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High-Speed Bodyweight Resistance Training Improves Functional Performance Through Maximal Velocity in Older Females

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Abstract

We compared the effects of body-weight resistance training (BWT), at moderate or high-speed conditions, on muscle power, velocity of movement, and functional performance in older females. In a randomized single-blinded non-controlled trial, participants completed twelve weeks (three sessions/week) of BWT, at high (HST; n=14; age, 70.6±4.3 years) or moderate (MST; n=12; age, 72.8±4.2 years) speeds. Data were analysed with an ANOVA (group×time), with level set at <0.05. After the intervention, timed-up-and-go test performance (p<0.05), and the rising-from-a-chair test mean (22.4%) and maximal velocity (28.5%), mean (24.4%) and maximal power (27.7%), normalized mean (25.1%) and maximal power (28.5%) increased in the HST group (p<0.05). However, the MST group achieved no improvements (p>0.2). We conclude that high-speed BWT is an effective and economically practical strategy to improve the functional capacity of older women, relevant to daily life activities.

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... Power for most of the studies involved specific instructions to move the weights "as fast or as quickly as possible" on the concentric action and 2 to 3 seconds for the eccentric action. Most trials used resistance training machines, 4 used pneumatic machines, 30,33,35,37 1 used free weights, 45 1 used body weight, 47 and 1 used vests. 50 The comparison group mainly used the same exercises but performed the exercises at a slower speed (2-3 seconds). ...
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... Resistance exercise can be characterized as voluntary contractions against an external load. It is typically performed with specifically designed equipment, free weights, and/or elastic bands [138], although it can also be performed using bodyweight as resistance [139]. Resistance exercise is widely recognized as a key strategy to promote beneficial effects for the average population, such as reversing muscle loss, reducing body fat, and improving physical function and mental health [140,141]. ...
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Background The current literature indicates that functional capacity is associated with physical performance and body composition measurements in older adults. However, it is not clear which tests can best explain the functional capacity in this population. This study aimed to investigate the physical performance and body composition determinants of functional capacity in older adults. Method Twenty-four older adults (66.4 ± 4.7y) undertook body composition (body fat and muscle), rate of torque development (0–50 and 0–200 ms); countermovement jump (height, power and impulse); leg-press and seated-leg-curl 5-repetition maximum; and functional-performance tests (Timed-up-and-go, stair ascent and stair descent). Findings Timed-up-and-go correlated with countermovement jump (height, R² = 0.303; power, R² = 0.198; and impulse, R² = 0.224) and 5-repetition maximum (seated-leg-curl, R² = 0.172). Stair ascent correlated with body fat (R² = 0.213), rate of torque development (0–50 ms/body fat, R² = 0.301; 0–200 ms, R² = 0.197; 0–200 ms/body fat, R² = 0.340), countermovement jump (height, R² = 0.325; power/body fat, R² = 0.413; impulse/body fat, R² = 0.422) and 5-repetiton maximum (leg-press/body fat, R² = 0.384; seated-leg-curl/body fat, R² = 0.341). Stair descent correlated with rate of torque development (0–50 ms/body fat, R² = 0.164; 0–200 ms, R² = 0.203; 0–200 ms/body fat, R² = 0.213), countermovement jump (height, R² = 0.458; power, R² = 0.212; power/body fat, R² = 0.358; impulse, R² = 0.218; impulse/body fat, R² = 0.369) and 5-repetition maximum (leg-press/body fat, R² = -0.227; seated-leg-curl/body fat, R² = 0.209; seated-leg-curl, R² = 0.181). Interpretation Higher body fat is associated with weaker stair ascent performance. An increase in the correlation coefficient was observed for the countermovement jump, rate of torque development, and 5-repetition maximum tests when normalized by body fat compared to the absolute values. Countermovement jump height presented the highest correlation to timed-up-and-go and stair descent, while impulse/body fat for stair ascent.
Article
Purpose: To examine the effect of a conditioning program consisting of repeated sit-to-stand exercise on knee extensor strength and muscular activities during body mass-based squat movement in physically frail elders. Methods: Fourteen men and women aged 75 to 88 years who used the long-term care insurance system participated in the 12-week training program (48 reps/session, 3 sessions/week). Isometric knee extension torque (KET) during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during the MVC and a body mass-based squat task were determined at baseline, and following 4 and 12 weeks training. KET was expressed relative to body mass (KET/BM) and EMG activities during the squat task were normalized to that during a MVC and averaged (QF %EMGmax). Results: KET/BM increased from 1.07 ± 0.28 Nm/kg at baseline to 1.26 ± 0.26 Nm/kg at week 4 and 1.31 ± 0.28 Nm/kg at week 12 (P < 0.001), and QF %EMGmax decreased from 67.2 ± 17.2% to 49.3% at week 4 (P < 0.001) and 43.5 ± 7.7% at week 12 (P = 0.016). At each of the three measurement time points KET/BM was inversely correlated with QF %EMGmax (r = -0.78 to -0.86, P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: For physically frail elders, a short-term conditioning program consisting of repeated sit-to-stand exercise is effective in increasing knee extensor strength and reducing the muscular effort required for lowering and raising the body.
Article
Objective: to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed resistance training on functional performance and quality of life in elderly women when using either a traditional-set (TS) or a cluster-set (CS) configuration for inter-set rest. Methods: Three groups of subjects were formed by block-design randomization as follows: (i) control group (CG, n=17; age, 66.5±5.4 years); (ii) 12-week high-speed resistance training group under a CS configuration (CSG, n=15; age, 67.6±5.4 years); and (iii) 12-week high-speed resistance training group under a TS configuration (TSG, n=20; age, 68.0±5.3 years). Training was undertaken three times per week, including high-speed resistance training exercises. The main difference between the training groups was the recovery set structure. In the TSG, women rested for 150 s after each set of eight repetitions, whereas the CSG used an interest rest redistribution, such that after two consecutive repetitions, a 30-s rest was allowed. Results: Group×test interactions were observed for a 10-m walking speed test, an 8-foot up-and-go test, a sit-to-stand test, and physical quality of life (p<0.05; d=0.12-0.81). The main results suggest that both training methods improve functional performance and quality of life, however, the CS configuration induced significantly greater improvements in functional performance and quality of life than the TS configuration. Conclusion: these results should be considered when designing appropriate and better resistance training programs for older adults.
Article
A plethora of research has supported the numerous health benefits of resistance training as we age, including positive relationships between muscular strength, muscle mass and reduced all-cause mortality. As such, resistance training has been referred to as medicine. However, participation and adherence remains low, with time constraints and perceived difficulty often cited as barriers to resistance training. With this in mind, we aimed to summarise the benefits which might be obtained as a product of a minimal dose approach. In this sense, participation in resistance training might serve as a prophylactic to delay or prevent the onset of biological aging. A short review of studies reporting considerable health benefits resulting from low volume resistance training participation is presented, specifically considering the training time, frequency, intensity of effort, and exercises performed. Research supports the considerable physiological and psychological health benefits from resistance training and suggests that these can be obtained using a minimal dose approach (e.g. ≤60min, 2d-wk(-1)), using uncomplicated equipment/methods (e.g. weight stack machines). Our hope is that discussion of these specific recommendations, and provision of an example minimal dose workout, will promote resistance training participation by persons who might otherwise have not engaged. We also encourage medical professionals to use this information to prescribe resistance exercise like a drug whilst having an awareness of the health benefits and uncomplicated methods.
Article
Older women participated in a 12-week high-speed resistance training program under two supervisor-to-subject ratio methods (i.e., high versus low supervision) in order to assess its effects on muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life assessed before (T1) and after (T2) intervention. Women were divided into control group (CG, n = 15), high supervision group (HSG, n = 30), and low supervision group (LSG, n = 28). The training program included exercises requiring high-speed concentric muscle actions. No differences were observed among groups at T1. Between T1 and T2 the HSG showed a higher (p<0.05) improvement in muscle strength (ES = 0.36-1.26), power (ES = 0.5-0.88), functional performance (ES = 0.52-0.78), and quality of life (ES = 0.44-0.82) compared to LSG and CG. High-speed resistance training under closer supervision is more effective for improving muscle strength, power, functional performance, and quality of life in older women.
Article
In the ageing muscle, many changes occur. Some are on an architectural level, like alterations in muscle composition, or modifications in the characteristics of the muscle fiber itself, where muscle fiber length, orientation and type change. Other changes are neuronal, which occur on all levels, from the central activation over the spinal properties down to the level of the motor unit and the neuromuscular junction. There are also hormonal factors that undergo agerelated concentration variations. All these alterations in the muscle have an effect on both strength and function. In this matter, they contribute to the process of sarcopenia. Although many different components are identified, it is still unclear to what degree these components contribute to the loss of muscle mass, strength and function. This review summarizes the occurring physiological and anatomical changes within the ageing muscle and links them to outcomes such as strength and function.
Article
To investigate construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people by showing associations with relevant functional performance and physiological parameters. Cross-sectional study. Movement laboratory of a geriatric rehabilitation clinic. Eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). Sit-to-stand performance power and leg power were assessed using a linear encoder and the Nottingham Power Rig, respectively. Gait speed was measured on an instrumented walkway. Maximum quadriceps and hand grip strength were assessed using dynamometers. Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area of both legs was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of sit-to-stand performance power with power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig, maximum gait speed and muscle cross-sectional area were r=0.646, r=0.536 and r=0.514, respectively. A linear regression model explained 50% of the variance in sit-to-stand performance power including muscle cross-sectional area (p=0.001), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig (p=0.006). Construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand power was shown at functional level and morphological level for older women. This measure could be used in routine clinical practice as well as in large-scale studies. DRKS00003622. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
FOR CENTURIES, MAN HAS SOUGHT OUT THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS TO BUILD STRENGTH, VIGOR, AND VITALITY. OVER THE YEARS, METHODS HAVE EVOLVED, SOME HAVE VANISHED, AND SOME NEVER WENT AWAY, ALTHOUGH SOMETIMES NEGLECTED AND FORGOTTEN. THIS COLUMN HIGHLIGHTS THE ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND TRAINING PROGRESSIONS TO ONE OF THE SIMPLEST METHODS OF TRAINING AND CONDITIONING KNOWN TO MAN, BODYWEIGHT TRAINING.
Article
Declined balance functions have adverse effects on elderly population. Lower limbs muscle power training is currently an emerging concept in rehabilitation on individuals with decreased balance and mobility. In this prospective, controlled study, we used a human-computer interactive video-game-based rehabilitation device (LLPR) for training of lower limb muscle power in the elderly. Forty (aged>65years) individuals were recruited from the community. Twenty participants in the exercise group received 30-min training, twice a week, using the LLPR system. The LLPR system allows participants to perform fast speed sit-to-stand (STS) movements. Twenty age-matched participants in the control group performed slow speed STS movements, as well as strengthening and balance exercises, with the same frequency and duration. The results were compared after 12 sessions (6weeks) of training. The mechanical and time parameters during STS movement were measured using the LLPR system. Modified falls efficacy scale (MFES), Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), function reach test, five times sit to stand (FTSS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) were administered to participants as clinical assessments. Results showed that in the exercise group, all the mechanical and time parameters showed significant improvement. In control group, only the maximal vertical ground reaction force (MVGRF) improved significantly. For clinical assessments (balance, mobility, and self-confidence), exercise group showed significantly better scores. The STS movements in video-game-based training mimic real life situations which may help to transfer the training effects into daily activities. The effectiveness of lower limb muscle training is worthy of further investigation.
Article
To determine which component of leg power (maximal limb strength or limb velocity) is more influential on balance performance in mobility limited elders. In this cross-sectional analysis we evaluated 138 community-dwelling older adults with mobility limitation. Balance was measured using the Unipedal Stance Test, the Berg Balance Test (BERG), the Dynamic Gait Index, and the performance-oriented mobility assessment. We measured one repetition maximum strength and power at 40% one repetition maximum strength, from which velocity was calculated. The associations between maximal estimated leg strength and velocity with balance performance were examined using separate multivariate logistic regression models. Strength was found to be associated [odds ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.11)] with performance on the Unipedal Stance Test, whereas velocity showed no statistically significant association. In contrast, velocity was consistently associated with performance on all composite measures of balance (BERG 14.23 [1.84-109.72], performance-oriented mobility assessment 33.92 [3.69-312.03], and Dynamic Gait Index 35.80 [4.77-268.71]). Strength was only associated with the BERG 1.08 (1.01-1.14). Higher leg press velocity is associated with better performance on the BERG, performance-oriented mobility assessment, and Dynamic Gait Index, whereas greater leg strength is associated with better performance on the Unipedal Stance Test and the BERG. These findings are likely related to the intrinsic qualities of each test and emphasize the relevance of limb velocity.
Article
This study evaluated a modified, timed version of the "Get-Up and Go" Test (Mathias et al, 1986) in 60 patients referred to a Geriatric Day Hospital (mean age 79.5 years). The patient is observed and timed while he rises from an arm chair, walks 3 meters, turns, walks back, and sits down again. The results indicate that the time score is (1) reliable (inter-rater and intra-rater); (2) correlates well with log-transformed scores on the Berg Balance Scale (r = -0.81), gait speed (r = -0.61) and Barthel Index of ADL (r = -0.78); and (3) appears to predict the patient's ability to go outside alone safely. These data suggest that the timed "Up & Go" test is a reliable and valid test for quantifying functional mobility that may also be useful in following clinical change over time. The test is quick, requires no special equipment or training, and is easily included as part of the routine medical examination.
Article
Physiological studies have been made of extensor digitorum brevis muscles in 28 healthy subjects aged between 60 and 96. Within this elderly population there was evidence of muscle wasting and weakness. These changes were shown to result from a loss of functioning motor units. The surviving motor units were often enlarged and tended to have relatively slow twitches. In some subjects the maximum impulse conduction velocities were reduced in motor nerves; there was evidence that slowing of impulse conduction could be especially marked in distal regions of axons. The findings are considered to indicate the presence of motoneurone dysfunction in old age.
Article
Identification of the physiologic factors most relevant to functional independence in the elderly population is critical for the design of effective interventions. It has been suggested that muscle power may be more directly related to impaired physical performance than muscle strength in elderly persons. We tested the hypothesis that peak muscle power is closely associated with self-reported functional status in sedentary elderly community-dwelling women. We used baseline data that were collected as part of a 1-year randomized controlled clinical trial of a combined program of strength, power, and endurance training in 80 elderly women (mean age 74.8 +/- 5.0 years) with 3.2 +/- 1.9 chronic diseases, selected for baseline functional impairment and/or falls. Functional status at baseline was related in univariate analyses to physiologic capacity, habitual physical activity level, neuropsychological status, and medical diagnoses. Leg power had the strongest univariate correlation to self-reported functional status (r = -.47, p < .0001) of any of the physiologic factors we tested. In a forward stepwise regression model, leg press power and habitual physical activity level were the only two factors that contributed independently to functional status (r = .64, p < .0001), accounting for 40% of the variance in functional status. Leg power is a strong predictor of self-reported functional status in elderly women.
Article
Aging leads to significant losses in muscle mass, strength, and the ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). Typically, standard resistance training (RT) has been used to reduce these losses in function by maintaining or even increasing muscle strength in older adults. Increasing strength does not necessarily, however, result in an increase in the ability to perform ADL. There is now research suggesting that muscle power is more closely associated with the performance of ADL than muscle strength is, so training for muscle power might lead to more beneficial results in functional performance. This review of studies investigating the effect of training on ADL performance in older adults indicated that standard RT is effective in increasing strength in older adults, but power training that contains high-velocity contractions might be a more optimal means of training older adults when the emphasis is on increasing the performance of ADL.
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