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Electroporation Increased Growth of Callus ,Regeneration Capability and Protein Content of Solanum nigrum L Plant

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Calli of Marigold, Calendula officinalis L. were exposed to electrical shocks of voltages 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 volts for 5 msec. as short term electrical shocks (STES) and 10 msec. a long term electrical shocks (LTES). Interestingly both types of shocks were improved biological and physiological growth characters of callus. Fresh weights of exposed callus were assessed 21 and 42 days after exposure. Data obtained proved that both treatments increased callus fresh weights up to 3-fold approximately compared to fresh weight of the non-treated callus. The second increase was after 42 days of exposure. General, STES and LTES were enhanced salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis in marigold calli up to 20-fold compared with its content in the non-shocked callus.
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Shoots were regenerated from petioles – derived callus on solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg / l BA only and MS medium containing 4.0 mg / l IBA and 1.0 mg / l BA . The percentage of shoot formation was 30.0 % . The regeneration frequency was reasonable to obtained sufficient shoots by this method . This simple protocol is the first report in tissue culture of this woody plant which encourage other researchers to worke other studies in tissue culture of neem . Moreover , callus culture will be useful to obtain a wide range of industrial plant products .
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A research work was done for chlorophyll and protein contents of Robinia pseudoacacia L. leave, So theseeds were treated with different shocking power and duration. Then subjection of Robiniaseeds to different electrical shock have significantly effect, so (10) Ampere shock power was the best in (chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and protein contents) in Robinia leaves in comparison with control treatment, but chlorophyll b and ratio of total chlorophyll / protein traits was significant at shock power (8) Ampere, at same time the characteristic of chlorophyll a/b ratio was significantly different for control with all other treatments. On other hand duration of shocking (6) minutes was the best in (chl. a and total chl.) and significantly different from control, but duration of (2) minutes was the best in (chl. a / b ratio and total chl. /protein ratio) and significantly different with all other characteristics, When duration of (4) minutes was the best in chl. b and duration of (8) minutes was the best for protein content characteristics in comparison with all other treatments. Interaction effect between electric shock power and duration showed that chlorophyll contents for (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll) was the best in comparison with all other treatments at (8 Am. × 4min.) and this not differ significantly with interaction of (4Am. × 6min.) also interaction of yielded highest value for the ratio of chl. a/b and this was significantly different with control, But protein content increased at interaction of (10 Am. × 4,8 and 6 min.) and this was significantly different with control, but the highest percent for the ratio of (total chl./ protein) was recorded for the interaction (8Am.×2min.) and this significantly different with control and all other treatments, Finally we concluded that the improvement in chemical characteristics was due to subjection of Robiniaseeds to different electric shocks and different periods.
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