
0.200
80.0;
46.6,
1.72
D2+
air
211
613
0.973
O
+5.
9
Abrupt temperature increase.
DC field removed
#34
62638
0
0.200
80.2;
46.7,
1.72
D2+
air
168
628
0.975
DL_S
+2.
5
Forced pressure reduction.
#35
63054
0
0.200
80.4;
46.8,
1.72
D2+
air
187
631
0.976
DL_F
+296V
, 2.7
mA
+2.
8
Pressure reduction and recovery. Fast increase R/Ro
DC field
#36
68380
0
0.200
80.7;
46.8,
1.72
D2+
air
183
628
0.975
IL_S
O
+296V
, 2.7
mA
+3.
2
Long time with field. R/Ro noisy. First time observed
AHE not decreasing over time with Power constant.
#37
69767
0
0.200
89.7;
49.5,
1.81
D2+
air
230
672
0.981
DL_F
+297
V,
2 mA
+4.
0
Pw increased from 80 to 90W.
Fast increase of R/R0, oscillations of R/R0
59
O
#38
71622
0
0.200
99.7;
52.3,
1.90
D2+
air
300
716
0.985
DL_F
O
+290
V,
3.2mA
+1
8.0
Pw increased from 90 to 100W.
Fast increase of R/R0. Osc. large AHE observed
#39
77131
0
0.200
99.7;
52.2,
1.91
D2+
air
316
709
0.981
IL_S
O
+297V
3.15m
A
+9.
5
Long duration 50ks, at 100W, DC field +300V. R/R0
decreased
#40
77506
0
0.200
99.6;
52.2,
1.91
D2+
air
317
707
0.981
O
-297
V,
-
3.5mA
+7.
4
Test with Negative field.
Slowly decreasing AHE:
Negative field effect.
#41
78923
0
0.200
99.3;
52.1,
1.90
D2+
air
341
706
0.981
O
AC,
260V
2-3
mA
+1
0.7
AC stimulation, 1st time. RMS values. R_equiv: 100
kOhm. AHE recovered.
#42
80330
0
0.200
100.2
;
52.6,
1.90
D2+
air
98
767
0.989
DL_F
AC,
260V
2-3
mA
+1
4.5
Pressure reduced several times. AC on. Large R/R0
increase.
#43
10294
00
0.200
99.2;
51.9,
1.91
D2+
air
250
708
0.973
IL_S
O
+2.
4
Long time meas. Air intake: Press. increased. Temp.
decreased. AHE decreased slowly. Loading
Oscillations.
60
#44
10320
30
0.200
99.2;
51.9,
1.91
D2+
air
252
708
0.973
O
AC,
280V
1-2
mA
+9.
2
AC stimulation: recovered partially AHE, i.e. 2.4->9.2
W
#45
11143
30
0.350
60.7;
24.7,
2.45
D2+
air
118
531
0.922
IL_S
AC,
260V
5-6
mA
+0.
2
Active wire 0.35 mm. First time.
#46
11305
70
0.350
79.8;
28.6,
2.79
D2+
air
163
634
0.934
DL_S
AC,
262V
5mA
-
1.1
R/R0 slowly decreased. No AHE.
#47
11433
30
0.350
90.1;
30.4,
2.96
D2+
air
190
678
0.939
O
AC,
262V
5 mA
+6.
5
Several spikes at AC, R/R0 noisy. Increasing Pw and
temperature were useful.
#48
12036
90
0.350
60.4;
24.7,
2.45
D2+
air
104
539
0.921
DL_S
AC
260V,
7 mA
+0.
7
Regular oscillations. Weak AHE, although AC
oscillation.
#49
12157
50
0.350
60.9;
24.9,
2.44
D2+
air
90
557
0.930
DL_S
AC,
263V
5.8mA
+0.
9
Forced pressure reduction. No effect to recover AHE.
#50
12193
20
0.350
60.7;
24.8,
2.45
D2+
air
85
576
0.927
IL_S
O
AC,
262V
6.0mA
+2.
1
Forced pressure reduction.
Increase of internal temperature and AHE.
#51
0.200
61.2;
Ar=
575
AC,
+3.
After vacuum new gas (Ar=D2 70 mbar at RT), Wire
61
12896
70
40.4,
1.51
D2
87
0.956
O
293V
<<1
mA
1
switch (V3 to V2). Smaller wire diameter, i.e. higher
DC voltage, increased AHE.
#52
13065
80
0.200
80.15;
46.6,1
.72
Ar=
D2
80
684
0.970
DL_S
AC,
293V
<<1
mA
+2.
2
Forced pressure reduction
R/R0 stable last 2 h.
#53
13195
20
0.200
100.1;
52.3,
1.91
Ar=
D2
90
770
0.980
DL_F
O
AC,
293V
<<1
mA
+9.
1
Forced pressure reduction. AHE improved.
#54
13215
10
0.200
100.1;
52.4,
1.91
Ar=
D2
72
777
0.982
DL_S
O
AC,
293V
<<1m
A,
self-
pulse
at HF.
+11
.3
Forced pressure reduction
R/R0 noisy. Further increase of AHE. HF self-pulses
look useful.
#55
13700
80
0.200
99.7;
52.0,
1.92
Ar=
D2
+air
125
734
0.974
IL_S
AC,
299V
<<0.5
mA
+9.
8
Leakage air intake. Several pressure reductions. AC
current almost vanished.
Still AHE.
#56
13748
40
0.200
100.6;
52.5,
1.92
Ar=
D2
+air
799
0.982
D-I-L
AC,
299V
<<0.5
+1
0.2
Several forced pressure reduction. AHE correlated with
fast R/R0 variation, oscill. high temperature
62
45
O
mA
#57
13936
40
0.200
99.5;
52.0,
1.91
Ar=
D2
+air
94
750
0.974
O
AC,
299V
<<0.5
mA
+8.
7
Leakage air intake. Reducing local temperature
decreases AHE.
#58
13957
60
0.200
101.3;
52.9,
1.92
Ar=
D2
+air
41
854
0.991
IL_F
O
NO
AC
+6
Forced pressure reduction.
One of co-factor effects for AHE generation is AC
stimulation, although HT increased (750 to 854).
#59
14037
70
02/08/
20
17:57
0.200
99.9;
52.2,1
.91
Ar=
D2
+air
36
778
0.978
IL_F
O
AC,
290V
2-4
mA
+1
4.4
Forced pressure reduction. Large AHE. Geiger-Muller
gamma detector several times in alarm (>>4 BKG).
R/R0 decreased.
#60
14474
60
0.350
41.0;
20.3,
2.02
Ar=
D2
+air
66
510
0.917
C
-
0.7
New file: 19082019, 13:37 Over 15 days operation at
low power. No AHE.
#61
14567
70
0.350
41.1
20.4,
2.02
Ar=
D2
+air
30
547
0.924
DL_S
AC,
247V
5.5
mA
+0.
1
Reducing pressure and adding AC stimulation induced
some AHE.
#62
0.350
41.0
Ar=
534
AC,
-
AC excitation ended 2h before measurement. AHE
63
14613
80
20.3,
2.01
D2
+air
45
0.922
C
270V
2-3
mA
0.1
vanished.
#63
15220
10
0.350
50;
22.5,
2.22
Ar=
D2
+air
57
582
0.926
DL_S
NO
AC
-
1.4
Without AC the weak AHE disappeared.
#64
15497
30
0.350
50;
22.5,
2.22
Ar=
D2+
air
50
576
0.927
DL_S
AC,
247V
4.9mA
+0.
6
Forced pressure reduction. AC field from 20 ks. No HF
discharge. Weak AHE
#65
15540
10
0.350
49.9;
22.5,
2.22
Ar=
D2+
air
46
574
0.925
IL_S
+1.
6
Pressure reduction. AC off since 1H. R/R0 decreased
but
AHE weak.
#66
16101
50
0.350
50;
22.5,
2.22
Ar=
D2+
air
55
578
0.927
DL_S
-
1.3
AC off since 16H. Pressure increased, AHE vanished.
#67
16278
60
0.350
50;
22.3,
2.22
Ar=
D2+
air
60
582
0.928
Osc.
AC,
290V
1mA
+1.
5
AC field since 4H
R/R0 noisy. Recovering of AHE.
#68
0.350
50;
Ar=
578
NO
+0.
Pressure reduced. AC stopped: AHE vanished.
64
16333
00
22.5,
2.22
D2
+air
41
0.925
IL_S
AC
1
#69
16408
20
0.350
50.2;
22.6,
2.22
Ar=
D2
+air
20
600
0.930
IL_S
Osc
AC,
290V
1-2
mA
+2.
6
Forced pressure reduction, AC ON since 2H. AHE
resumed.
#70
16955
00
0.350
60.5;
24.8,
2.43
Ar=
D2
+air
60
632
0.932
C
-
1.8
NO AC. Pressure increased. R/R0 stable; AHE absent.
#71
17137
70
0.350
60.5;
24.9,
2.43
Ar=
D2
+air
30
660
0.936
IL_S
AC,
280V
2-3mA
+1.
2
Forced pressure reduction.
AHE improved.
#72
17802
00
0.350
80.1;
28.7,
2.79
Ar=
D2
+air
75
700
0.937
IL_S
AC,
253V
4.5mA
. NO
HF.
-
1.3
AC seems NOT effective to stimulate AHE without HF
component.
#73
17872
40
0.350
80.0;
28.6,
2.79
Ar=
D2
+air
85
692
0.937
IL_F
O
AC,
253V
4.5mA
.
+3.
2
AC ON, sometimes HF.
R/Ro noisy.
65
Some
HF
#74
18069
40
0.350
97.8;
31.7,
3.08
Ar=
D2
+air
150
757
0.942
IL_F
O
+4.
8
R/R0 decreasing. Absolute value of local high
temperature (760°C) is also important.
#75
18122
30
0.350
98.2
31.9,
3.08
Ar=
D2
62
802
0.946
IL_F
O
AC,
260V
4mA
+7
AC ON, some spontaneous HF. Forced pressure
reduction. Combined effect of higher temperature, low
pressure-AC excitation is
#76
20437
80
0.350
97.4
31.6,
3.08
Ar=
D2
+air
146
719
0.935
IL_S
AC,
290V
<1mA.
+2.
8
AC ON, leakage air intake.
AHE reduction (7.2->2.8) because: pressure increasing,
lower AC, lower temperature.
#77
76650
New
file
26082
7,
11:27
0.350
40.6;
20.1,
2.02
D2
fres
h
440
336
0.906
IL_S
O
AC,
290V
1-
2mA.
+1.
8
After vacuum, fresh D2 (380 mbar at RT). Increasing of
loading. Noisy. Some AHE, although low power and
temperature. Flux of D2 looks important.
#78
26480
New
file
0.200
40.5;
32.4,
1.25
D2,
480
463
0.929
IL_S
AC,
300V
<0.5m
A
-
0.3
Re-activated V2. Slow loading speed. No AHE,
although AC oscillation but no HF components.
Pressure excessive and temperature not sufficient for
AHE.
66
27081
9,
10:18
NO
HF
#79
37570
0.200
60.7;
40.1,
1.51
D2
15
580
0.959
O
AC,
290V
<0.6m
A
+4.
9
Forced pressure reduction.
R/R0 noisy: combined effects with HT. AHE resumed.
#80
89.1
11659
0
0.200
81.5;
47.0,
1.73
D2
26
720
0.971
IL_F
Osc.
AC,
290V
0.3-1
mA
+11
.5
Forced pressure reduction.
R/R0 noisy and decreasing.
HT, low pressure, oscill.: ingredients to get AHE.
#81
17474
0
0.200
81.2;
46.7,
1.73
D2
+air
34
691
0.964
IL_F
O
AC,
290V
0.4
mA
+8.
3
AC polarization started. Leakage, air intake observed.
Reduction of temperature decreases AHE (11.5->8.3).
#82
19564
0
0.200
100.4;
52.2,
1.92
D2
+air
75
764
0.970
IL_F
O
AC,
290V
0.2-1
mA
+1
3.0
AC always active. R/R0 noisy and decreasing fast.
The AC keeps AHE stable over time.
#83
20478
0
0.200
101;
52.6,
1.92
D2+
air
30
808
0.981
IL_F
O
AC,
290V
0.2-1
mA
+1
2.8
Several pressure reduction steps. AC always active.
R/R0 noisy and decreasing. Although air intake AHE
almost stable.
#84
0.200
100.3;
D2+
753
AC,
+11
Long duration measures. AC ON. Leakage and air
67
25766
0
52.1,
1.92
air
50
0.97
IL_F
Osc.
290V
0.2-0.5
mA
.2
intake occurred.
R/R0 noisy and decreasing.
The combined effect of high temperature, AC
oscillation and sufficiently low pressure overcome the
deleterious effect of air intake even for long times
(>14h).
Last measurement before ICCF22.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.