Article

Behavioural themes in Spanish missing persons cases: An empirical typology

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  • Ministerio del Interior - Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad
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Abstract

The high number of missing person reports that occur globally each year highlights the need for research in this academically neglected field. This research focuses on establishing whether there are different scenarios or behavioural themes that consistently appear in missing person cases in Spain, which could assist the police investigation process. A representative sample of 341 missing person police reports was collated and up to 27 behaviours , which occur during the disappearance, have been codified, as well as circumstances surrounding the case. Through multidimensional scaling four behav-ioural themes have been identified: intentional-escape, intentional-dysfunctional, unintentional-accidental, and forced-criminal. These findings entail implications, both in terms of prevention and in the scope of police investigations. Specifically, this research is considered a key step in the development of: (a) a predictive risk assessment system for harmed or deceased outcomes, and (b) in-depth review of forced-criminal disappearances that concur with homicide. K E Y W O R D S behavioural themes, missing persons, multidimensional scaling, typology

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... Studies have shown that the majority of disappearances are voluntary (e.g., runaway, disappearing to escape financial problems, suicide) or accidental (García-Barceló et al., 2020;Henderson et al., 2000;Payne, 1995). However, a smaller number of disappearances are involuntary and associated with a criminal act (i.e., abductions and/or violent offending leading to homicides whose victims' bodies are never found) (Biehal et al., 2003;García-Barceló et al., 2020;LePard et al., 2015;Taylor et al., 2019). ...
... Studies have shown that the majority of disappearances are voluntary (e.g., runaway, disappearing to escape financial problems, suicide) or accidental (García-Barceló et al., 2020;Henderson et al., 2000;Payne, 1995). However, a smaller number of disappearances are involuntary and associated with a criminal act (i.e., abductions and/or violent offending leading to homicides whose victims' bodies are never found) (Biehal et al., 2003;García-Barceló et al., 2020;LePard et al., 2015;Taylor et al., 2019). Although the prevalence of these cases remains small in comparison to the number of annual disappearances (i.e, 1%-4% of cases; see Newiss, 2006;Tarling & Burrows, 2004) their management represents an important challenge for law enforcement agencies in terms of the associated costs but more importantly, the complexity of these investigations (Fyfe et al., 2015;LePard et al., 2015;Shalev Greene & Pakes, 2014). ...
... Individuals characterised by unintentional disappearance are not concerned about leaving traces. This study was replicated with 341 solved cases of missing persons that occurred in Spain (García- Barceló et al., 2020). The multidimensional scale analysis allowed García-Barceló et al. (2020) to identify similar intentional dimensions as was found in Bonny's et al.'s (2016) classification (i.e., intentional dysfunctional, intentional escape, unintentional accidential/drif), and one new category labelled 'unintentional criminal' reflecting an individual unintentionally missing related to criminal facts. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to explore cases of missing persons suspected of being criminal. Specifically, this research aims to empirically describe the circumstances surrounding criminal disappearances and examine whether there are different subcategories within these cases using a victimological framework. The data used in this study come from an operational police database. The sample includes 155 unsolved missing person cases whose thorough investigation by the police concluded that a criminal motive remained the most likely hypothesis. These cases occurred on the entire territory of metropolitan France and overseas. Multidimensional scale analysis was used to explore the context of disappearance according to missing person characteristics, lifestyle, everyday activities, and situational exposure at the time of the disappearance. Results show that the distribution of variables in a two‐dimensional space reveals four distinct different categories related to lifestyle and situational exposure: riskier lifestyle, riskier situation, safer situation, and safer lifestyle. This study is the first to empirically explore unsolved missing person cases suspected of a criminal outcome. Moreover, the framework used in this study demonstrates the importance of victimology in an investigative context.
... Durante las últimas décadas se ha notado un incremento en el número de publicaciones sobre personas desaparecidas en las que se señala la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta institucional inicial ante esta problemática en función de la evidencia científica (Taylor et al., 2018). Específicamente, estas publicaciones se han centrado en la a) explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), b) descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, c) estudio de la efectividad de las alertas por desaparición, d) construcción de tipologías empíricas y e) identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (García-Barceló, 2020;Woolnough et al., 2019). Sin embargo, estas publicaciones han puesto de manifiesto uno de los mayores retos pendientes en este ámbito, el relativo a la creación de sistemas de valoración del riesgo de sufrir daños durante la desaparición que resulten válidos, eficaces y de fácil manejo para los investigadores policiales. ...
... En España, desde el año 2019, el Centro Nacional de Desaparecidos (CNDES) dependiente del Ministerio del Interior, ha promovido diferentes iniciativas de investigación científica en colaboración con la Academia con la finalidad de estudiar a) las causas y los motivos que influyen en que una persona desaparezca y que ésta sufra daños o fallezca durante la desaparición, y b) mejorar los instrumentos y herramientas de investigación policial para los casos de desapariciones (García-Barceló et al., 2020). Fruto de estas investigaciones científicas se desarrolló el SER-DesVi, un sistema predictivo de valoración del riesgo capaz de estimar aquellos casos en los que la persona desaparecida puede resultar lesionada o fallecida por causa suicida u homicida. ...
... As expected, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors proved crucial. Specifically, the missing person's age, which relates to the person's cognitive [1][2][3][4]39] or global health [11] state, or the missing person's sex, which relates to the reason for going missing [40] or the type of behaviors in which the person engages during the missingness, was important. Similarly, the date of missingness or the size of the municipality in which the missingness occurred was relevant, as they are indirectly associated with the structure and organization of the physical and social environment that surrounds the missingness. ...
Article
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Person missingness is an enigmatic and frequent phenomenon that can bring about negative consequences for the missing person, their family, and society in general. Age-related cognitive changes and a higher vulnerability to dementia can increase the propensity of older adults to go missing. Thus, it is necessary to better understand the phenomenon of missingness in older adults. The present study sought to identify individual and environmental factors that might predict whether an older adult reported missing will be found. Supervised machine learning models were used based on the missing person cases open data of Colombia between 1930 and June 2021 ( n = 7855). Classification algorithms were trained to predict whether an older adult who went missing would eventually be found. The classification models with the best performance in the test data were those based on gradient boosting. Particularly, the Gradient Boosting Classifier and the Light Gradient Boosting Machine algorithms showed, respectively, 10% and 9% greater area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve than a data-driven, reference model based on the mean of the reported time elapsed since the missingness observed in the training data. The features with the greatest contribution to the classification were the time since the missingness, the place where it occurred, and the age and sex of the missing person. The present results shed light on the societal phenomenon of person missingness while setting the ground for the application of machine learning models in cases of missing older persons.
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Chapter
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La percepción del mundo ha sido un constructo de interés para la psicología social, su estudio se ha enfocado en grupos poblacionales en los cuales las condiciones de vulnerabilidad, la función social o su actividad laboral, generan la necesidad de comprensión sobre la forma en que ven el contexto que les rodea. De acuerdo con Vargas (1994, citado en Fajardo, Alonso, Serna, Angarita y Aguilera, 2017) la percepción puede definirse en aspectos vinculados con actitudes, valores o creencias, que dependen del punto de referencia del observador, quien de manera subjetiva emite un juicio. La percepción del mundo se puede estudiar desde el enfoque de la percepción social, la cual de acuerdo con Arias (2006), estudia la percepción que tienen los individuos sobre otras personas, conocimientos de los otros, la formación de impresiones y los procesos de atribución. Dember y Warm (1990, citado en Arias, 2006) proponen que: "un aspecto importante del estudio de la percepción es comprender que estamos tratando con experiencias privadas de las personas” (p.18).
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Chapter
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En Colombia bajo la perspectiva de Derechos Humanos y Derechos Ciudadanos se evidencia desde hace varias décadas una situación de conflicto y violencia que afecta de manera importante las relaciones sociales de todos los individuos a lo ancho y largo del territorio nacional, creando en general condiciones de violencia e inseguridad de manera permanente, y generando una visión negativa sin precedentes para otros países del mundo. Por lo tanto, el actuar de la policía se ha considerado un eje importante en el trabajo por la seguridad ciudadana y en la lucha frente al comportamiento contrario a la convivencia, promoviendo la lucha contra la corrupción y los comportamientos violentos. En el servicio policial la impulsividad entre otras variables relacionadas con la personalidad del individuo puede afectar la respuesta en pro del cuidado y protección de los otros. De acuerdo con ello esta investigación se enfocó en indagar cómo el constructo psicológico de la impulsividad está relacionado con la práctica laboral de los cadetes de policía; constructo que es evaluado como un atributo negativo en el ejercicio de ciudadanía, el cual a su vez se relaciona con dificultades comportamentales y cognitivas, al igual que con los comportamientos agresivos y riesgo suicida (Riaño-Hernández, Guillen y Buela-Casal, 2015). Tomando aportes del Modelo Holístico de Liderazgo Policial de la Escuela de Postgrados de la Policía nacional de Colombia (ECSAN, 2019), el liderazgo bajo el cual los miembros de la policía deben actuar, debe contener cualidades y habilidades que evidencien un tipo de conducta a la hora de responder a las necesidades complejas de los ciudadanos; conducta que debe orientarse siempre propiciando el bienestar y satisfacción de tales necesidades, pues este comportamiento expresado en esas cualidades, conllevará a que de manera global y cultural se haga una representación de la institución y de cada uno de los miembros, afectando positiva o negativamente la relación policía y ciudadanos.
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Chapter
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La agresividad se constituye en un rasgo de personalidad, caracterizado por la manifestación de comportamientos de tipo agresivo, con tendencia a externalizar los problemas con terceros (Farnicka, 2016). De allí que distintos enfoques de las ciencias sociales entre los que se encuentran la perspectiva sociobiológica, psicoanalítica, del aprendizaje social, han teorizado sobre este constructo, intentando explicar su génesis y manifestaciones, encontrándose diferentes tipologías de la agresividad, las cuales se encuadran en la emisión en interacciones de carácter agresivo. En el contexto policial, este constructo ha tenido especial relevancia para su estudio y, como antecedente se encuentra el estudio realizado por Juárez, Dueñas y Méndez (2006), quienes estudiaron los patrones violentos en 120 participantes de la escuela de Policía nacional General Santander. De allí que resulta muy importante realizar estudios sobre la agresividad policial, que permitan obtener una perspectiva bastante amplia desde el ámbito científico, sobre los factores que llevan a los sujetos policiales a desplegar determinadas conductas en la actividad policial, para garantizar la seguridad y convivencia ciudadana, en la que se despliegan una serie de comportamientos agresivos dirigidos al control de comportamientos contrarios a la ley por parte de la ciudadanía. El objetivo de esta investigación es medir la agresividad en los cadetes de la policía, la cual es una variable que afecta tanto en la vida laboral como en la personal.
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Esta investigación surgió como respuesta a la falta de información referente al síndrome de burnout en contextos de servidores de la justicia o relacionados con este (abogados, fiscales, peritos, policías etc.) y en segundo lugar desde un interés psicológico y humano, enfatizando en prestar servicios de intervención y prevención en el agotamiento emocional por trauma ajeno omSíndrome de Burnout, en población perteneciente a la Policía Metropolitana de Manizales, enfermedad que tiene evidencia en cuanto a la afectación en la salud física y mental de las personas que presenta signos y síntomas asociados al mismo, esto surge debido a que la psicología policial es la encargada de las dinámicas individuales y colectivas de los miembros de la Policía y Fuerzas Militares a nivel organizacional, clínico y social, en esta investigación nos interesa el ámbito social en donde está la interacción de las fuerzas con la ciudadanía (Norza y Merchán-Rojas, 2016). De acuerdo con lo anterior se planteó como objetivo identificar la presencia de signos y síntomas relacionados con el Síndrome de Burnout en una muestra de la policía metropolitana de Manizales (Caldas). En cuanto a los objetivos específicos se tiene la investigación son (1) Documentar a partir de la literatura y el estado del arte las características, variables y dimensiones del síndrome de burnout (2) Identificar la presencia del Síndrome de Burnout por medio de la aplicación del instrumento MBI GS en una muestra de policías en la ciudad de Manizales (3) Categorizar los resultados obtenidos de la aplicación del instrumento de MBI GS (4) Socializar conclusiones y recomendaciones a partir de los resultados para futuras investigadores.
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Chapter
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icación de la psicología a procesos forenses, criminológicos, clínicos y organizacionales, de este último nace el mayor campo aplicativo desde procesos de selección, asistencia clínica y/o psicosocial y formación o especialización académica. Con el fin de realizar una evaluación exhaustiva de “los procesos comportamentales y cognitivos del aspirante y aptitudes policiales, mediante la valoración del grado de conocimiento de las funciones policiales; validación del puesto de trabajo en función del proceso de selección seguido” (Chandler, 1990; citado en Soria, 2005, p. 173). Existiendo una gran necesidad por abordar aspectos claves de la personalidad en los cadetes de policía, como las conductas externalizantes, las cuales son aquellas que evidencian la toma de decisiones éticas, el control del comportamiento en un ambiente social y la conformidad en cuanto a las mismas reglas que se imponen en la sociedad, demostrando así una estrecha relación entre las conductas externalizantes y los problemas de conducta. Por lo tanto, este al ser un subcampo de amplio interés académico ha generado un alto grado de exposición a nivel internacional en países como Estados Unidos y España, donde se vincula a la psicología con las fuerzas policiales, permitiendo a su vez generar diversos estudios que han contribuido no solo a comprender en términos de características estáticas de la personalidad en los seres humanos o de bienestar a nivel individual o grupal, sino aplicándolo a un campo específico donde se puede determinar diversos factores de la personalidad que contribuye a la promoción de pautas dentro de la institución para potencializar diversos procesos y al conocimiento del individuo centrándose en cómo percibe y actúa en su entorno, así bien, la personalidad permite conocer la manera en la que el individuo aprende o se adapta al ambiente. Teniendo en cuenta sus dos componentes principales como: el temperamento y el carácter donde juegan un papel fundamental a la hora de determinar la realidad de la personalidad en el individuo.
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Esta investigación surge de la necesidad que se vive en Colombia frente a la intervención que realiza la policía, en cabeza del Poder Ejecutivo del país. Es un momento coyuntural en la relación del Estado con la Ciudadanía y por ende se hace trascendental crear escenarios académicos y científicos que permitan establecer diálogos y comprensiones sobre el particular y así minimizar la brecha que se ahonda por la violencia generalizada y la afectación a la salud mental de todos los habitantes del territorio. Es por ello que se hace necesario que mediante el aporte de la psicología y en especial la psicología policial, se construyan rutas de comprensión sobre los temas de la convivencia y la seguridad ciudadana, pues es la psicología policial, la llamada a tener un enfoque claro y contribuir a restablecer la relación entre la Ley y los sujetos que conviven en el mismo territorio. El abordaje de la Psicología Jurídica se considera un área básica y aplicada de la psicología, en tanto estudia e interviene el comportamiento humano con implicaciones jurídicas, buscando defender los Derechos Humanos, la salud mental y humanizar la justicia. Está orientada por el método científico, la ética, la justicia, la convivencia pacífica y la responsabilidad social (Hernández, 2011). Dentro de ella pueden reconocerse diversas subáreas de estudio, como son la Psicología criminal, victimal, del testimonio, forense, policial y militar, mediación y conciliación
... Introducción El incremento del número de publicaciones científicas sobre personas desaparecidas que se ha venido notando durante las últimas dos décadas se debe principalmente a la necesidad de estandarizar la respuesta inicial ante este fenómeno desde una perspectiva basada en la evidencia (Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en cinco facetas diferentes: explicación del fenómeno (causas y motivos), descripción de las personas desaparecidas y las desapariciones, estudio de la efectividad de las alertas de desaparición, construcción de tipologías empíricas, e identificación de factores de riesgo de resultar dañado o fallecido (Biehal, Mitchell y Wade, 2003;García-Barceló, González-Álvarez, Almond y Woolnough, 2020;Taylor, Woolnough y Dickens, 2018). ...
Book
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Esta libro contiene las ponencias, sometidas a un proceso de revisión por pares, presentadas al XIII Congreso de Psicología Jurídica y Forense que aportan evidencia científica para la prácticas profesional en los ámbitos de actuación de la Psicología Jurídica y Forense.
... Finalmente, en la actualidad, el Centro Nacional de Desaparecidos está trabajando en la elaboración de una herramienta para predecir el tipo de desenlace más probable de la desaparición de personas, especialmente valorando el riesgo de que la persona sea encontrada fallecida por causas violentas. Los agentes policiales podrán hacer uso de la herramienta desde el mismo momento en que se recibe la denuncia, lo que permitirá, por ejemplo, intensificar la búsqueda en lugares significativos para la víctima (en caso de que pueda tratarse de un suicidio), o para activar sin dilación a los equipos de investigación de homicidios y no perder así pruebas valiosas que puedan desparecer con el paso del tiempo (García-Barceló et al., 2020;García-Barceló et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Las decisiones en materia de políticas públicas deben estar basadas en el análisis riguroso de los datos efectuado a través de métodos y procedimientos científicos, para evitar tomar decisiones basadas en datos sesgados o creencias erróneas. El desarrollo de algoritmos y modelos predictivos aplicados al análisis del crimen, ha permitido la aparición de la policía predictiva, que analiza una gran cantidad de datos históricos de criminalidad para identificar patrones y estimar la probabilidad de que sucedan crímenes en el futuro, y para ayudar a esclarecer crímenes pasados. Esto ha hecho posible que desde los cuerpos policiales se potencie el enfoque preventivo frente al enfoque reactivo. A lo largo de este trabajo se expondrán algunas de las principales aplicaciones de la policía predictiva en España, y se analizarán en detalle los avances en los ámbitos de la Violencia de Género y el homicidio. El objetivo principal es resumir los principales estudios que se han desarrollado en los últimos años, destacar algunas de las limitaciones que puede tener la aplicación de este tipo de metodologías, y sobre todo señalar los beneficios que puede reportar la aplicación de modelos predictivos en la gestión de los recursos policiales.
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Although research on missing persons has globally increased during the past few years, most of the studies conducted have focused on the description of socio-demographic and situational factors associated with this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to explore in-depth the relation between missing person's socio-demographic factors and missing person's typology and outcomes. A full 1-year sample of police recorded missing persons (n = 24,284) was extracted from the Spanish 'Missing Persons and Unidentified Human Remains (PDyRH)' system and a multivariate statistical approach was used. The findings of this research show that, although nationality and gender are mainly important from a descriptive level, age is the socio-demographic variable that better classifies the typology and outcome of missing person cases. These findings suggest that age is a modulating variable of this phenomenon. Thus, there is a need for the conduction of research for each specific age group focused on identifying psychosocial, criminological and geographical risk factors which could explain missing person case outcomes from a multifaceted approach. Considering previous research in the field, the findings of this research are mostly consistent with these previous studies and entail different implications, both at prevention level and in the scope of police investigations.
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La investigación científica sobre personas desaparecidas a nivel internacional y nacional se ha incrementado durante los últimos años en pos de abordar los diferentes retos establecidos acerca de la estandarización de la respuesta inicial (prevención e intervención) ante el fenómeno por parte de la Administración Pública. Los objetivos de este trabajo se centran en la identificación de las características que componen los perfiles de adultos y menores desaparecidos en España así como las relaciones existentes entre éstas y los estados de salud en los que las personas desaparecidas son localizadas. Se ha estudiado una muestra de 1,140 desapariciones ocurridas y esclarecidas en España en el año 2019. Los resultados indicaron que existen características que discriminan entre los perfiles de adultos y menores desaparecidos, así como entre los diferentes tipos de desenlaces (buen estado de salud, lesión y fallecimiento). Estos hallazgos generan diversas implicaciones en función del grupo de edad de la persona desaparecida: a) en el ámbito de la prevención general de las desapariciones, y sobre los grupos específicos de riesgo de resultar dañados o fallecidos, así como b) en el ámbito de la investigación policial para la creación de herramientas de apoyo a la toma de decisiones.
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A pesar de su baja prevalencia, los casos de desapariciones con desenlace fatal por causa homicida despiertan una gran alarma social, lo que genera una necesidad y reclamo de estudio por parte de la sociedad en aras de que estos aspectos se aborden y se sitúen con prioridad en la agenda política. Para abordar estas necesidades y ayudar a las FCSE en la respuesta hacia este tipo de casos, cabe preguntarse si existen aspectos que los caractericen. Para responder ante estas cuestiones y siguiendo los términos de cooperación CNDES-ICFS (UAM), se ha realizado un estudio pormenorizado y sobre el terreno de una muestra de casos de desapariciones en España en las que subyace un homicidio. Esta revisión pormenorizada ha consistido en a) la identificación, recopilación y estudio de la documentación policial (atestados) de una muestra de casos de desapariciones que hubieran terminado en homicidio de la persona desaparecida, y que hubieran sido esclarecidos; b) la entrevista personal con los agentes policiales que investigaron el caso, así como con los entornos de víctimas y agresores, y, en última instancia, con el agresor en prisión; y c) la elaboración de un informe técnico en el que se vaciaron los datos de los distintos casos y se mostraran los resultados de los análisis estadísticos de esos datos, a nivel descriptivo. Esta iniciativa se considera pionera en el ámbito europeo hasta el momento. A pesar de ser un estudio descriptivo, los resultados han permitido describir profundamente variables antes no conocidas sobre el fenómeno de las desapariciones con desenlace fatal de etiología homicida en nuestro país, facilitando así una mayor capacitación de los integrantes de las FCS que trabajen en esta materia. Además, este trabajo sirve como punto de partida para el desarrollo de futuras investigaciones con valor predictivo que mejoren (si cabe) la respuesta policial basada en la evidencia ante la denuncia de un caso de desaparición en el que se advierta desde el primer momento que subyace un homicidio y que permitan estimar las características más probables que puede tener el autor o autores de este (perfilado inductivo).
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Una síntesis teórico-práctica de las distintas aproximaciones al perfilado basado en la evidencia
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Background Understanding what distinguishes the suicide of individuals reported missing (missing-suicides) from those of individuals not reported missing (other-suicides) may have preventative and/or operational utility and inform our knowledge of suicide. Aims To assess whether specific epidemiological, sociodemographic or circumstantial characteristics differ between individuals reported missing and those not reported missing who take their own life. Method Content analysis of Scottish Police Death Reports, detailing 160 suicides/undetermined deaths over a 3-year period in the North-East of Scotland. Results Those in the missing-suicide group were more likely to be older but did not differ from the other-suicide group on any other epidemiological or sociodemographic characteristics. Individuals in the other-suicide group were more likely to be found inadvertently by people known to them. The missing-suicide group took longer to find and were more likely to be located in natural outdoor locations by police/searchers or members of the public. Conclusions Individuals who die by suicide and who are reported as a missing person differ from those not reported as missing in terms of factors relating to location and how they are found but not epidemiological or sociodemographic characteristics. Declaration of interest None.
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The police are the primary investigative agency for missing person accidents. Whilst substantial advances in policing have been made, a greater focus on crime has meant there remain significant gaps in our understanding of missing persons and, therefore, to what extent greater knowledge can or should inform policing practices. The overall contribution of the existing and future studies would be to exchange experience and knowledge in order to develop and employ a best evidence-based practice based on scientific evidence about what works best in the missing-person field of policing. Key words: missing persons, police, investigation, evidence-based practice
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The cost of missing person investigations has been the subject of debate. This article reports a study that sought to establish this cost through a survey of 407 officers and staff in two UK forces and a realistic case assessment undertaken by 33 officers in two UK forces. Both produce cost estimates (£1,325.44 as a realistic minimum and £2,415.80 as a realistic estimate of cost of medium-risk medium-term cases) that are higher than often assumed or previously reported. It demonstrates that missing person investigations are a bigger drain on police resources then either theft or assault. This result is placed into context of current developments such as the commodification and the outsourcing of policing tasks and recent changes in policy involving missing person investigations.
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ISBN 0642 24145 7 Each year, around 30,000 people are reported missing in Australia—one person every 18 minutes. The 30,000 people exceed the total number of victims, reported to police for homicide, sexual assault, and unarmed robbery combined. Nation-ally, the rate of missing people reported to the police is 1.55 per thousand, and it varies considerably around Australia with South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory have rates double the national average. Children and young people having rates three times those of adults. Fortunately, nearly all are found, and 86 per cent are located within one week. The social and economic impacts on families, friends, and the community as a whole are profound. It is estimated that each missing person costs the community about $2,360—in search costs, loss of earnings while family members look, and health and legal costs. For 30,000 people, this adds to over $70 million per year. Relatively little is known about the reasons people go missing, the character-istics of missing persons, and the impact of their disappearance on the commu-nity. In 1998, the National Missing Persons Unit (NMPU) at the Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence commissioned an independent study to address this information gap and to identify service delivery needs for those affected by the phenomenon of missing persons. This paper summarises that report. Adam Graycar Director T he study was based on various sources of information. These included an analysis of missing person statistics provided by Australian police and by three non-government tracing organisations—the Salvation Army, Australian Red Cross, and International Social Service (Australia) over a three-year period. A detailed analysis was carried out on 505 missing person police reports, representing all missing persons reported to Australian police during a single week at the mid-point of the three-year period. A national survey of families and friends of 270 people reported missing to police was conducted, using an in-depth structured telephone interview. Consultations were held with over 90 organisations with an interest in missing person issues. The study also included an assessment of the economic and social costs of missing people in the Australian community.
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The extrapolation of characteristics of criminals from information about their crimes, as an aid to police investigation, is the essence of ‘profiling'. This paper proposes that for such extrapolations to be more than educated guesses they must be based upon knowledge of (1) coherent consistencies in criminal behaviour and (2) the relationship those behavioural consistencies have to aspects of an offender available to the police in an investigation. Hypotheses concerning behavioural consistencies are drawn from the diverse literature on sexual offences and a study is described of 66 sexual assaults committed by 27 offenders against strangers. Multivariate statistical analyses of these assaults support a five-component system of rapist behaviour, reflecting modes of interaction with the victim as a sexual object. The potential this provides for an eclectic theoretical basis to offender profiling is discussed.
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The newly emerging area of Investigative Psychology provides a behavioural science basis for crime detection by examining investigative processes and criminal behaviour. It draws upon a range of material collected by law enforcement agencies that is not widely utilised in the social sciences. This may be regarded as a form of non- reactive, unobtrusive data that has many of the advantages originally promoted by Webb, Campbell, Schwartz and Sechrest (1966) and more recently explored by Lee (2000). The value of such data, derived from police sources, has been demonstrated in a variety of Investigative Psychology studies. However, law enforcement material is not usually collected as data but rather as evidence. Consideration is therefore given to how to address the challenges this poses. The unobtrusive measures derived from police investigations provide a different perspective on crime and other aspects of human actions from that based on more conventional sources of data such as questionnaires and interviews. To assist in the effective use of measures derived from police information a framework for considering this material is proposed reflecting the range of sources of measures that Lee (2000) identified; personal records, running records, physical traces, and simple observation. As in other areas, close attention to the methods of collecting such material can considerably improve its utility. The measures being utilized in Investigative Psychology therefore offer some fruitful directions for other areas of social science research. Development of these measures can also improve the effectiveness of
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It is hypothesized that there will be behavioural consistencies in the actions of arsonists when committing a crime that characterize them. The themes underlying these observable differences can be used to help us understand the nature of the offence. With arson, one such observable difference is hypothesized to relate to the target or focus of the attack. The study tested whether consistencies could be found that distinguish person-oriented from object-oriented arsons. A second proposed facet of arson actions relates to the motivational category underlying the act, being either instrumental or expressive. It was also hypothesized, therefore, that there would be a distinction in the arson actions between fires set for a clear instrumental purpose, and those which may be regarded as emotional acting-out. The hypothesis that these four themes would differentiate arsonists was tested by analysing 175 solved arson cases from across England. The case files were content analysed to produce 42 behavioural variables taken from both the crime reports and witness statements. In order to test the hypotheses of differentiation a smallest space analysis was carried out.
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The present article offers a conceptual, and at the same time operative, vision of the concept of multidimensional scaling. In the manner it is presented, the aim is, firstly, to help interested psychologists understand what the multidimensional scaling model is, using a number of simple, intuitive examples; and, secondly, for them to acquire the competence required to resolved different problems in multidimensional scaling through the use of specific software. The aim is also to download the presentation of mathematical formulae and method, without renouncing the methodological rigour that the subject demands. A través del presente artículo se ofrece una visión conceptual, a la vez que operativa, del concepto de escalamiento multidimensional. En la forma de presentación se busca, en primer lugar, que los psicólogos interesados comprendan lo que es el modelo de escalamiento multidimensional a través de varios ejemplos muy sencillos e intuitivos y, en segundo lugar, adquieran competencias que le permitan resolver distintos problemas de escalamiento multidimensional con el uso de software específico. Se pretende igualmente descargar la presentación de fórmulas y métodos matemáticos sin renunciar por ello al rigor metodológico que el tema requiere.
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It is hypothesized that stranger rape victim statements will reveal a scale of violation experienced by the victim, ranging from personal violation, through to physical violation, and finally, at the most extreme level, sexual violation. It is also hypothesized that offences can be differentiated in terms of one of four themes: hostile, controlling, stealing, or involving. To test these hypotheses, crime scene data from 112 rapes were analyzed by the multi-dimensional scaling procedure Smallest Space Analysis. The results provide empirical support for a composite model of rape consisting of four behavioral themes as different expressions of various intensities of violation. The results also suggest that stranger rapes may be less about power and control than about hostility and pseudo-intimacy. The proposed model has implications for the classification of rape, the investigation of sexual crimes, and the treatment of victims.
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The heterogeneity of domestic violent men has long been established. However, research has failed to examine this phenomenon among men committing the most severe form of domestic violence. This study aims to use a multidimensional approach to empirically construct a classification system of men who are incarcerated for the murder of their female partner based on the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Ninety men who had been convicted and imprisoned for the murder of their female partner or spouse in England were identified from two prison samples. A content dictionary defining offense and offender characteristics associated with two dimensions of psychopathology and criminality was developed. These variables were extracted from institutional records via content analysis and analyzed for thematic structure using multidimensional scaling procedures. The resultant framework classified 80% (n = 72) of the sample into three subgroups of men characterized by (a) low criminality/low psychopathology (15%), (b) moderate-high criminality/ high psychopathology (36%), and (c) high criminality/low-moderate psychopathology (49%). The latter two groups are akin to Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) generally violent/antisocial and dysphoric/borderline offender, respectively. The implications for intervention, developing consensus in research methodology across the field, and examining typologies of domestic violent men prospectively are discussed.
Article
Thousands of people go missing each year in Canada, with recent figures noting over 70,000 reports generated in 2019. While missing person cases can place strains on police resources, the use of Internet technology can attenuate some of the demands by aiding with the investigations. As a result, this exploratory study examines one social media tool, Twitter, for missing person investigations by police in Canada. Through logistic regression, we analyze 373 missing person tweets posted over two years (2017–2019) from 15 Canadian police services on Twitter to estimate which features are likely to increase public engagement (retweets, likes, and comments) with these tweets. Results reveal that there are several features significantly associated with higher engagement, such as images and hashtags, ergo increasing community outreach and participation, as well as the likelihood of efficiently and successfully solving these cases. Therefore, we suggest that having standardized components to missing person tweets will enhance the usefulness of this tool.
Article
This study describes the rationale, development, and validation of the intimate partner violence (IPV) police risk assessment forms of the VioGén System of the Spanish Ministry of Interior (VPR4.0 and VPER4.0), which promote greater predictive effectiveness and an improvement in the IPV law enforcement prevention. A validation study of the mentioned protocols is presented, including inter-observer reliability, estimated by the equivalence or inter-judge reliability method, while the convergent validity of these protocols was calculated with the RVD-BCN protocol. The sample consisted of 6613 new cases of IPV included in the VioGén System over a period of 2 months and which were longitudinally followed up for 6 months. The discrimination indexes are not only the summarized odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity, but also the calibration indexes positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). The results show the suitability of using procedures which, in a coordinated manner, incorporate two risk assessment instruments, one for a first screening assessment and a second one to re-assess IPV danger situations on a regular basis. The values obtained are within the margins reported by different meta-analyses regarding this type of instruments, which supports their use for professional practice.
Article
Missing persons incidents incur considerable societal costs but research has overwhelmingly concentrated on missing children. Understanding of the phenomenon among adults is underdeveloped as a result. We conducted an evolutionary concept analysis of the ‘missing person’ in relation to adults. Evolutionary Concept Analysis provides a structured narrative review methodology which aims to clarify how a poorly defined phenomena have been discussed in the professional/academic literature in order to promote conceptual clarity and provide building blocks for future theoretical development. A systematic literature search identified k = 73 relevant papers from which surrogate terms for, and antecedents, consequences and attributes of the occurrence of adult missing persons were extracted and analysed. The core attributes of the adult missing person are: (i) actual or perceived unexpected or unwanted absence accompanied by an absence of information; and (ii) a potential adverse risk outcome as perceived by those left behind. The centrality of mental ill-health in actual adult missing persons cases is not reflected in theoretical development which largely comprises descriptive typologies of variable quality and questionable utility. There is a clear need to shift research emphasis towards clinical and psychological domains of inquiry in order to further advance the field of adult missing persons research.
Article
Young people who go missing face significant risks and vulnerabilities, yet there has been limited research looking their longer-term criminal justice-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the criminal justice and mental health-related trajectories of a random sample of 215 young people reported missing for the first time in 2005, followed up for a decade. Two thirds (64.7%) of the sample had accumulated an offence history and 68.4% a victimisation history. More than a third were reported missing multiple times; these youth were characteristically different to single episode missing persons with respect to police contacts and mental health-related vulnerability. Results highlight a significant level of mental health concern among a population that police are not adequately equipped to respond to. Further research is needed to better understand motivations for going missing and the extent of risks and vulnerabilities they face while missing and upon return.
Article
There is a limited amount of research in the area of missing persons, especially adults. The aim of this research is to expand on the understanding of missing people, by examining adults' behaviours while missing and determining if distinct behavioural themes exist. Based on previous literature it was hypothesised that three behavioural themes will be present; dysfunctional, escape, and unintentional. Thirty-six behaviours were coded from 362 missing person police reports and analysed using smallest space analysis (SSA). This produced a spatial representation of the behaviours, showing three distinct behavioural themes. Seventy percent of the adult missing person reports were classified under one dominant theme, 41% were 'unintentional', 18% were 'dysfunctional', and 11% were 'escape'. The relationship between a missing person's dominant behavioural theme and their assigned risk level and demographic characteristics were also analysed. A significant association was found between the age, occupational status, whether they had any mental health issues, and the risk level assigned to the missing person; and their dominant behavioural theme. The findings are the first step in the development of a standardised checklist for a missing person investigation. This has implications on how practitioners prioritise missing adults, and interventions to prevent individuals from going missing.
Article
Within the context of ongoing debates concerning the economics of policing in Canada, the authors address an issue which has repeatedly plagued policy makers: the lack of quality, actionable research on policing and community safety issues in Canada. Following our colleagues in the United Kingdom, Australia, United States, and elsewhere, we propose the adoption of evidence-based policing models and conclude by offering some suggestions as to how policymakers can facilitate that adoption.
Article
Police investigations of major crimes are typically conducted in contexts where there is contested or ambiguous knowledge about what occurred and such challenges are also routinely faced in the investigation of missing persons. This article examines ways in which attempts to ‘manufacture certainty’ in missing persons cases are strongly informed by geographical notions of space and place. The article is structured around the key phases of police investigations, each of which involves the mobilization of different forms of geographical knowledge. In the first stage of ‘identifying and acquiring’ information, the process of search is structured by knowledge about the possible spatial behaviours of missing people often generated using spatial profiling techniques. In the second phase of ‘interpreting and understanding’, more nuanced accounts of what may have happened to a missing person are constructed as the police attempt to ‘place’ a person’s disappearance within a particular narrative based on their reading of the intelligence picture that emerges during the investigation. In the concluding phase of ‘ordering and representing’, the case to internal (senior police management) and external (relatives of the missing person and wider public) audiences investigators will often invoke a notion of ‘the end of the world’ referring not just to how they have defined the geographical limits of the police search if the person is still unaccounted for but also the boundaries of reputational risk and the proportionality of the police response.
Article
In this paper 'missing people' gain an unstable presence through their (restaged) testimonies recounting individual occupations of material urban public space during the lived practice of absence. We explore 'missing experience' with reference to homeless geographies, and as constituted by paradoxical spatialities in which people are both absent and present. We seek to understand such urban geographies of absence through diverse voices of missing people, who discuss their embodiment of unusual rhythmic occupations of the city. We conclude by considering how a new politics of missing people might take account of such voices in ways to think further about rights-to-be-absent in the city.
Article
In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why the change called for appears to have been so slow and what can be done to assist reform. This paper suggests that developing an evidence-based policing approach within the field of public order policing to inform police decision-making would provide the answers. By doing so, the paper addresses some of the possible barriers to implementing evidence-based policing in public order and calls for police academic partnership to overcome these to make ‘change’ an ongoing reality. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
One of the main areas of concern regarding offender profiling has been the general lack of extensive empirical studies on the psychological processes underpinning this process. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of establishing a model of homicide behaviors that could be used as a basis for evaluating the scientific validity of offender profiling. A sample of 247 British single offender-single victim solved homicide cases was analyzed using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling procedure known as Smallest Space Analysis. The results indicated that homicide crime scenes could most readily be differentiated in terms of the expressive and instrumental role the victim had to the offender. The backgrounds of the offenders could similarly be differentiated by an expressive/instrumental thematic split. However, when these two elements were combined, there was a substantial mix between crime scene themes and themes of background characteristics. The results are discussed in terms of the validity of classifying homicide into a expressive/instrumental dichotomy and the implications this classification may have for offender profiling.
Article
Drawing on information from a random sample of over 1,000 cases this paper highlights the variety and complexity of missing person cases, reported to the police. The overwhelming majority of missing persons are found safe and well or are no longer considered as missing. Most return within a short space of time. Some cases, however, are not concluded quickly or with such favourable outcomes. A further sample of cases, which had caused problems for the police, was examined. These cases also revealed a variety of situations, backgrounds and outcomes. Many were immigration cases or had other reasons for wishing to remain ‘missing’. Some missing persons, unfortunately, were found dead but many of them had died of natural causes and had died before the police were notified. In view of the variety of cases and the rarity of adverse outcomes it is difficult to develop statistical risk prediction scores as an aid to decision-making. Instead the Association of Chief Police Officers has issued guidance to strengthen police officers' professional judgement in dealing with MISPER (missing person) cases.
Article
This study investigates the variations in characteristics that exist among youths who sexually harm (YSH). Three conceptually distinct sets of background characteristics are hypothesized from the literature relating to whether the YSH was abused, delinquent or impaired. Forty-one characteristics were drawn from an extensive and detailed review of the files of 300 cases. The pattern of co-occurrence of the presence or absence of these characteristics was revealed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling procedure, smallest space analysis (SSA). The results provide empirical support for three distinct background themes as 215 (71%) of the youths could be assigned to one dominant background theme (abused, delinquent or impaired). The findings have implications for the ways in which practitioners differentiate between young people who sexually harm.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve the police, policy makers' and researchers' understanding of the likelihood of fatal outcomes befalling missing persons. Design/methodology/approach Data on the age, sex, duration missing and outcome (fatal or non‐fatal) of over 32,000 cancelled reports of missing persons were extracted from a police database of missing persons in the London metropolitan area. The analysis highlights the risk of a cancelled missing person report resulting in a fatal outcome by the same variables. Findings Shows that the risk of a cancelled missing person report resulting in a fatal outcome is overall very low, though it does increase with the age of the person reported missing and the duration they remain missing for. Males face a higher risk of being found dead than females. Research limitations/implications The risk estimations use a base rate of all cancelled missing person reports, therefore excluding persons who have never being found. The estimations are based on missing person reports rather than individuals. Insufficient detail was available to analyse the fatal cases by type of death (e.g. suicide, homicide, accident, etc.). Originality/value This paper provides new empirical evidence on what happens to people reported missing. The findings provide an actuarial context in which clinical risk assessment by police officers can take place.
Article
The origins of ‘Offender Profiling’ in the advice given by police medical advisors and other experts to criminal investigations are briefly outlined. The spread of such advice to police enquiries across the United States in the early 1970s, culminating in its uptake by Special Agents of the FBI in the mid-1970s and the widespread promotion of their services through the fictional writings of Thomas Harris and others is noted.The development beyond the early application to serial killer investigations, and the focus on psychopathological explanations, to cover the full gamut of crime from, for instance, arson and burglary to terrorism, is briefly reviewed. The consideration of the social psychological processes inherent in criminality as well as the characteristics of individual offenders also broadens out the concerns of the field. The linking of crimes to a common offender as well as predicting their future actions further widens the range of issues to be dealt with.The many psychological and practical questions raised by these ‘profiling’ activities are summarised. These include questions of inference and prediction, about criminals and their crimes, both about their characteristics and about the spatial patterns of their activities. Related topics concerning the sources of information for both investigators and research are also summarised. These cover the full range from interviewing witnesses to the management of informants. The complexity of information management and inference derivation points to the need to understand investigative decision-making and how it can be supported.These other issues, beyond those inherent in ‘profiling’, such as data integrity and investigative decision support, taken with the central ‘profiling’ questions leads to the identification of a new domain of applied psychology, ‘Investigative Psychology’. It is argued that the core topic of this domain, as in any emerging science, is how to appropriately describe and classify the central matters under consideration, i.e. criminals and their activities. The difficulties in setting up reliable, robust and valid classification schemes are discussed and approaches to overcoming these difficulties considered. It is emphasised that although many researchers have found Multi-Dimensional Scaling procedures to be productive they are only one of many fruitful sets of approaches that are possible.The increasing variety of areas, for which Investigative Psychology is relevant, from tax evasion to peace keeping, and from evidence in court to organisational threat management, is briefly reviewed. In conclusion it is noted that Investigative Psychology can be considered as a general approach to problem solving relevant far beyond criminal investigations. This new Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling therefore has rich and wide-ranging potential. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
From the perspective of teachers and test makers at the district or state level, current methods for obtaining reliability indices for mastery tests like the agreement coefficient and kappa coefficient are quite laborious. For example, some methods require two test administrations, whereas single administration approaches involve complex statistical procedures and require access to appropriate computer software. The present paper offers practitioners tables from which agreement and kappa coefficients can be read directly. Further-more, because these indices differ from traditional reliability coefficients, the issue of what constitutes acceptable values of agreement and kappa coefficients is also addressed
Article
A distinction is drawn between redundancy measurement and the measurement of multivariate association for two sets of variables. Several measures of multivariate association between two sets of variables are examined. It is shown that all of these measures are generalizations of the (univariate) squared-multiple correlation; all are functions of the canonical correlations, and all are invariant under linear transformations of the original sets of variables. It is further shown that the measures can be considered to be symmetric and are strictly ordered for any two sets of observed variables. It is suggested that measures of multivariate relationship may be used to generalize the concept of test reliability to the case of vector random variables.
Article
This study provides an analysis of offender-victim interactions in 223 cases of sexual violence committed in gangs. Cases were derived from archival sources such as law reports. A multivariate analysis revealed four interpersonal themes (dominance, submission, co-operation, and hostility) previously identified in studies of lone sexual assault [Alison and Stein, Vicious Circles: Accounts of stranger sexual assault reflect abusive variants of conventional interactions. J Forensic Psychiatry 12:515–538, 2001]. These themes have also been identified in many other forms of human relating [Wiggins, An informal history of the interpersonal circumplex tradition. J Pers Assess 66:217–233, 1996] and conform to a structure known as the interpersonal circumplex. The circumplex has previously been used to conceptualise the relationships between individuals in terms of dynamic interactions that are mutually influencing. Thus, dominance elicits submission and submission elicits dominance. Each interpersonal style could be further subdivided according to the use of either verbally or physically abusive strategies. Point-Biserial correlations with other aspects of the offence (e.g., mobility of the group, post-offence treatment of the victim) provided additional support for these conceptually different themes and demonstrated that gang rape represents a distorted and violent form of interpersonal relating. Further, this dynamic interaction emerges not just at an individual level, but at a group level, suggesting that the thematic concepts underpinning the interpersonal circumplex can be extended to group activity and sexually aggressive behaviour. Yes Yes
Article
Recent research about young people and adults who ‘go missing’ raises important issues for social work and the social services. Large numbers of young people go missing each year, becoming vulnerable to exploitation and at risk of committing crime and suffering from other social difficulties. Adults leave behind families with practical and emotional difficulties. A definition of ‘going missing’ should focus on absence from social expectations and responsibilities. Five groups of missing person are identified: runaways, pushaways, throwaways, fallaways and takeaways, reflecting different social situations in which going missing occurs. It is argued that going missing is one of a range of choices which people in difficulties may make, depending on their approach to problems in their lives and the availability of opportunities. Effective local co-ordination to focus on reasons for going missing, on reunions and returns to residential care or home, and to provide emotional and practical help to people ‘left behind’, are required, provided that care is taken to protect people who go missing because they are subject to abuse and violence.
Article
LetA 1,A 2, ...,A n be anyn objects, such as variables, categories, people, social groups, ideas, physical objects, or any other. The empirical data to be analyzed are coefficients of similarity or distance within pairs (A i,A i ), such as correlation coefficients, conditional probabilities or likelihoods, psychological choice or confusion, etc. It is desired to represent these data parsimoniously in a coordinate space, by calculatingm coordinates {x ia } for eachA i for a semi-metricd of preassigned formd ij =d(|x i1 -x j1 |, |x i2 -x j2|, ..., |x im -x jm |). The dimensionalitym is sought to be as small as possible, yet satisfy the monotonicity condition thatd ij d kl whenever the observed data indicate thatA i is closer toA j thanA k is toA l . Minkowski and Euclidean spaces are special metric examples ofd. A general coefficient of monotonicity is defined, whose maximization is equivalent to optimal satisfaction of the monotonicity condition, and which allows various options both for treatment of ties and for weighting error-of-fit. A general rationale for algorithm construction is derived for maximizing by gradient-guided iterations; this provides a unified mathematical solution to the basic operational problems of norming the gradient to assure proper convergence, of trading between speed and robustness against undesired stationary values, and of a rational first approximation. Distinction is made between single-phase (quadratic) and two-phase (bilinear) strategies for algorithm construction, and between hard-squeeze and soft-squeeze tactics within these strategies. Special reference is made to the rank-image and related transformational principles, as executed by current Guttman-Lingoes families of computer programs.
Documentos de trabajo: serie sociología Fundación Centro de Estudios Andaluces
  • J Andreu
Andreu, J. (2002). Las técnicas de análisis de contenido: una revisión actualizada. Documentos de trabajo: serie sociología, Fundación Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Descargado de http://public.centrodeestudiosandaluces.es/pdfs/S200103.pdf
Risky business? A study exploring the relationship between harm and risk indicators in missing adult incidents
  • N Eales
Eales, N. (2017). Risky business? A study exploring the relationship between harm and risk indicators in missing adult incidents (PhD Thesis). University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
Profiling missing persons within New South Wales
  • S Foy
Foy, S. (2006). Profiling missing persons within New South Wales (PhD thesis). Charles Sturt University, Australia.
Missing persons: Understanding, planning, responding-A guide for police officers
  • G Gibb
  • P Woolnough
Gibb G., & Woolnough, P. (2007). Missing persons: Understanding, planning, responding-A guide for police officers. Aberdeen: Grampian Police.
El homicidio en España (Informe Técnico)
  • J L González
  • F Sánchez
  • J J López-Ossorio
González, J.L., Sánchez, F., López-Ossorio, J.J., Santos, J. & Cereceda. (2018). El homicidio en España (Informe Técnico). Ministerio del Interior, España.
Missing Persons: Identifying Best Practice, Training and Research Needs
  • K. S. Greene
Greene, K. S. (2020). Missing Persons: Identifying Best Practice, Training and Research Needs, Portsmouth, England: Centre for the Study of Missin Persons.
Missing persons in Australia. Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice
  • M James
  • J Anderson
  • J Putt
James, M., Anderson, J., & Putt, J. (2008). Missing persons in Australia. Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice (No. 353). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminal Justice.
Missing persons: Extending traditional policing boundaries to address a social issue. Paper to Third Australasian women and policing conference: women and policing globally
  • C Kiernan
  • M Henderson
Kiernan, C., & Henderson, M. (2002). Missing persons: Extending traditional policing boundaries to address a social issue. Paper to Third Australasian women and policing conference: women and policing globally. pp. 2-23.
Informe Personas Desaparecidas. España: Centro Nacional de Desaparecidos. National Crime Agency and UK Missing Persons Bureau
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