ArticlePDF Available

Migration health research and policy in south and south-east Asia: mapping the gaps and advancing a collaborative agenda

Authors:
  • Asia Pacific Obsertvatory on Health Systems and Policies
  • World Health Organization - New Delhi

Abstract

Migrant health has been the subject of various international agreements in recent years. In parallel, there has been a growth in academic research in this area. However, this increase in focus at international level has not necessarily strengthened the capacity to drive evidence-informed national policy and action in many low- and middle-income countries. The Migration Health South Asia (MiHSA) network aims to challenge some of the barriers to progress in the region. Examples include the bias towards institutions in high-income countries for research funding and agenda-setting and the overall lack of policy-focused research in the region. MiHSA will engage researchers, funders and policy-makers in collectively identifying the most pressing, yet feasible, research questions that could help strengthen migrant and refugee health relevant to the region's national contexts. In addition, policies and provisions for different migrant populations in the region will be reviewed from the health and rights perspectives, to identify opportunities to strategically align research agendas with the questions being asked by policy-makers. The convergence of migration policy with other areas such as health and labour at global level has created a growing imperative for policy-makers in the region to engage in cross-sector dialogue to align priorities and coordinate responses. Such responses must go beyond narrow public health interventions and embrace rights-based approaches to address the complex patterns of migration in the region, as well as migrants' precarity, vulnerabilities and agency.
107
WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health | September 2020 | 9(2)
Perspective
Migration health research and policy in south and south-
east Asia: mapping the gaps and advancing a collaborative
agenda
Anuj Kapilashrami1, Kolitha Wickramage2, Nima Asgari-Jirhandeh3, Anns Issac3, Anjali Borharde4, Ganesh Gurung5,
Jeevan R Sharma6, on behalf of the Migration Health South Asia (MiHSA) network steering group*
1University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom, 2International Organization for Migration, Manila, Philippines, 3Asia Pacic
Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, World Health Organization Regional Ofce for South-East Asia, New Delhi, India,
4Disha Foundation, Gurugram, Haryana, India, 5Nepal Institute of Development Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal, 6University of
Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
*Details of the membership of the MiHSA network steering group are provided in the acknowledgements
Correspondence to: Professor Anuj Kapilashrami (a.kapilashrami@essex.ac.uk)
Abstract
Migrant health has been the subject of various international agreements in recent years. In parallel,
there has been a growth in academic research in this area. However, this increase in focus at
international level has not necessarily strengthened the capacity to drive evidence-informed national
policy and action in many low- and middle-income countries. The Migration Health South Asia (MiHSA)
network aims to challenge some of the barriers to progress in the region. Examples include the bias
towards institutions in high-income countries for research funding and agenda-setting and the overall
lack of policy-focused research in the region. MiHSA will engage researchers, funders and policy-
makers in collectively identifying the most pressing, yet feasible, research questions that could help
strengthen migrant and refugee health relevant to the region’s national contexts. In addition, policies
and provisions for different migrant populations in the region will be reviewed from the health and
rights perspectives, to identify opportunities to strategically align research agendas with the questions
being asked by policy-makers. The convergence of migration policy with other areas such as health
and labour at global level has created a growing imperative for policy-makers in the region to engage
in cross-sector dialogue to align priorities and coordinate responses. Such responses must go beyond
narrow public health interventions and embrace rights-based approaches to address the complex
patterns of migration in the region, as well as migrants’ precarity, vulnerabilities and agency.
Keywords: health policy, migration, research priorities, south Asia, south-east Asia
Background
Migration is a global phenomenon. Alongside the signicant
benets migration offers to individuals, societies, states and
economies, it also presents critical public policy, humanitarian
and human rights challenges. The health and well-being
of migrants and refugees is a public policy issue and an
emergent eld of scholarship and advocacy. Migrant health
has been the subject of various international consultations and
agreements in recent years, such as the Global compact for
safe, orderly and regular migration1 and the Global compact
on refugees in 2018.2 In parallel, there has been a growth in
academic research on the health aspects of migration. Despite
this increase in focus at international level, the capacity and
opportunities to drive evidence-informed national policy and
action on migration and health remain limited in many low-
and middle-income countries.3 Clearly, migrant health will
need to be more rmly embedded in national agendas if the
overarching aims of global initiatives are to be realized, not
least the call of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
to “leave no one behind”.4,5
The need to bring together the migration and health research
and policy communities was the catalyst for the establishment
of the Migration Health South Asia (MiHSA) network in 2019.6
MiHSA evolved during a series of consultations, seminars and
policy dialogues held during 2018–2019 in Bangladesh, India,
Malaysia and Nepal. These consultations brought together
local, regional and international institutions to reect on the
current gaps in knowledge on migration and health in south
and south-east Asia and to explore pathways for building
communities of knowledge and practice. The objectives were
twofold: rst, to engage academic scholars, nongovernmental
Kapilashrami et al.: Migration health research in south and south-east Asia
108 WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health | September 2020 | 9(2)
organizations and advocacy groups to collectively assess
the evidence base and identify the main gaps in knowledge;
second, to engage key policy stakeholders to assess the utility
of current research outputs and identify their key evidence
requirements for improved policy-making.
In this paper, we synthesize key lessons learnt to date and
identify core values and priorities to advance a collaborative
agenda that can shape future research and practice to improve
migration, health and rights in south and south-east Asia.
What do we know – and what are the
gaps?
Quantifying the bias in what is researched, and by whom
The production and use of knowledge or evidence on
migration is entrenched in gross global inequities. Research
funding, agenda-setting and practice disproportionately
favour institutions in high-income countries. A bibliometric
analysis of global migration health research papers published
during 2000–2016 in the peer-reviewed literature revealed
that the vast majority of articles on migration were authored
by research institutions in high-income migrant destination
countries.7 This analysis by Sweileh et al. also showed that
the research output on migrant health from Asia was relatively
low, despite the region having “the most dense international
migration corridors and the largest numbers of international
migrants whose country of origin is in Asia”.7 In addition,
analyses limited to the formal research literature largely fail
to capture the insights of the civil society organizations that
work closely with migrants and displaced populations. These
groups have limited access to funding and tend to publish their
ndings in less formal outlets, such as reports and briefs, that
may not be captured by systematic reviews and bibliometric
analysis.
As noted in the International Organization for Migration’s
2020 annual report, more sustained effort is needed to support
research institutions and researchers in low- and middle-income
settings, including by confronting some structural impediments
to gaining funding and building capacity.8 Part of MiHSA’s
role will be to examine the power inequalities in international
knowledge networks and aim to rebalance them by creating
and sharing new opportunities through collaborative research,
writing and joint webinars for more knowledge generation and
leadership situated in south and south-east Asia.
Addressing the lack of prioritization in the region
Migration health continues to be a relatively underexplored
topic within south and south-east Asia, with limited attention
given to the health and social care needs of migrants, who are a
highly transient, diverse and heterogeneous population group,
or to the peculiarities of the geopolitical context of the region.
For example, the health of internal migrants in the region is
poorly understood, despite their high numbers. The Global
report on internal displacement 2020 estimated that south Asia
experienced 30% of the world’s internal displacement in 2019,
mostly triggered by population exposure to disasters including
oods and droughts, as well as to unresolved conicts and
violence.9 There were 5 million new disaster displacements
in India alone in 2019, the highest number in any country in
the world, resulting from factors such as increasing hazard
intensity, high population exposure to oods, cyclones and
violence,9 and high levels of social and economic vulnerability.
An unpublished subset analysis of the global dataset
produced by Sweileh et al. by one of the authors (KW) found
that migration health research for south and south-east
Asia was disproportionately focused on infectious diseases
and mental health (by health theme) and on undocumented
migrants and refugees (by migrant category). MiHSA is
supporting researchers in the region to build on this work
using robust bibliometric analysis to more fully understand
the gaps in published and unpublished research. In addition,
the broader context of migration and the conditions in which
migrants work and live shape their health and well-being.
Yet insufcient attention has been given to studying the role
of structural inequalities in determining low-income migrants’
poor access to health care and vulnerability to ill health.10
Analysis of vulnerability and agency across different stages of
people’s mobility and settlement is critical to inform inclusive
and effective policies and institutional responses.5,11,12
Research in south and south-east Asia therefore needs to
capture not only the factors that place migrants at risk but also
those that facilitate thriving and resilience. Such a focus is core
to MiHSA’s capacity-building workshops in the region, which
provide early-career scholars with the necessary conceptual
and methodological skills and insights to undertake research
in this eld, and which emphasize the intersections of gender
and other social inequalities in such research.
Unlocking the capacity to identify feasible, impactful
research
Migration health research globally is characterized by glaring
methodological and data gaps, and thus this is also the case
for south and south-east Asia. There continues to be a lack
of disaggregated baseline information on migrants based on
factors such as their gender, livelihood, religion and ethnicity.
The omission is particularly striking for internal migrants, as
these factors determine different needs of different migrant
populations across socioeconomic contexts. This dearth of
information hampers effective policy development and may
even undermine the impact of any actions taken. With respect
to design, research in this area is dominated by cross-sectional
studies, which cannot take account of the temporal and spatial
dimensions of mobility and the circularity of migration that
is characteristic of the south and south-east Asian context.
With respect to focus, there is a need for more operational
research on neglected topics including remittances and their
utilization for nutrition and food security, and portability of
social protection, health and welfare schemes.
MiHSA recognizes the need for (i) country-level mapping
of existing sources of data such as the national Demographic
and Health Surveys and sources compiled by non-government
initiatives, (ii) identifying gaps in evidence and (iii) more
targeted commissioning of research in key priority areas. In
parallel, building the capacities of local research institutions
to advance more in-depth research on experiences and
outcomes is essential. This exercise is currently under way,
and involves identifying and dening research priorities using
the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative approach
to research priority setting.13 This brings together funders,
researchers and policy-makers in deciding the most pressing
yet feasible research questions that could help strengthen
Kapilashrami et al.: Migration health research in south and south-east Asia
109
WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health | September 2020 | 9(2)
migrant and refugee health in national contexts in south and
south-east Asia.
Engaging in researcher–policy-maker collaboration from
the outset
A stark disconnect exists between the production of knowledge
by researchers and its use by policy-makers. On the one hand,
the rich information and analysis produced by researchers may
not be synthesized in a way that is accessible to policy-makers.
Researchers often tend to see policy-makers as a community to
engage with after ndings are generated and published, rather
than as potential collaborators. On the other hand, meaningful
engagement and consultation with migration scholars,
advocates and practitioners, as well as migrants themselves,
is often lacking in the development and implementation of
national and subnational policies. Whatever the reasons, the
lack of perspective on migrant health in national task forces
and policy work results in important omissions. For example, a
review of the pandemic inuenza preparedness plans in place
in 21 countries of the Asia Pacic region in 2016 found that only
three countries – Maldives, Papua New Guinea and Thailand
– identied at least one migrant group in their national plan.14
Tackling the knowledge–policy gap prompted intersectoral
working being adopted as a core principle in the work and
mandate of the MiHSA network, with an emphasis on prioritizing
engaging with policy actors at every stage. Rather than taking
an instrumental role in linking research and policy, MiHSA seeks
to enable researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders to
collaborate on dening the analyses needed to design effective
responses. This approach requires researchers to be alert to
political and policy opportunities that might arise and to respond
with evidence on critical issues. To address health issues and
determinants stemming from various migration ows, a whole-
of-government approach was adopted by Sri Lanka to advance
the National Migration Health Policy and an interministerial
action plan.15 This was guided in large part by the evidence
generated through a national research agenda commissioned
by the Ministry of Health with technical cooperation from the
International Organization for Migration. Health risks and their
consequences were identied through rigorous research, and
policy was then developed based on the evidence generated.
The collaborative approach used by Sri Lanka offers important
insights into how health policy-makers, local researchers and
civil society can meaningfully work together in driving a research
agenda that leads to national policy-making and priority-setting
on migration and health.16
Addressing the broader structural impediments to
progress
Despite migration being a major issue for many south and
south-east Asian countries, migrants are not prioritized in
policies and resource allocation. Benets could accrue from
greater cooperation among countries, and states within
countries, from improvements in bilateral relations on mobility
and from political commitment to universalize health and social
care and allow its portability. At global level, the two disciplines
of health governance and migration are beginning to converge.
However, at national level, policies continue to be developed
in silos such as immigration, humanitarian aid, security, labour
and public health, which can have distinct and often conicting
goals.16 A central challenge in developing an integrated agenda
for migration and health is that the driver for examining this
interface is not migrants’ health needs; rather, it is preservation
of population health by containing disease outbreaks that
are often associated with migrant populations. Such a focus
counters any attempts to redress violations in relation to the
health and well-being of migrants that are evident in current
health policy initiatives.
Despite these challenges, there are certain enablers and
emerging local initiatives that could inform integrated national-
and regional-level action, such as initiatives to support tribal
migrants in certain states in India17 and, more recently,
targeting of social protection measures at migrants in the wake
of coronavirus disease 2019.
An important planned initiative is for MiHSA to map policies
and provisions for different migrant populations in south and
south-east Asia and to review them from health and rights
perspectives. This analysis should help to identify opportunities
to strategically align research agendas with the questions
being asked by policy-makers, as well as the intersections at
which action to advance an integrated agenda can take place.
Conclusion
The convergence of migration policy with other areas such
as health and labour at global level has created a growing
imperative for policy-makers in south and south-east Asia to
engage in cross-sector dialogue to align priorities and coordinate
responses to migration. Such responses must go beyond
narrow public health interventions and embrace rights-based
approaches to address the complexities of circular migration
in the region, as well as migrants’ precarity, vulnerabilities and
agency. At the heart of this ambitious agenda must lie a vibrant
research community of scholars and practitioners who are
equipped with appropriate skills and opportunities to engage
with diverse communities and voices. Just as policy-makers
need to work across sectors, researchers need to bridge the
gulf between the two ecosystems of migration research and
health policy and systems research.17 Through developing
and supporting these synergies, MiHSA aims to support a
transformative agenda for improving migrants’ health and lives.
Acknowledgements: Members of the Migration Health South Asia
network steering group: M Sivakami, Tata Institute of Social Sciences,
Mumbai, India; S Irudaya Rajan, Centre for Development Studies,
Kerala, India; Shabnum Sarfraz, visiting scientist, Harvard T H Chan
School of Public Health, Boston, United States of America; Roomi Aziz,
Pathways2Impact, Pakistan; Ekatha John, independent researcher
and journalist, India; Pascale Allotey, United Nations University
International Institute for Global Health, Malaysia. Some of the authors
(Anuj Kapilashrami, Jeevan R Sharma, Ganesh Gurung) are also
steering group members.
Source of support: The workshops and consultations were held with
funding support from the British Council.
Conict of interest: Nima Asgari-Jirhandeh and Anns Issac are
employees of the World Health Organization and Kolitha Wickramage
of the United Nations Migration Agency. The opinions expressed
are those of the authors and do not necessarily reect the views of
Kapilashrami et al.: Migration health research in south and south-east Asia
110 WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health | September 2020 | 9(2)
the International Organization for Migration and the Asia Pacic
Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.
Authorship: All authors contributed to the discussion and analysis
reported in this article and approved the nal version of the manuscript.
AK conceptualized the paper and wrote the rst draft with inputs from
KW and JRS. NA-J, AI, AB and GG reviewed and contributed to the
paper. AK is founding chair of Migration Health South Asia (https://
mihsa.org), JRS and GG are steering group members, and KW is an
international advisor to Migration Health South Asia.
How to cite this paper: Kapilashrami A, Wickramage K, Asgari-
Jirhandeh N, Issac A, Borharde A, Gurung G, Sharma JR. Migration
health research and policy in south and south-east Asia: mapping the
gaps and advancing a collaborative agenda. WHO South-East Asia
J Public Health. 2020;9(2):107–110. doi:10.4103/2224-3151.294303.
References
1. International Organization for Migration. Global compact for migration
(https://www.iom.int/global-compact-migration, accessed 23 July
2020).
2. Ofce of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The
global compact on refugees (https://www.unhcr.org/uk/the-global-
compact-on-refugees.html, accessed 23 July 2020).
3. Wickramage K, Annunziata G. Advancing health in migration
governance, and migration in health governance. Lancet. 2018
Dec;392(10164):2528–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-
6736(18)32855-1 PMID:30528473
4. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development. New York: United Nations; 2015 (A/RES/70/1; https://
sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20
Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf,
accessed 23 July 2020).
5. Health of migrants: resetting the agenda – report of the 2nd Global
Consultation, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 21–23 February 2017. Geneva:
International Organization for Migration; 2017 (https://www.iom.int/
sites/default/les/our_work/DMM/Migration-Health/GC2_SriLanka_
Report_2017_FINAL_22.09.2017_Internet.pdf, accessed 31 July
2020).
6. Migration Health South Asia (MiHSA) network (https://mihsa.org/,
accessed 29 July 2020).
7. Sweileh WM, Wickramage K, Pottie K, Hui C, Roberts B, Sawalha AF,
et al. Bibliometric analysis of global migration health research
in peer-reviewed literature (2000–2016). BMC Public Health.
2018 Jun;18(1):777. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5689-x
PMID:29925353
8. World migration report 2020. Geneva: International Organization
for Migration; 2020 (https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/les/
wmr_2020.pdf, 28 July 2020).
9. Global report on internal displacement 2020. Geneva: Internal
Displacement Monitoring Centre, Norwegian Refugee Council; 2020
(https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/les/publications/
documents/2020-IDMC-GRID.pdf, accessed 31 July 2020).
10. Kusuma YS, Babu BV. Migration and health: a systematic review on
health and health care of internal migrants in India. Int J Health Plann
Manage. 2018 Oct;33(4):775–93. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.2570
PMID:30074640
11. Kapilashrami A, Hankivsky O. Intersectionality and why it
matters to global health. Lancet. 2018 Jun;391(10140):2589–91.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31431-4 PMID:30070211
12. Wickramage K, Vearey J, Zwi AB, Robinson C, Knipper M. Migration
and health: a global public health research priority. BMC Public
Health. 2018 Aug;18(1):987. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-
5932-5 PMID:30089475
13. Rudan I, Gibson JL, Ameratunga S, El Arifeen S, Bhutta ZA,
Black M, et al.; Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. Setting
priorities in global child health research investments: guidelines for
implementation of CHNRI method. Croat Med J. 2008 Dec;49(6):720–
33. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2008.49.720 PMID:19090596
14. Wickramage K, Gostin LO, Friedman E, Prakongsai P,
Suphanchaimat R, Hui C, et al. Missing: where are the migrants in
pandemic inuenza preparedness plans? Health Hum Rights. 2018
Jun;20(1):251–8. PMID:30008567
15. Migration health research to advance evidence based policy and
practice in Sri Lanka. Makati City, the Philippines: Migration Health
Research Unit, International Organization for Migration; 2017
(https://publications.iom.int/books/migration-health-research-advance-
evidence-based-policy-and-practice-sri-lanka, accessed 31 July 2020).
16. Zimmerman C, Kiss L, Hossain M. Migration and health: a framework
for 21st century policy-making. PLoS Med. 2011 May;8(5):e1001034.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001034 PMID:21629681
17. Disha Foundation. New Delhi: Tribal Research Institute, Ministry
of Tribal Affairs; 2019 (http://www.dishafoundation.ngo/projects/
research-pdf/PolicyBriefReport-TribalMigrationResearch.pdf,
accessed 31 July 2020).
... 4 To best respond to the various challenges and sexual and reproductive health and rights needs of migrants and refugees, we need high-quality and context-specific research based on local and regional priorities. 7 However, to facilitate generation of local evidence, a critical -but unmet -aspect is strengthening research capacity, to ensure that local investigators can lead the production and dissemination of knowledge that most closely relates to them and their communities. 8,9 The United Nations Development Programme/United Nations Population Fund/United Nations Children's Fund/ World Health Organization/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction has been leading research and developing research capacity in sexual and reproductive health and rights for several decades, 10 through its large network of local research partners and currently through the programme's Reproductive Health Programme Alliance for Research Capacity Strengthening. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With 244 million international migrants, and significantly more people moving within their country of birth, there is an urgent need to engage with migration at all levels in order to support progress towards global health and development targets. In response to this, the 2nd Global Consultation on Migration and Health- held in Colombo, Sri Lanka in February 2017 - facilitated discussions concerning the role of research in supporting evidence-informed health responses that engage with migration. Conclusions: Drawing on discussions with policy makers, research scholars, civil society, and United Nations agencies held in Colombo, we emphasize the urgent need for quality research on international and domestic (in-country) migration and health to support efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs aim to 'leave no-one behind' irrespective of their legal status. An ethically sound human rights approach to research that involves engagement across multiple disciplines is required. Researchers need to be sensitive when designing and disseminating research findings as data on migration and health may be misused, both at an individual and population level. We emphasize the importance of creating an 'enabling environment' for migration and health research at national, regional and global levels, and call for the development of meaningful linkages - such as through research reference groups - to support evidence-informed inter-sectoral policy and priority setting processes.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The health of migrants has become an important issue in global health and foreign policy. Assessing the current status of research activity and identifying gaps in global migration health (GMH) is an important step in mapping the evidence-base and on advocating health needs of migrants and mobile populations. The aim of this study was to analyze globally published peer-reviewed literature in GMH. Methods: A bibliometric analysis methodology was used. The Scopus database was used to retrieve documents in peer-reviewed journals in GMH for the study period from 2000 to 2016. A group of experts in GMH developed the needed keywords and validated the final search strategy. Results: The number of retrieved documents was 21,457. Approximately one third (6878; 32.1%) of the retrieved documents were published in the last three years of the study period. In total, 5451 (25.4%) documents were about refugees and asylum seekers, while 1328 (6.2%) were about migrant workers, 440 (2.1%) were about international students, 679 (3.2%) were about victims of human trafficking/smuggling, 26 (0.1%) were about patients' mobility across international borders, and the remaining documents were about unspecified categories of migrants. The majority of the retrieved documents (10,086; 47.0%) were in psychosocial and mental health domain, while 2945 (13.7%) documents were in infectious diseases, 6819 (31.8%) documents were in health policy and systems, 2759 (12.8%) documents were in maternal and reproductive health, and 1918 (8.9%) were in non-communicable diseases. The contribution of authors and institutions in Asian countries, Latin America, Africa, Middle East, and Eastern European countries was low. Literature in GMH represents the perspectives of high-income migrant destination countries. Conclusion: Our heat map of research output shows that despite the ever-growing prominence of human mobility across the globe, and Sustainable Development Goals of leaving no one behind, research output on migrants' health is not consistent with the global migration pattern. A stronger evidence base is needed to enable authorities to make evidence-informed decisions on migration health policy and practice. Research collaboration and networks should be encouraged to prioritize research in GMH.
Article
Full-text available
In the introductory article to a six-part PLoS Medicine series on Migration & Health, series guest editors Cathy Zimmerman, Mazeda Hossain, and Ligia Kiss outline a migratory process framework that involves five phases: pre-departure, travel, destination, interception, and return.
Article
Full-text available
This article provides detailed guidelines for the implementation of systematic method for setting priorities in health research investments that was recently developed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI). The target audience for the proposed method are international agencies, large research funding donors, and national governments and policy-makers. The process has the following steps: (i) selecting the managers of the process; (ii) specifying the context and risk management preferences; (iii) discussing criteria for setting health research priorities; (iv) choosing a limited set of the most useful and important criteria; (v) developing means to assess the likelihood that proposed health research options will satisfy the selected criteria; (vi) systematic listing of a large number of proposed health research options; (vii) pre-scoring check of all competing health research options; (viii) scoring of health research options using the chosen set of criteria; (ix) calculating intermediate scores for each health research option; (x) obtaining further input from the stakeholders; (xi) adjusting intermediate scores taking into account the values of stakeholders; (xii) calculating overall priority scores and assigning ranks; (xiii) performing an analysis of agreement between the scorers; (xiv) linking computed research priority scores with investment decisions; (xv) feedback and revision. The CHNRI method is a flexible process that enables prioritizing health research investments at any level: institutional, regional, national, international, or global.
Article
The objective of this paper is to review published studies on various health conditions and health care access of internal migrants in India. The guidelines under PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis were followed. We searched 3 databases-Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Google Scholar. By applying selection criteria, we identified a total of 42 papers to include in the review. These studies reported various health problems/morbid conditions, and some studies reported health care access. Major health issues of poor migrants included work-related injuries, noncommunicable diseases like diabetes and hypertension, and communicable diseases like malaria and HIV. In addition, behavioural risks such as the use of tobacco and alcohol are reported. Information on health care seeking and poor access to government health care system are available. This review demonstrates the need to improve the health status and health care access of poor migrants. As health systems-related factors also influence the health care seeking behaviour, they are to be considered along with improving the living conditions of this population. Thus, a comprehensive migrant-sensitive health care should be the part of the urban health care system.
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations; 2015 (A/RES/70/1; https:// sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20 Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf, accessed 23 July 2020).