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Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) unites the big, the small, and the four forces (GUT) by extending Newton's model



Newton established a major physics advance that was confirmed by predicting the late return of Halley's comet. Newton identified three characteristics of bodies that have been identified as three characteristics of "mass". Current standard physical models have become very complex with divergent postulates for cosmology and quantum mechanics. Physics theory restarting from Newton's speculations and then describing the experiments of the 19th and 20th centuries results in a model of the big, the small, and the four forces (GUT)-the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE).
Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) unites the
big, the small, and the four forces (GUT) by
extending Newton’s model
John C. Hodge
Retired, 477 Mincey Rd., Franklin, NC, 28734
Newton established a major physics advance that was confirmed by
predicting the late return of Halley’s comet. Newton identified three
characteristics of bodies that have been identified as three characteristics
of “mass”. Current standard physical models have become very complex
with divergent postulates for cosmology and quantum mechanics. Physics
theory restarting from Newton’s speculations and then describing the ex-
periments of the 19th and 20th centuries results in a model of the big,
the small, and the four forces (GUT) - the Scalar Theory of Everything
keywords: TOE, GUT, Newton, mass
Human physical models must begin with some postulates, evolve to explain ob-
servations, and make useful predictions. Newton created a theory of gravity with
his three laws of motion [1]. This model related the motion of bodies on Earth
and of the Moon. The key measurable characteristics of bodies were assumed.
Later, Newton speculated on the common postulates for gravity and light - the
big and the small. The predicted late return of Halley’s comet confirmed New-
ton’s model for the solar system scale. Thus, astronomical happenings were
related to Earth-born experiments. A key characteristic of Newton’s model is
that it is simpler and describes a wider range of observations than the other
models it replaced.
Newton identified three characteristics of bodies that are different views of
mass characteristics. This is the postulates stage. Definitions become better de-
fined as they are related to observations. Weight (mw) was defined as a body’s
density times its volume and as the “quantity of matter” in a body. A body’s
density, volume, and innate force of matter are our everyday understood param-
eters. Inertial mass (mi) was defined as a body’s innate force of matter with
the power of resisting a change in its state of motion. This force is exercised
only when another force impressed on the body changes the body’s motion.
Gravitational mass (mg) was presented in his third book of the Principia. It is
the body’s characteristic that instantaneously impresses an attractive force on
another body over a distance in absolute space. The electromagnetic forces were
unaccounted in Newton’s time. Fluid and other forces were outside Principia.
Newton recognized that a gravity only model created a problem in cosmology
requiring an infinite, eternal universe and requiring an infinite force as dis-
tances between centers of mass approached zero. The motion of the moon and
Sun suggested instantaneous reaction to the force of gravity. A more complete
description may be found in Assis [2, Section I and III].
Newton’s model works by defining (mapping) forces that are exerted on
matter then adding force vectors to arrive at a single force that predicts the
mass’s measurable motion by inverse mapping. This requires the mathematical
constants of proportionality to be such that the body’s motion is as observed.
Later, Newton expanded on how mgmay be impressed on another body and
the relation of gravity and light, stated in modern terms [3]:
Qu. 1 Masses bend passing light by an amount inverse to distance.
Qu. 3 Light passing close to edges are diffracted in fringes.
Qu. 4 Light path begins to bend BEFORE reaching a body or slit.
Qu. 5 Light heats mass.
Qu. 6 Black bodies absorb all light.
Qu. 8 Black body radiation.
Qu. 11 Sun and stars are black body radiators.
Qu. 17 Light is corpuscles that are pushed around (divergence of the aether’s
density) by waves of the aether that “overtake” the rays of light. The
waves in the aether travel faster than light - its not a big stretch to say
MUCH faster than light. That is, gravity is not force. Gravity is the effect
of the divergence of the aether, also.
Qu. 18 A Medium that refracts and reflects light also allows light to heat
bodies. Newton also suggested light travels faster in the void (denser
parts of the aether). This is the measured Shapiro delay.
Qu. 19 Refraction of light implies differing densities of the Medium (calls it
“...this aether Medium...”). Density of the aether is GREATER in “
and open spaces void of air and other grosser bodies...”. How the aether
became denser between bodies was unexplained.
Qu. 20 Increasing aether density (ie divergence) causes light refraction.
Qu. 21 Aether rarer within dense bodies and increase with distance and “...thereby
cause the gravity of those great bodies; every body endeavoring to go from
the denser parts of the medium towards the rarer?”. He also suggested
the aether is so rare as to not impede the planets revolution (no aether
Newton suggested a reductionism step by positing (1) an aether whose di-
vergence exerted a force that caused gravity and that caused the diffraction,
reflection, and refraction of light and (2) corpuscles as light and as components
of matter. That is, support for the aether and corpuscles was because the
model could explain several diverse observations then known but mysterious
rather than by direct observation.
This Paper suggests the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) is a continua-
tion of Newton’s model. Section 2 briefly describes the deviation from Newton’s
path and some observations after Newton’s time. Section 3 describes a STOE
model of the three types of mass as independent physical effects. The Discussion
and Conclusion are in section 4.
Young’s Experiment of interference was interpreted to indicate light was a wave
rather than corpuscles and rather than the wave interference was caused by the
aether (Newton used a rock-thrown-into-water analogy). This began the effort
to attempt to explain observations of the small scale by waves, fields, etc. This
effort has resulted in the very counterintuitive (no analogies with the classical
world) Quantum Mechanics and the loss of the connection to gravity. This has
resulted in the incompatibility of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.
Several experiments in electricity and magnetism were combined into Maxwell’s
Equations rather than discovering how Newton’s three masses and a single, con-
tinuous aether could explain the experiments. Because the experiments were
independently done, several simplifications resulted in incorrect descriptions
[4; 5; 6; 7]. The electromagnetic signals have a speed of light. If light is a wave,
then the speed of a wave is the speed of light. However, this has been falsified
for the speed of coulomb fields [8].
The invention of the Hamiltonian and the Lagrangian that calculated a
body’s motion in terms of energy resulted in the distinction of the three masses
being lost. The mwhad been considered as an miand these functions con-
sidered the distinction between kinetic energy and potential energy as caused
by one type of mass. However, Newton argued the miand mgwere distinct
but proportional which were included in the gravitational constant G. Models
currently exist that suggest the Gvaries across a galaxy such as MOND.
Mach’s Principle, which is vague, suggested that the stars in the universe
should influence measurements (inertia) on Earth. Mach’s Principle is viewed as
suggesting a total relativism and as a substitute for Newton’s “absolute space”.
However, because the influence is by bodies, the higher aether density required
by Newton (so the mgcan reduce the aether) is unaccounted.
The well–known Einstein thought experiment of a measuring system in a
(small) box (such as an elevator) being unable to determine if the box is in a
gravity well or under acceleration of a rocket resulted in the Strong Equivalence
Principle. But this is incorrect. Gravity acts as if from a point (center of mass).
Therefore, gravity shows the force vectors as converging. The rocket shows force
vectors as parallel. The “small” condition to achieve equality is more properly a
measurement uncertainty. The “small” condition was ignored and the equality
of acceleration and gravity was accepted.
The left side of the General Relativity Field equation (LHS) is a mathemat-
ical mapping of observed energy and momentum into sand tparameters called
“spacetime”. But like Newton’s aether it has a high value where no mass exists
such as between galaxies and depressed values around masses. From whence,
this “spacetime”? That is, the “spacetime” (LHS) cannot be real. Therefore, it
is a mapping that must be inverse–transformed to real energy and momentum
General Relativity and other metric theories are NOT Machian models al-
though there have been several attempts.
Because the stars of galaxies are modeled as the source of the Machian influ-
ence, the background of all “spacetime” must decrease (like Newton’s model).
The Big Bang model suggests a high amount of the stuff of the universe between
galaxies that infalls into galaxies. However, observations falsify the infall model
for spiral galaxies. Rather, spiral galaxies eject matter. However, elliptical
galaxies do have infall characteristics [9].
The discovery of phenomena suggesting an atomic structure resulted in at-
tempting to describe the spectra as an orbital (angular momentum) characteris-
tic of electrons [10]. This became untenable because radiation should be emitted
and none was observed for stable structures. Later attempts became weirder
and more complex by using Quantum Mechanics combined with many ad hoc
exclusion rules.
Many observations suggest several parameters are “fine–tuned” such as the
temperature of the microwave background. Fine–tuning remains unexplained.
The increase number and accuracy of observations has resulted in physical
models becoming more complex and separated into at least 3 major incompatible
disciplines - Relativity, Quantum mechanics, and subatomic particles (group
theory) including the Grand Unified Theory (GUT).
The return to Newton’s path started with the Quasi Steady State Cosmology
(QSSC) [11; 12]. QSSC suggested a Source of the stuff of our universe at the
center of galaxies. The rotation curves of spiral galaxies were explained as a
medium density directing bodies to vary as 1/d (dbeing the distance from the
Source) according to the spherical principle. Note the positive value that causes
an outward force on bodies. Matter moving outward combines to form heavier
bodies that are gravitationally attracted inward in spiral galaxies. However,
some matter escapes as the 1/d pushes it beyond the galaxy’s gravitational
For the volume between galaxies to have low medium density, the universe
must expand. Because the Sources adds the stuff of the universe, the QSSC is
Machian. However, the QSSC fails when describing elliptical galaxy character-
The STOE posits the components of the universe are discrete hods and a
continuous plenum that is a medium that supports waves similar to Newton’s
aether. Because the plenum supports waves, it has the property of inertia
[13; 14], has plenum density ρ, it directs hods, and it has waves with a speed
much greater than light.
Hods are 2 dimensional, magnetic with a high ρon one side and ρ= 0
on the other, and particles are assemblies of hods [15; 16]. Hods travel at the
speed of light in the direction parallel to their surface and slower in a direction
perpendicular to their surface.
The STOE adds Sinks to the QSSC that are elliptical galaxies in galaxy
clusters that lowers the ρ[17; 18; 19]. The stuff of the universe flows into the
Sinks which explains the many differences between spiral and elliptical galaxies
[9]. The Sinks remove the need for an expansion of the universe and for infall
into spiral galaxies.
The universe begins as a single Source that eject other Sources [19; 20]. The
entire universe emerges (strong emergence) from the two components and their
interaction [21].
The STOE suggested a Universal Equation [22; 23; 24; 25]. The plenum
density at all points ρpin the universe is the sum of the effects of all galaxies
and all hods,
cos 2πrk
where Kǫ,Kη, and Khods are constants that relate the relative influence of the
Sources, Sinks, and hods, respectively; ǫi,ηj, and mgare constants that relate
the value of a measurable parameter such as a galaxy’s B-band luminosity or
hod gravitational effect for Sources, Sinks, and hods, respectively; ri,rj, and rk
are distances from the center of each component to the point being evaluated;
λTand tkare wave characteristics generated in the plenum by moving hods.
The λTand tkdepend on the ρp[26].
The ρas the rincreases, like a fluid, becomes smoothed in the direction
perpendicular to r. This is the “spherical principle”. The number of hods
appear as if they were concentrated at the center of the structure (center of
mass) as rincreases beyond a minimum value. The Khods term looks like the
gravitational mass effect in Newtonian scale observations.
The Kǫand Kηterms become predominate on cosmological scale observa-
The inclusion of all Sources, Sinks, and matter means the STOE is a Machian
Note the rvalues are for the determination of distance for the ρcalculation.
Therefore, the time required for a change in rto travel through the plenum
determines the position of the emitting object for the calculation of ρat a
point. The change-in–rwave can be very much faster than the speed of light
The divergence of ρpis proportional to a force ~
Fsthat acts on matter and
directs a hod,
where mhod is the surface area of a hod that is the same for all hods and ~nlis
the unit vector perpendicular and centered on the hod’s surface. .
For matter, ~
where the Gsis a proportionality constant analogous to the gravitational con-
stant Gwithout the mi/mgvalue. The mwis experienced as the effective surface
area of the particle, and the familiar negative sign is included in the ~
Because electromagnetic signals speed is that of light, electromagnetic signals
are hods [5]. The amount of plenum captured by a hod is constant and is
the cause of miof bodies. Photons are a column of hods [26]. Because hods
are two dimensional, hods and photons experience no impressed force in their
direction of travel. That is, for smaller than electron structures such as photons
or neutrinos, there can be directions with varying force depending on direction
and mw= 0 in the direction of travel. Therefore, they travel at the maximum
allowed speed of other bodies.
The structure of baryonic matter has hod surfaces facing all three directions
such that the effective surface area is less than the number of hods times mhod
The inverse mapping produces the movement of a body:
~a =~
where mi6= 0 because it is the captured plenum around the hods in the body
and ~a is the acceleration of the body. Reference frames result when some terms
of Eq. 1 are ignored for calculation simplicity.
Newton’s three masses are (1) mwis the effective surface area on which the
Fsis exerted, (2) miis the captured plenum which is proportional to the number
of hods in a body, and (3) mgis the deformation of the plenum caused by the
hods and is proportional to the number hods in a body. Note the number of
effective hods vary by type of assembly (photon, neutrino, or baryon [15]).
The Universal Equation has quantitatively described many mysterious ob-
servations [23; 25; 28]:
Microwave background temperature is due to a fine-tuning due to a feed-
back loop between Sources and Sinks [29]. This suggests that if fine-tuning
is evident, then a physical feedback loop is present.
Redshift (z)was calculated by considering each galaxy’s effect on the photon
[30]. That is, the ρpis calculated for points along the photon’s path (line
of sight) using Eq. 1. The correlation coefficient of model distance versus
Cepheid distance for the best Doppler shift model is 0.80. The STOE
model correlation coefficient for the same galaxies is 0.88. The “Hubble
Law” was recovered without invoking a Doppler shift.
Periodic redshift was calculated by considering the Sink’s effect (the Kη
term) on redshift [30]. If a Sink is located between the target and the
Earth, the zis increased. If a Sink is located beyond the target from the
Earth, the zis decreased. A galaxy cluster is a shell of Source galaxies
around a core of Sink galaxies [9]. Therefore, galaxy clusters appear to be
elongated along the line-of-sight from Earth. This phenomenon is called
“the fingers-of-God” pointing toward Earth.
Rotation curves (RCs) were calculated by considering the Source strength.
The Source strength is the ǫterm minus the mgterm for the mass internal
to the radius in Eq. 1. The advantage is that all types of RCs are described
in addition to standard models that explain only flat RCs [31; 32; 33].
Asymmetric RCs , which are unexplained in standard models, were calcu-
lated by considering the galaxy’s’ strength and a neighbor galaxy’s strength
and position [31; 32; 33].
Correlation of central massive object mass and central velocity dispersion was
explained [34].
Pioneer Anomaly of all 10 characteristics (not just the general value of the
blueshift) were calculated by considering solar system matter (hods) and
the Milky Way Source [35]. The equation used derived from the equation
for galaxy redshift. That is, the ρpis calculated for points along the sig-
nal’s path (line of sight) using Eq. 1. For example, the annual periodicity
is explained by the Sun’s relative position to the signal’s path, which is
mathematically similar to the observed periodic redshift . Because the
same equation as the redshift equation was used, the similarity and sign
difference to the Hubble constant is explained.
Predictions made in 2006 about the Pioneer Anomaly were confirmed in 2013
Photon diffraction and interference intensity patterns of both Young’s Ex-
periment and experiments that reject wave models of light were duplicated
using a toy model computer simulation [26; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43].
Particle structure models and how the structures differ relative to photons
that determine speed were created [15].
Modifications to Maxwell’s Equations that better agree with experiment
were described. The Biot-Savart Law was restated based on experiment
[4; 5; 6; 44]. There are two different types of magnetic field, each with the
same symbol ( ~
B) [7].
The “Planet 9” observations and spiral galaxy rotation curves are due to
the Source effect at the center of the Milky Way [45]. The effect was
predicted in 2006 when examining the Pioneer Anomaly by noting the
orbit of Pluto and Neptune. This effect may also influence the perihelion
advance of Mercury [46].
The “ether wind” measurements are explained as the divergence of the plenum
rather than a “wind” [47]. The “wind” model failed because the indicated
direction did not match any possible Earth celestial movement direction.
The STOE model of the hod as a permanent magnet qualitatively suggested
how hods form particles, the nature of particles, and the four forces of the Grand
Unified Theory (GUT).
Magnetism in the STOE model is postulated to emerge from the hods and
is a gradient of the plenum. Magnetism is observed in small subatomic
particles and light. Therefore, the hods are magnets [5]. The application
of Eqs:1 and 2 suggests the ~
ρfollows the magnetic lines of force seen in
iron filings at the macro scale. The observation of two types of magnetic
fields [7] imply the hod is either rotating charges or is a permanent mag-
net. Because rotating charges would emit radiation energy, the rotating
charge model is rejected in the STOE. Therefore, the hod is a permanent
magnetic. The self-similar (fractal) postulate suggests disk permanent
magnets are a macro object that is analogous to hods.
Repulsion was measured between 2 columns of disk permanent magnets. The
measurements showed an asymmetry between South poles repelling and
North poles repelling [48]. Further, the repulsion force along the axis was
inverse–distance when the magnets were close, inverse distance–cubed a
bit further, and inverse distance–squared still further apart. The force
perpendicular and centered on the axis was attractive and inverse–cubed
of the distance from the dipoles.
Particles’ magnetic fields were studied [49] for structures suggested previously
identified (photons, neutrinos, electrons).
Electromagnets did not show the asymmetry that the permanent magnets
demonstrated [50].
Atomic structure in the standard model is orbiting electrons. The fundamen-
tal problem is that rotating charges should radiate and have a declining
orbital radius. This is not observed. Also observed is that changing energy
radiation is photons. Photons in the STOE are columns of hods. So, the
STOE atomic structure is of rods of photons determining and magnetically
holding electrons in position around the nucleus [51].
Gravity emerges from magnetic effects in hod structures [52]. However, mag-
netic attractive and repulsive effects determine atomic structures. There-
fore the distance required before an only attractive force is at least the
atomic scale of Angstroms. That is, the “gravity” at more than atomic
scale is an approximation which becomes invalid at less than atomic scale
rather than being present and merely too small. The distance at which
this occurs may determine atomic size and may suggest instability in larger
atomic (dominated by inverse square distances) and nuclear (dominated
by inverse cube distances) size. The relative strength of the photon hod
binding and the gravity speaks to the “hierarchy problem”. The Newto-
nian problem of r0 for gravity causing an infinite force is nonexistent.
Nuclear forces (weak and strong) are modeled as an assembly of hods into a
spherical ball which is the proton and neutron [53].
Grand Unified Theory is, therefore, that the magnetic force evolves with
distance into the four forces of the GUT.
Like Newton, the STOE suggests a reductionism step by positing the charac-
teristics that can explain many problematic, mysterious observations.
The intent of ~
Fsis that it be all inclusive. The development of the STOE
to date has demonstrated the interference effects and gravity. The hod is a
magnet so the possibility is that electromagnetic effects may be modeled as
approximations as was gravity. However, the equation and effects for very small
values of the r’s in Eq. 1 are lacking. Therefore this is an area for continued
experimental research. Perhaps the STOE could be developed to model atomic
and nuclear decay and to improve the model of galaxy redshift by including
QSOs as H. Arp suggests [20].
Physics theory restarting from Newton’s speculations and then describing
the experiments of the 19th and 20th centuries results in a model of the big,
small, and the four forces (GUT) - the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE).
John C. Hodge:
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[2] Assis, A. K. T., 2014 Relational Mechanics and implementation of Mach’s
Principle with Weber’s Gravitational Force (C. Roy Keys Inc., Montreal, Que-
bec, Canada)
[3] Newton, I., 1952. Opticks based on the 1730 edition (Dover Publications,
Inc., New York).
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that rejects Biot-Savart Law, IntellectualArchive v. 7 (3), P. 1–8, 2018.
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supports the STOE model, IntellectualArchive v. 7 (4), P. 6–10.
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v. 7 (4), P. 1–5.
[8] de Sangro, R. et al., 2012, Measuring Propagation Speed of Coulomb Fields
[9] Binney, J., and Merrifield, M., 1998, Galactic Astronomy Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press.
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electron, and positron. IntellectualArchive, v. 5, (2), 1– 8.
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alArchive, v. 8 (1), P. 9.
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[20] Arp, H., 1998, Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science
Montreal, Quebc, Canada: Apeiron.
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and the small(ISBN 9781469987361, available through
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(ISBN 978-613-9-91465-4, (LAP LAMBERT Acedemic publishing, Mauritius,
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[27] von Flandern, T., 1998. The speed of gravity-what the experiments say,
Physics Letters A 250, 1.
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lations. Chapter 14 of Black Holes and Galaxy Formation, eds. A. D. Wachter
and R. J. Propst, Nova Science Publishers, Inc (New York, USA).
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[30] Hodge, J. C. 2006b. Scalar potential model of redshift and discrete
redshift. NewA, v. 11 (5), 344–358. cache/astro-
[31] Hodge, J. C. 2003a. Relationship Between Cepheid and Tully-Fisher dis-
tance Calculations. Presented at 202nd meeting of the AAS, session 40.08.
[32] Hodge, J. C. 2003b. Neighboring Galaxies’ Influence on Rotation Curve
Asymmetry. Presented at 202nd meeting of the AAS, session 40.08.
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curves and rotation curve asymmetry. cache/astro-
[34] Hodge, J. C. 2006d. Scalar potential model of galaxy central mass
and central velocity dispersion. cache/astro-
[35] Hodge, J. C. 2006e. Scalar potential model of the Pioneer Anomaly. cache/astro-ph/pdf/0602/0612567v1.pdf.
[36] Hodge, J. C. 2013a. Pioneer Anomaly predictions confirmed.
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alArchive, v. 4 (4), 1–11.
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particle caused diffraction patterns, IntellectualArchive, v.5 (3), P. 7==10,
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tion and that replaces QM, IntellectualArchive, v. 5 (3), P. 1-6,
[41] Hodge, J. C., 2017d. Hodge experiment (continued) with opaque strips
and about the Afshar Experiment, IntellectualArchive, v. 6 (5), P. 7–18,
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trographic behavior, IntellectualArchive, v. 6 (6), P. 1–6,
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parent Mask Rejects Wave Models of Light, Optics and
Photonics Journal, v. 9 (6). DOI: 104236/op j.2019.96008.
See video:
[44] Hodge, J. C. 2018b. STOE electric charge. IntellectualArchive, v. 7 (2), 1–
[45] Hodge, J. C. 2019c. STOE explains “Planet 9” . IntellectualArchive, v. 8(2),
P. 13.
[46] Hodge, J. C. 2020a. Sgr.A* effect on Mercury and
Trans-Neptune Objects. IntellectualArchive, v. 9 (1), P. 11.
[47] Hodge, J. C. 2019d. STOE explaination for the
“ether wind”. IntellectualArchive, v. 8 (2), P. 15.
[48] Hodge, J. C. 2019f. Magnetic field evolves to grav-
ity field:1 Repulsion. IntellectualArchive, v. 8 (3), P. 17.
[49] Hodge, J. C. 201 9g. Magnetic field evolves to grav-
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field:3 Electromagnetics. IntellectualArchive, v. 8 (3), P. 23.
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field:4 Atomic structure. IntellectualArchive, v. 8 (4), P. 30.
[52] Hodge, J. C. 2019j. Magnetic field evolves to grav-
ity field:5 Final. IntellectualArchive, v. 8 (4), P. 37.
[53] Hodge, J. C. 2020c. Magnetic field causes the strong and weak
nuclear forces and is the GUT force. IntellectualArchive, v. 9 (3).
... However, the lack of parallax of stars remained a problem for the heliocentric model until the 1830's when more accurate instruments could detect the stars parallax in a much larger universe. Newton's model (Newton 1730;Hodge 2020d) posited (1) the gradient of an aether density was a force that caused gravity and the diffraction of light and (2) corpuscles of light as components of matter. That is, support for the aether was because it could explain several observations then known but mysterious and it could provide a link between the big and the small. ...
... The links to the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model comparisons to observations are found in Hodge (2020d). This Paper discusses the STOE resolution of several ad hoc assumptions in the cosmology realm (Section 2), in the atomic realm (Section 3), and in the subatomic realm (Section 4). ...
... The STOE posits the existence of only two components that emerge to form the universe. The components of the universe are discrete hods and a continuous plenum that supports waves similar to Newton's corpuscles and aether (Hodge 2020d). These components enter the universe through Sources with a plenum density (ρ) at maximum. ...
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The current, accepted theories in cosmology and quantum realms encompass observations that are not explained by the theory. A method to account for these observations is to suggest new, ad hoc additions to the theory. The ad hoc additions suggest the need for a paradigm shift to produce a simpler theory with broader scope and with a cause-effect physical interaction such as the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE). Links to papers showing calculations and observational data comparison 12 3 ; See video: Inflation, negative energy, Dark Matter, action-at-a-distance, and Dark Energy are ad hoc additions to the Big Bang model of cosmology. Other problematic assumptions are spacetime, infinities, decreasing temperature , and increasing entropy of the universe. The strong force, weak force, and the orbits of electrons around a nucleus are ad hoc additions to the atomic models. Other problematic assumptions are the weird results from the assumption of the probabilistic nature of the universe and that the speed of light limits the speed of causality.
... The STOE suggests a Universal Equation that calculates the force exerted at every point is a function of all galaxies and all mass in the universe (Hodge 2018b(Hodge , 2020. The STOE is causal and Machian. ...
... The relation between the agents and the emerged entities is causal. Therefore, because a single universe exists, a single Theory of Everything exists involving causal and Machian relations from the very small to the very large and involving the cause of society's success and life' consciousness (Hodge 2020). Additional concepts such as fractal structures and negative feedback loops from the emergent principal that describe the universe are also helpful. ...
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Orthodox physics makes extensive use of number relation mathematics such as mapping, probability, and infinite series. This mathematics is devoid of causative relations. Other scientific disciplines such as medicine and chemistry use causative models. Using causative models would advance physics. Causation should be overtly stated in the mathematics. Causation is linked with emergence philosophy and not reductionism.
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Title: Entanglement and Leverage in Jeopardy: America's Quests for Redemption, by Nancy Ann Watanabe - "Critical examination of Jeopardy reveals a scientifically balanced counterpoint between form and content. Formal technical practices include extensive use of voiceover narration and foreshadowing, which reinforce standard narratologically designed storytelling conventions, including plot development and character depiction, which are, however, held in suspension. During most of the film, the question of whether or not a man's life will be saved remains unresolved. In this sense, he is both alive and dead. Traditional linear continuity in the narrative is incessantly disrupted by crosscutting, which stresses the outcome depends on his wife's success or failure to bring a rope and manpower in time to rescue him. The film is a container in which a man is enclosed in a situation in which he is about to be consumed by waves and we do not know if his wife will be able to reach him in time. He is in jeopardy similarly to the cat in a scientific thought experiment in quantum mechanics that is related to contemporary entanglement experiments. Austrian-Irish physicist Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961)2 devised a thought experiment to clarify the principle of superposition. A cat is in a box with a vial of poison and decaying cells. When a cell becomes radioactive, the vial breaks, killing the cat. An innovative departure from Isaac Newton's laws of motion3 and Albert Einstein's relativity theories,4 quantum entanglement occurs when a pair or group of infinitesimal particles, are generated, interact, or share special proximity, and subsequently, cannot be described independently of one another. The man and his wife are analogous to, and may be seen to personify, entangled particles. If one's life is endangered, the other's life is imperiled, too. My film analysis expands quantum entanglement theory to suggest an entanglement pattern, . . . " 34-page manuscript submitted on June 17, 2021, for peer review Quarterly Review of Film and Video, Routledge, Taylor and Francis. RG comments welcome.
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Current research enquiry has sought a more primitive explanation for gravity. The STOE suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. Four experiments are done to examine the repulsive magnetic force characteristics. Different relations of force to distance were found. A speculation that gravity may be the sum of the poles at the side of photons is formed.
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The Michelson-Morley, the Miller, and other experiments have detected an "ether wind" and have stirred a long-standing controversy. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is applied to the measurements of the Miller experiment. The STOE's plenum is comparable to the ether. The result is the divergence of the plenum caused by the Sun and Moon and the measured direction of the "ether wind" are at an angle of 91 • ± 8 • with a confidence of 1σ. This suggests that these experiments are measuring the degree of tilt relative to the plenum divergence. That is, the measurements are not detecting the changing light path that results in the real Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis, but rather the measurements are detecting the changing light speed and direction caused by the divergence of the plenum. The support for the Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis as a real contraction is removed.
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The Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) posits a continuous creation at the center of galaxies. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe have a creation and an end. A Sink at the center of elliptical galaxies is added to the Source of the QSSC at the center of Spiral galaxies. This allows the explanation of many more anomalous cosmological observations and allows correspondence with quantum mechanics.
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Relating the concept of gravity to electromagnetics has been a goal of physics. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe emerge to cause gravity and electromagnetic effects. The STOE is reviewed to show the gravity action and is extended to model magnetic effects. A fundamental change in the model of the action of magnetism is suggested. An experiment rejects the traditional magnetostatics Biot-Savart Law and does not reject the STOE.
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Spectrographic behavior of light has been attributed to the wave model of light. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) model of light suggests photons are composed of hods that are one of the two components of the universe. The Hodge diffraction experiments rejected the wave models of light. The Fraunhofer pattern of coherent light on a screen from a slit in a mask is compared to the STOE computer simulation of spectrographic effects. The number of hods serves the same place as the frequency (en-ergy) of light. Thus, the energy of light is proportional to the number of hods in the photons. An additional hod in a photon adds Planks constant amount of energy to the photon. Therefore, the STOE incorporates spectrographic observations.
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The STOE predictions of the Pioneer Anomaly in 2006 were confirmed 2009 and 2011.
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Opaque strips in coherent light shows diffraction effects. The Hodge Experiment of the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a slit impinges on a second mask. The Hodge Experiment is extended to model a second mask of an opaque strip. The STOE photon model suggests the wires in the Afshar Experiment cause small interference that redirects a small percentage of the photons away from the detectors. This could help interpret Afshar's "V * " (non-perturbative measurement parameter) (Afshar et al.(2007) The STOE is consistent with actual light screen patterns from opaque strips.
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The interpretation of Young's double slit experiment of diffraction and interference remains controversial. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces as Newton speculated. The STOE simulation of the light diffraction experiments produces the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern on the screen. An experiment used an image resulting from a single slit projected onto a second mask. If the second mask slit is placed at the center of the image, a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is projected onto the screen. One side of a slit in the minima examined the result of varying the intensity of the illumination across the slit. One slit of two in the minima examined the result of only one of the double slits being illuminated. The resultant patterns on a screen were photographed and are on the opposite side of center from the illuminated side of the second mask. The STOE simulation reproduced the images. The STOE explains several quantum peculiarities with classical processes. These observations do not reject the Newtonian model of diffraction and does reject wave models.
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The STOE originally was a model to describe mysterious cosmological observations. The STOE has explained Young's Experiment and light as photons. It also predicted the result of The Hodge Experiment that differentiates between particles (photons) and waves going through the slits. The assumptions used in the STOE explanation and the computer simulation are many over several papers. This paper lists the assumptions used to form the equations. The advantages of the STOE are that it is one model of the big, the Newtonian scale, and the small of light and that it is more intuitive. Diffraction, Interference, wave-particle duality, Newton Interpretation, Theory of Everything, STOE.
Models of observations from our solar system scale to the galaxy cluster scale are only moderately successful. Such observations are the pioneer anomaly; mid-range, flat rotation curves (RCs); asymmetric RCs; the spiral galaxy central mass and velocity dispersion correlation with outer galaxy parameters; and galaxy structure. Each model describes only one type of observation. The Scalar Potential Model (SPM) posits the existence of a plenum that influences matter and that is influenced by matter. The plenum obeys the heat equation, is sourced at the center of spiral galaxies, and is sunk in elliptical galaxies. The SPM is consistent with all the types of observation listed above; with rising and falling RCs in addition to flat RCs; and with inner-range and outer-range RCs. The SPM suggests a shift in fundamental principles and suggests a new model for the structure, formation and evolution of galaxies. Qualitative speculations about models of QSOs; of black holes; of clouds of shocked, outflowing hydrogen near the center of spiral galaxies; of the relationship of galaxy luminosity to many galaxy parameters; of the cause of the X-rays emanating from the center of spiral galaxies; of why the mid-range HI and Hα RCs differ; of why inner-range RCs of different trace materials differ; of the cause of disks in spiral galaxies; of the cause of warps in the disks; of cooling flows; and of why radio galaxies are preferentially near elliptical galaxies follow from the SPM.