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Plant Regeneration from in vitro leaf and stem Tissue of Solanum nigrum

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... Generally, higher level of auxins and lower of cyto-kinine favours somatic embryogenesis. MS / LS medium supplemented with combination of 10 mgL -1 2, 4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and 1 mgL -1 kinetin (Reynolds, 1986), 2ip (γγisopentyladenine) and IAA (Fassuliotis, 1975), 8 mgL -1 NAA and 0.1 mgL -1 Kin (Rao andSingh, 1991, Swamynathan et al., 2010), Zeatin @ 2 mgL -1 and NAA @ 0.01 mgL -1 (Fari et al., 1995), 1 mgL -1 NAA and 2 mgL -1 BAP (Salih and Al-Mallah, 2000), NAA or IBA at 0.5 mgL -1 (Anwar et al., 2002), 6-BA+ ZT (Zeatin) and 6-BA+IAA or ZT+ IAA Li et al., 2003), 2.0 mgL -1 NAA + 0.05 mgL -1 BAP, 2.0 mgL -1 NAA and 0.5 mgL -1 BAP, 2 mgL -1 2,4-D + 0.05 mgL -1 BAP and 2 mgL -1 NAA+2.5 mgL -1 BAP (Rahman et al., 2006;Huda et al., 2007;Hossain et al., 2007;Zayova et al., 2008;Chakravarthi et al., 2010) induced the callus in eggplant (Table 1). ...
... Plant regeneration from tissue culture of S. melongena L. can be achieved via embryogenesis (Ammirato, 1983) and organogenesis (Flick et al., 1983). Light could help the development of adventitious rooted shoots from callus (Macchia et al., 1983;Salih and Al-Mallah, 2000). High concentration of 2ip and low concentration of IAA led to differentiation of leaflets with morphogenetic variation in leaves and cytological studies of plants indicated them genetically aberrant (Fassuliotis, 1975). ...
... Most of the species grown in vitro require acclimatization process in order to ensure that sufficient number of plants survive and grow vigorously on transferring to the soil. It took 3-4 months from initiation to establishment in pots ex vitro for 99% survival rate (Polisetty et al., 1994), however, rooted plants can be acclimatized in 14 days with 80% success (Salih and Al-Mallah, 2000;Taha and Tizan, 2002;Chakravarthi et al., 2010;Kanna and Jayabalan, 2010;Shivraj and Srinath, 2011;Kaur 2011a, b). Rooted shoots were transferred for establishment in polythene bags filled with a potting mixture of sand, soil and FYM in 1:2:1 ratio (Dobariya and Kachhadiya, 2004). ...
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Eggplant is highly responsive to various tissue culture techniques. Somatic embryogenesis and direct organogenesis are widely studied protocols in this crop, but potential of regeneration varies with genotype, explant and culture media supplemented with different combination and concentration of growth hormones. The genotype is the most important factor affecting somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis. Embryogenic competence occurs even within explant segments. Among growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins are of more significance as their ratio determines callogenesis, rhizogenesis, embryogenesis and regeneration in eggplant. Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis related gene expression has been studied and transcripts have been analyzed through molecular studies. Efficient plant regeneration protocols would make a platform for exploitation of useful somaclonal variations, mutation breeding, induction of di-haploids, and genetic transformation with economically important genes for the improvement of eggplant.
... Results in this study were in harmony with Jawahar, et al. (2003) who indicated that, the callus was induced from leaf explants of Solanum nigrum on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of IAA and NAA (0.5-3.0 mg/l) with or without BA (1.0 mg/l) and GA3 (0.01 mg/l). Moreover, Salih and Al-Mallah, (2000) reported that, the combination of 1 mg/l NAA and 2 mg/l BA were suitable for callus induction from S. nigrum explants. Similarly Anwar, et al. (1999) found that, the MS basal medium augmented with 2,4-D (2 mg/l) alone and in combination with BA (0.5 mg/l) proved superior for the induction of compact nodular green calluses from S. nigrum explants. ...
... Growth of undifferentiated callus was achieved on both media, having varying concentrations of 2,4-D and BA, respectively. Salih and Al-Mallah, (2000) initiated callus from different explants (stems, leaves, roots) of S. nigrum on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and BA. The combination of 1 mg NAA and 2 mg BA/l were suitable for callus induction and maintenance. ...
... As well as the number of capable cell division, and internal content of the hormones prepare cells [17].Also callus induction is dependent directly on the concentration of growth regulators especially auxin and the size of explant used, it also depends on the environmental conditions such as temperature, light, humidity. In addition to the growth regulator that have a significant role in this process [18],Perhaps the reason for not returning callus induction of some explant, separated from the seedling or adult plants to the differentiation of cells and the lack of division, or maybe needs longer time for division and growth [19]. Evidenced by the current results of the study the response between the explant differences, which may be due to physiological factors related components content and hormonal differences [20)] or to the degree of maturation and differentiation of the vascular bundle of the cell, which depend on the transfer of nutrient absorbed from the culture media. ...
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In the current study Leaves cordia myxa cultured on MS medium containing a different concentration of NAA, BA (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg / l). The highest percentage of Callus induction 96% at a concentration of 1mg / l NAA and 1.5 mg / l BA and had maintenance Callus on this medium, fresh and dry weight arrived to the highest rates in this combination as it reached 479, 95.30 mg respectively. For production of shoot branches, callus cultured on media containing 2mg / l BA and o.5 mg / l NAAwhich had significance as the number of branches reach to 8.93 branch, branches rooting in the media equipped with IAA at1.5 mg / lconcentration which gave the highest rate of the number of roots 6.28 root and 5.73 cm for the length of the roots. The highest percentage acclimatization of plantlets reached 81% when culture on one part of river sand to two part of peatmoos.
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leave of cordia myxa cultured in ms medium to induced callus ,then callus cultured in ms medium containing BA and NAA for obtaining shoots
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In vitro plant regeneration of brinjal genotype BL-3 was tried using hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf explants from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) and kinetin (kin) combination (2.0-3.0 mgl -1 BAP with or without 1.0 mgl -1 kin). The cotyledon explant gave cent percent regeneration on MS medium fortified with 2.0 mgl-1 BAP, 2.5 mgl -1 BAP, or 2.5 mgl -1 BAP + 1.0 mgl -1 kin, while the highest numbers of buds on 2.5 mgl -1 BAP (24.90), followed by 2.0 mgl -1 BAP (17.90). Leaf explant also induced cent percent regeneration on MS medium fortified with 2.0 mgl-1 BAP and maximum number of buds (9.53) regenerated with 2.5 mgl -1 BAP. Hypocotyl had the maximum regeneration (66.53%) and maximum buds (3.96) on MS with 2.5 mgl-1 BAP. Maximum bud elongation (58.73%) was obtained on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mgl -1BAP + double agar. MS basal medium induced maximum rooting of 61.11% plantlets. The hardening with 0.2% bavistin solution enhanced the survival efficiency of plantlets to 81.81%. The plantlets were established in the polythene bags and then transferred to earthen pots in the glasshouse, where they grew, flowered and set fruits.
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