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Humic substances as an environmental-friendly organic wastes potentially help as natural anti-virus to inhibit COVID-19

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Humic substances as an environmental-friendly organic wastes potentially help as natural anti-virus to inhibit COVID-19

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Abstract

The aim of this review was trying to access information to help the world in getting rid of a nightmare COVID-19, by evaluating the anti-virus activity of humic substances as natural anti-virus to inhibit COVID-19. In this scientific review, which devoted to biomedical aspects of various origin humic substances and other organic wastes influences on living organisms, is presented. It is shown that kinds of biological activity of humic substances (HS) are an integral indicator of properties of these substances. Data on humic substances and melanin of anti-viral, anti-carcinogen, and anti-virus diseases such as (COVID-19) activity is given too by immune-modulation. Humic substances, or humates, are the end points of organic (carbon-containing) degradation. They're essentially what are left over from microbial decomposition of organisms and dead plant matter; however, they remain highly concentrated in minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids. Studies have shown that humic substances are effective against both naked and enveloped DNA viruses, including Coxsackie A9, influenza A and B, and herpes simplex type 1 and 2 viruses. In conclusion, humic substances effected on reduce oxidative stress and even induce apoptosis in hepatic cancer lines. humic substances are shown to also influence the micro-biome and possibly improve gut function. This will help make conclusive statements regarding humic substances function and its influence on immune-related diseases. The mechanism whereby humic substances inhibit the cytopathicity of a number of viruses has been studied in some depth. It is thought that the materials prevent viral replicating by sorbing onto the viral envelope protein and thereby blocking the sorption of viral particles to cell surfaces.

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... As shown by Zhang et al. and Rakib et al., the antiviral activity of selenium ion against SARS-CoV-2 [73] can be enhanced by the combination of Se − with aromatic compounds [74]. Natural HSs samples also have anti-coronaviral activity [75]. Moreover, humic substances interact with Zinc(2+) ions [76] and Selenium(−) ion [77] and stabilize them in chelate form. ...
... In presenting indirect, host-related antiviral action, HSs can directly suppress oxidative stress, by recombination with intermediate free radicals. HSs can bind to proteins and these protein-HSs aggregates influence various coagulation factors [75]. HSs have been also shown to protect cells against viral infection, e.g., by reducing the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha, cyclooxygenase2, and prostaglandin E2 secretion in human monocyte cultures, while increasing the resistance of cell membranes to polarization effects [75]. ...
... HSs can bind to proteins and these protein-HSs aggregates influence various coagulation factors [75]. HSs have been also shown to protect cells against viral infection, e.g., by reducing the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha, cyclooxygenase2, and prostaglandin E2 secretion in human monocyte cultures, while increasing the resistance of cell membranes to polarization effects [75]. Selenium ions reduce the oxidative stress during viral infection [81]. ...
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... The Humic acid substances to be effective against HIV (11) for which no vaccine is available and existing therapeutic agents have severe harmful side effects. These anti-viral activities are versatile and could be used against many other diseases including cancer (89). The use of these substances as a prophylactic measure could provide the needed solution I M C R REV ARTICLE to tackle COVID-19 and many more emerging diseases, which may come in future. ...
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... The both sequences follow the trend in lipophilicity index (a ratio of aromatic to aliphatic carbon) for these humic materials [25]. Review publications describe the possible mechanisms of HS and FA effect in preventing the replication of the SARS CoV-2 virus by sorption on the virus envelope protein and thereby blocking the sorption of viral particles on the cell surface [26]. Here are currently no drugs that have shown clear and consistent benefits in treating SARS CoV-2, but numerous trials in different countries are underway suggesting that HS may reduce symptoms. ...
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An organic-mineral fertilizer based on humic substances (HSs) and potassium was developed based on the alkaline extraction of HSs from peat. The HSs have interesting properties for use as a fertilizer since they improve the physical and chemical structure of the soil and provide a source of organic carbon which is readily absorbable by the plants, whereas potassium is a primary nutrient for plants. It was found that highly decomposed peats containing a small inorganic fraction are more favorable for the extraction of HSs. Using these peats, organic-mineral fertilizers that meet the Brazilian legislation have been obtained for a peat-extractant mixture containing 2.57 wt% total organic content (TOC), a K2O/TOC ratio of 1 wt% and an extraction time of 12 hours.
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A dialysis study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the solution composition on the permeability of a membrane to fulvic acids (FA). It has been found how the permeability depends on the concentrations of the electrolytes in solution and pH, and that dialysis is not suitable for complexation studies on solutions with high ionic strength. Additional support for the present view of the dependence of the aqueous conformation of FA molecules on their solution environment has been found.
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In recent years, the group of natural compounds called humic substances has drawn increasing interest of researchers both in, Russia and abroad. The properties of humic substances were studied and attempts of creating related medical preparations were undertaken. The article summarizes and reviews information about the pharmacological properties of humic substances and their possible mechanisms of action, analyzes relationships and separates the primary and secondary factors, and assesses prospects of using humic substances in medicine.
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Fulvic and humic acids extracted from a podzol were shown to stimulate respiration in rat liver mitochondria, when present at concentrations of between 40 and 360 mg L-1. Low molecular weight fractions induced a more significant increase in respiration than high molecular weight material. Humic substances, at concentrations of between 40 and 400 mg L-1, normally also increased the efficiency of the process of oxidative phosphorylation in vitro, particularly after contact periods with the mitochondria of over 1 hour.
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Zusammenfassung Es wird ein antiviraler Effekt von Ammoniumhumat gegenüber Coxsackiervirus A9 in FL-Zellkulturen nachgewiesen. Die antivirale Wirkung ist auf den Humatanteil des Moleküls zurückzuführen.
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The biological effect in rats treated with natural peat homogenate and isolated humic acids has been shown in pharmacodynamic studies. After 24 days of this treatment decrease of total cholesterol, total lipids, an increase of HDL fraction of cholesterol, decrease in glucose level and increase of protein fraction of globulin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and total number of erythrocytes were observed. The treatment did not influence the electrolyte equilibrium. However, after the treatment with humic cides the respiratory acidosis not compensated with the metabolic component was observed. The activity of the natural peat was more favorable as compared to the activity of humic acids solution.
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