Towards Energy Efficiency in Smart Buildings Exploiting Dynamic Coordination among Appliances and Homes- With Source Code

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Instead of planting new electricity generation units, there is a need to design an efficient energy management system to achieve a normalized trend of power consumption. Smart grid has been evolved as a solution, where Demand Response (DR) strategy is used to modify the consumer's nature of demand. In return, utilities pay incentives to the consumer. This concept is equally applicable on residential and commercial areas; however, the increasing load demand and irregular electricity load profile in residential area have encouraged us to propose an efficient home energy management system for optimal scheduling of home appliances. Whereas, electricity consumers have stochastic nature, for which nature-inspired optimization techniques provide optimal solutions. However, these optimization techniques behave stochastically according to the situation. For this reason, we have proposed different optimization techniques for different scenarios. The objectives of this thesis include: reduction in electricity bill and peak to average ratio, minimization of waiting time to start appliances (comfort maximization) and minimization of wastage of surplus energy by exploiting the coordination among appliances and homes. In order to meet the electricity demand of the consumers, the energy consumption patterns of a consumer are maintained through scheduling the appliances in day-ahead and realtime bases. It is applicable by the defined fitness criterion for the proposed hybrid bacterial foraging genetic algorithm and hybrid elephant adaptive cuckoo search optimization techniques, which helps in balancing the load during On-peak and Off-peak hours. Moreover, the concept of coordination and coalition among home appliances is presented for real-time scheduling. The fitness criterion helps the scheduler to optimally decide the ON/OFF status of appliances in order to reduce the waiting time of the appliance. A multi-objective optimization based solution is proposed to resolve the trade-off between conflicting objectives: electricity bill, waiting time of appliances and electricity load shifting according to the defined electricity load pattern. Two optimization techniques: binary multiobjective bird swarm optimization and a hybrid of bird swarm and cuckoo search algorithms are proposed to obtain the Pareto front. The main objective of DR is to encourage the consumer to shift the peak load and gets incentives in terms of cost reduction. However, prices remain the same for all the users even if they shift the peak load or not. In this thesis, Game Theory (GT) based Time of Use pricing model is presented to define the pricing strategy for On-peak and Off-peak hours. The price is defined for each user according to the utilized load using coalitional GT. Further, the proposed pricing model is analyzed for scheduled and unscheduled load. In this regards, Salp swarm and rainfall algorithms are used for scheduling of appliances and an aggregated fitness criterion is defined for load shifting to avoid the peak rebound effect. We also proposed the coordination and coalition based Energy Management System-as-a- Service on Fog (EMSaaS_Fog). With the increase in number of electricity consumers, the computational complexity of energy management system is becoming a threat for efficiency of a system in real-time environment. To deal with this dilemma, the utility shifts computational and storage units on cloud and fog. The proposed EMSaaS_Fog effectively handles the coalition among the apartments within a building to maintain balance between the demand and supply. Moreover, we consider a small community, which consists of multiple smart homes. Microgrid is installed at each residence for electricity generation. It is connected with the fog server to share and store information. Smart energy consumers are able to share detail of excess energy with each other through the fog server.

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... The suggested algorithm arranges devices to bring the load curve of the consumption schedule closer to the load curve of the desired load curve [35][36][37][38]: ...
... The off-peak power limit (W L 1 ) and on-peak power limit W L 2 are calculated so that fair load distribution at the customer's end can be realized via a house load powermanagement scheduler [35][36][37][38]. ...
Full-text available
Advances in technology and population growth are two factors responsible for increasing electricity consumption, which directly increases the production of electrical energy. Additionally, due to environmental, technical and economic constraints, it is challenging to meet demand at certain hours, such as peak hours. Therefore, it is necessary to manage network consumption to modify the peak load and tackle power system constraints. One way to achieve this goal is to use a demand response program. The home energy management system (HEMS), based on advanced internet of things (IoT) technology, has attracted the special attention of engineers in the smart grid (SG) field and has the tasks of demand-side management (DSM) and helping to control equality between demand and electricity supply. The main performance of the HEMS is based on the optimal scheduling of home appliances because it manages power consumption by automatically controlling loads and transferring them from peak hours to off-peak hours. This paper presents a multi-objective version of a newly introduced metaheuristic called the bald eagle search optimization algorithm (BESOA) to discover the optimal scheduling of home appliances. Furthermore, the HEMS architecture is programmed based on MATLAB and ThingSpeak modules. The HEMS uses the BESOA algorithm to find the optimal schedule pattern to reduce daily electricity costs, reduce the PAR, and increase user comfort. The results show the suggested system’s ability to obtain optimal home energy management, decreasing the energy cost, microgrid emission cost, and PAR (peak to average ratio).
... M is the population size, is used for presenting the decreased numbers. Equation (27) describes it [45]. ...
... is number drop. Subject used is illustrate below in (28) [45]. ...
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This paper presents a novel scheduling scheme for the real-time home energy management systems based on Internet of Energy (IoE). The scheme is a multi-agent method that considers two chief purposes including user satisfaction and energy consumption cost. The scheme is designed under environment of microgrid. The user impact in terms of energy cost savings is generally significant in terms of system efficiency. That is why domestic users are involved in the management of domestic appliances. The optimization algorithms are based on an improved version of the rainfall algorithm and the salp swarm algorithm. In this paper, the Time of Use (ToU) model is proposed to define the rates for shoulder-peak and on-peak hours. A two-level communication system connects the microgrid system, implemented in MATLAB, to the cloud server. The local communication level utilizes IP/TCP and MQTT and is used as a protocol for the global communication level. The scheduling controller proposed in this study succeeded the energy saving of 25.3% by using the salp swarm algorithm and saving of 31.335% by using the rainfall algorithm.
... The off-peak power limit (  1 ) and on-peak power limit   2 are calculated, so that fair load distribution at customer's end can be realized via house load power management scheduler.  ∈  load is calculated for a single chromosome [40][41][42] (Figure 3). ...
Full-text available
The steady increase in the energy demand and the growing carbon footprint has forced electricity‐based utilities to shift from their use of non‐renewable energy sources to renewable energy sources. Furthermore, there has been an increase in the integration of renewable energy sources in the electric grid. Hence, one needs to manage the energy consumption needs of the consumers, more effectively. Consumers can connect all the devices and houses to the internet by using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. In this study, the researchers have developed and proposed a novel 2‐stage hybrid method that schedules the power consumption of the houses possessing a distributed energy generation and storage system. Stage 1 modeled the non‐identical Home Energy Management Systems (HEMSs) that can contain the DGS like WT and PV. The HEMS organise the controllable appliances after taking into consideration the user preferences, electricity prices and the amount of energy produced /stored. The set of optimal consumption schedules for every HEMS was estimated using a BPSO and BSA. On the other hand, Stage 2 includes a Multi‐Agent‐System (MAS) based on the IoT. The system comprises two portions: software and hardware. The hardware comprises the Base Station Unit (BSU) and many Terminal Units (TUs).
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