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Abstract

School of Education, National Open University of Nigeria the Guidance and Counselling practice is as old as the human race. Long ago, man has always sought guidance from persons he/she feels is in a position to help. Through traditional (informational) ways, the contribution of region leaders, elders, priests, Imams, friends and well-wishers towards meeting the guidance needs of people in their societies have been highly eventful and impactful. However, modern Guidance and Counseling began in the United States of America (USA) under Frank Parsons in 1908, and since then it has spread to various Countries and Continents. Guidance and Counseling have grown worldwide acquiring a steady reputation as it meets the educational, vocational and personal social needs of a reputation as it meets the educational, vocational and personal social needs of a reputation as it meets the educational, vocational and personal social needs of various recipient countries. Because of the international significance of the Guidance and Counseling Profession. Hence in this paper, the writer examined the historical development of Guidance and Counseling in the USA, Nigeria, the present position of Guidance and Counseling in Nigeria and the place of counseling in NOUN.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY AND
SPORT FACILITATION (AJCPSF)
Vol. 12 (2015)
ISSN 1119-7056
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology And Sport Facilitation
(AJCPSF)
Volume 17, 2015 ISSN 1119-7056
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The Historical Development of Guidance and Counseling
Ogbodo-Abo, Rosemary O.
Abstract
School of Education, National Open University of Nigeria the
Guidance and Counselling practice is as old as the human race.
Long ago, man has always sought guidance from persons he/she
feels is in a position to help. Through traditional (informational)
ways, the contribution of region leaders, elders, priests, Imams,
friends and well-wishers towards meeting the guidance needs of
people in their societies have been highly eventful and impactful.
However, modern Guidance and Counseling began in the United
States of America (USA) under Frank Parsons in 1908, and since
then it has spread to various Countries and Continents. Guidance
and Counseling have grown worldwide acquiring a steady
reputation as it meets the educational, vocational and
personalsocial needs of a reputation as it meets the educational,
vocational and personalsocial needs of a reputation as it meets the
educational, vocational and personalsocial needs of various
recipient countries. Because of the international significance of
the Guidance and Counseling Profession. Hence in this paper, the
writer examined the historical development of Guidance and
Counseling in the USA, Nigeria, the present position of Guidance
and Counseling in Nigeria and the place of counseling in NOUN.
Introduction
The genesis of Guidance and Counseling can be traced back to the origin of man
in society. As man evolved, he sought factors that can guide him in his existence.
Historically, the first man had no proof of seeking counsel from man. He sought
the guidance of weird images which he regarded as spirits or gods’ to have a
feeling of being guided. This had led to man’s religious state in the world. Adam
reaped the consequences of eating the apple in the Garden of Eden. However
within the society, elders took guidance roles for the younger ones, guiding their
practices, behavior and decisions considered for their good in the form of: (a)
Parent-children relationship, (b) teacher-Students relationship, and (c)
eldersyoung relationship respectively.
The Evolution of Guidance and Counseling
The modern concept of Guidance and counseling started years back with an
emphasis on human development through education. This was reflected in the
works of early Greek Philosophers like Plato (427-337) the first great counselor
of the early civilization who was recognized as the first to organize psychological
insights into a systematic theory and his student Aristotle 480-BC who made
many significant contributions to the field of psychology. One of which is the
study of people interacting with their environment (Ijeh, 2009; Denga, et al,
2009). After these persons many others have engaged in Guidance and
Counseling roles and activities especially in its comprehensive form.
However, Guidance and Counseling could be seen as a process of helping the
individual towards overcoming obstacles to his personal growth wherever it may
be encountered. This personal growth could be educational, social personal or
vocational. In other words, Guidance and Counseling should aid the individual to
develop the most effective ways of identifying and achieving desirable goals that
are necessary for better adjustment and living.
Information guidance has been going on among the human race since the
beginning of the world. All through the ages, human beings for one reason or
another have sought guidance from other persons who they consider to “know”
better than themselves. For instance, in the Nigerian society, the contributions of
the Religious Priest, Babalawos, Dibias, Ogu’ba in Idoma land and elders are all
of the great importance towards meeting the guidance needs of the people. It
should be noted that what was previously done was “guidance” –giving help or
assistance, by different untrained, but, experienced persons using a different
unscientific model. Guidance at that time was more compulsive and regimented.
There was no room given for the individual’s cognitive restructuring, that is, there
was no transformation of ideas. These qualities disqualified what was going to be
regarded as guidance and counseling.
With the rise of industrialization and modernization, the traditional guidance
could no longer cope with much of the complexities in the societies, hence the
birth of guidance and counseling to overcome obstacles to their personal growth.
In Nigeria for example 6-3-3-4, UBE and the new system of education call for
guidance and counseling.
The Historical Development of Guidance and Counseling in the United
State of America
The position of guidance and counseling in American schools may be traced to
the diversified nature of factors influencing guidance. Many authors like Shertzer
& Stone (1980), Denga, (2009), Ogbodo, (2014) et.al identified the following
factors that gave rise to the spread of Guidance and Counseling Services in the
USA include:
i. Expansion of Professionalization and Specialization
America emphasized professionalization and specialization instead of depending
on amateurs. So rather than relying on Teachers to provide guidance, trained
counselors were introduced into the school system to proved professional service
to the pupils and students.
ii. The Philanthropic and Humanitarianism Movement
The philanthropists in America, looking for life about them, saw the need to help
mankind. The misfits have to be vocationally guided to eliminate or reduce the
maladjustment in society. They emphasized job placement as a way of
rehabilitation. People needed help and guidance for the restoration of peace and
happiness in their” lives. They, therefore, came together to help meet the need of
the masses. The focus was on moral and vocational guidance. They believed that
if people were well tutored and counseled, they would select the right vocation.
iii. Religion
Religious persons insisted that religious and moral instruction can be incorporated
into the school system as a strong factor influencing the success of counseling in
the United States. The American logo says in ‘God we trust’. This has helped to
emphasize early counseling having the biblical belief which says ‘train up a child
in a way he should go…” Proverbs, Chapter 22 Verse 6. Early counseling for a
good life was therefore introduced to help train the child while he is still young.
In schools, teachers help to mould the child into a youth, stressing good manners
and character. Almost all schools in American have felt the relentless pressure of
religious group guidance and this fostered the growth and success of guidance
movement.
iv. The need for Mental Hygiene
in 1909, a group of mental hygienists formed the national committee for mental
health. They were charged with the responsibility of improving the condition of
those having mental disorders and helping to identify early symptoms of
maladjustment among youths. They suggested a more humane and psychological
attitude and treatment of these mental cases. The influence of this group helped
in boosting guidance especially for the maladjusted and mentally problematic
youth.
v. Increased student number in American schools
After the Second World War, people resented juvenile forced labor and preferred
going to school. This increased the number of students in schools. The teaming
population increased the need for counseling in schools.
vi. Social Change
People who had no desire for the school were forced to be there. Change in ethical
standards, technology concerning child labor, compulsory school attendance law
forced people with non-academic character to the school. This was a big
challenge for the administrators. Students needed individual attention to help
them find their way through the complex broad curriculum. Counseling resources
were utilized giving rise to many guidance programs that were introduced into
schools.
vii. To have self-knowledge of pupils as individual
It was the duty of the school then to know each pupil individually and to enable
them to have a good understanding of themselves. Every individual has self-worth
and dignity. They are entitled to some fundamental right and freedom which must
be appreciated. The willingness to study each help him understand his goals,
ability and aptitude which gave rise to a systematic collection of information
about each individual as a cumulative record, rating scales, anecdotal records,
marks and similar records of school progress and other procedures that formed
part of this record.
According to Makinde (1983), Olalede (2004) et al, as this was going on, rapid
change in the development of the guidance program continued. Frank Parson
started an early work in counseling in 1908. He was concerned with job placement
and occupational choice. He organized a vocational bureau in Boston to provide
vocational assistance to young people and train teachers to serve as vocational
assistance to young people and train teachers to serve as vocational counselors,
he is today known as the father of Vocational Guidance. He coined Vocational
Guidance which he reflected in his book “Choosing a Vocation” which was
published after his death. It was his works that influenced Meyer Bloomfield who
succeed Parson as the head of the vocational bureau. He taught his first vocational
course at the University of Harvard in 1911.
Another early leader, Eli Weaver, succeeded in establishing a teacher guidance
committee in every high school in New York City. These committees worked
actively to help youth discover their capabilities and learn how to use those talents
to secure the most appropriate employment (Denga et al, 2009). Organized
guidance programs began to emerge with increasing frequency in a secondary
school in the early 1920s. College campuses also began to reflect the influences
affecting the guidance movement as students’ personnel workers began utilizing
standardized tests for admission and placement purposes.
In the 1960s one of the most important developments for the school counseling
and guidance movement was the statement of policy for secondary school
counselors (American School Counselors Association 1964) which was
developed and approved as an official policy statement by the American School
Counselor Association (ASCA).
By the 1970s the school guidance counselor had inherited a series of stereotypes,
the value, and validity of which had to be determined. What historians recorded
guidance in the 1970s attested to their concerns for the generalization and their
behavior in dealing with them?
During the early 1980s number of development influenced counselors in school
and other settings. The American Personnel and Guidance Association officially
changed its name to the American Association for Counseling and Development
(AACP) in 1983. In 1992 the AACD changed its name to the American
Counseling Association (ACA). By the year 2000 there were 31342 nationally
certified counselors says the National Certified in Anagbogu, et al (2004). This
brief review of some historic highlights of the development of counseling and
guidance in the United States shows that a movement must have a cause and
leadership to survive.
However, the 1900s is an important period in the history of guidance in America.
This was a period of acute farm problems, the rise of cities, immigration, political
corruption, growth of new wealth, etc. the need for reforms and social
consciousness wave very glaring and so, many charitable humane and
philanthropic organizations took up the challenge. They talked all the time on the
dangers of child abuse, child labor, and corruption among the youths. They also
enlightened society on the need of saving the next generation by providing an
education of children and youth and protecting their health and morals.
Historical Development of Guidance and Counseling in Nigeria (i.e
Indigenous Guidance and Counseling)
Indigenous (Traditional) Guidance and Counseling has been in operation within
the extended family system long before the advent of professional guidance and
counseling as earlier stated. Nigerians are known to be their brother’s keepers and
the need to help one another out of problem situations cannot be overemphasized.
The Obas, Obi, Imam, Oche, parents, titleholders, friends and Heads of families
usually guide the affairs of their people and help to settle disputes. However, the
Motivation for Occupational Preference Scale (MOPS) and Study Habit Behavior
Inventory (SHI). Professor J. O. Akinboye’s Adolescent Personal Data Inventory
(APDI) is equally useful for guidance and counseling today in Nigeria. in 1991,
Dr. Ekennia C.C. of the Abia State University, Uturu and Abia state developed
the study Behavior Inventory (SBI).
Consequently upon the activities of the Counseling Association of Nigeria-all
over the federation, the Federal Government gave prompt recognition and
encouragement to the establishment of functional guidance and counseling at the
University of Ibadan. This gave rise to the introduction of a strong Association
known as the Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON). The introduction of
the guidance and counseling department then spread to other Nigeria Universities
like-University of Nigeria, Jos, Ibadan, Lagos, and Ife, etc. Most universities
these days offer guidance and counseling up to the doctorate level. Some Colleges
of Education like ALvan Ikoku College of Education A.I.C.E Owerri offer degree
courses in guidance and counseling.
The Federal Government assisted also in the spread of guidance counseling by
stressing in her National Policy on Education (1981) full expression of her desire
to provide guidance services to schools as a booster to career guidance and a
check on personality maladjustments. In the implementation of this policy, the
Government has kept this pledge by directing that every secondary school must
have the services of at least one trained counselor. Guidance and Counseling have
also featured in the teacher education program. Similarly, in the 3rd National
Development Plan (1975-1980), the Federal Government emphasized the need
for guidance and counseling in Nigeria schools to achieve the manpower needs
of the nation. This was because the Federal Government realized that self-
fulfillment should be the ultimate benefit of people who passed through the
nation’s educational system: To the Government, the absence of career
counseling in our educational system in the past led to frustrations among most
of the nation’s youths. To this effect, the government instituted guidance and
counseling services at all levels of the nation’s educational system.
With the various activities by the Federal Government to encourage the
development of guidance and counseling. Counseling Association of Nigeria was
now born on Nov. 11, 1976 with its first. President as Professor Olu Makinde.
Counseling Association of Nigeria was affiliated to the American Personnel and
Guidance Association (APGA) in 1977. Counseling Association of Nigeria also
launched its journal “The Counselor” in December 1976.
The recognition of the Counseling Associate of Nigeria as a professional body
marked the beginning of guidance and counseling in all the states of the
Federation. Members of the Counseling Association of Nigeria were drawn from
all professionally trained counselors, practitioners, counselor educators,
psychologists, a clinical psychologist and teacher-counselors.
Nowadays, organized guidance and counseling have gained prominence in the
Nigerian Educational System. Many people are getting interested in the guidance
of youths and in making wise educational and vocational decisions. This is
because people are now aware that with adequate provision of guidance services
maladjustment rates will be reduced among the youths. This interest in guidance
and counseling is shown especially through the various conferences, workshops,
symposia, news talk and seminars organized by the government, individuals and
organizations.
The Present Position of Guidance and Counseling in Nigeria
In Nigeria, organized Guidance and Counseling Services have been introduced in
the last three decades. Despite this length of time, it is painful to note that
guidance and counseling services have a multitude of problems militating against
the development as well as the spread of guidance and counseling services in
Nigeria. These problems include: attitudinal problems, problems of time-table,
mobility, the problem of occupational information, structural problems, acute
shortage of qualified and dedicated staff, and financial problem.
The need for the importance of Guidance and Counseling Services in the Nigerian
educational system cannot be over-emphasized. Right now in Nigeria, it is still
problematic to match these recognitions with precise steps and actions that would
help make guidance and counseling services both central and functional in the
nation’s educational system like other subjects in primary & Secondary Schools.
The findings by some authors and scholars like Gesinde (1983), Ikeotuonye,
(1984), Sekuk (2012) and Anagbogu (2004), Ogbodo (2014), provide enough
evidence that can be summarized in the following statement about the present
position of guidance and counseling services in Nigeria:
1. By organizing workshops, seminars, conferences, symposia, lectures and
publications, the Counseling Association of Nigeria is doing much for the impact
of guidance and counseling services to be felt in the nation’s educational system.
2. Guidance and counseling services are organized and administered at
different levels-Federal. State and zonal levels. The units of guidance and
counseling in the Ministries of Education at the different levels have to supervise
the guidance and counseling programs in the respective schools.
3. Many of the trained counselors in the primary/secondary schools are still
combining the counseling duties with classroom teaching. This, to a large extent,
affects the discharge of their professional duties as counselors. A class-free status
is being advocated for counselors in the schools. Running guidance and
counseling service in a school is enough to load for any one person. Adding
teaching loads to a counselor’s schedule is contributing to making him
ineffective.
4. Many students are aware of and use guidance and counseling services in
school where they are available. Most of these students who consulted the
counselors in their schools benefitted greatly from these services.
5. In Nigerian College of Education, guidance and counseling courses have
been introduced to trainees’ teachers. This will assist in introducing these teachers
of tomorrow to the fundamentals of guidance and counseling so that they could
act as a teacher –counselors or career master/mistresses I the absence of
professional guidance counselors. Where there are professional counselors such
courses equip them to play their roles as teachers in the running of the guidance
program.
6. Nigerian Universities have introduced the guidance and counseling
department to train potential counselors at both the undergraduate and post-
graduate levels to meet the counseling needs in our schools. The training is also
done at the first and second degree level of educators through the sandwich
program-in some universities.
The Place of Guidance and Counseling in National Open University of
Nigeria
(NOUN)
Everyone needs guidance and counseling in one area or the other. Guidance and
Counseling are very crucial in open and Distance learning, a system that
encompassed education for all, education for life, life-long learning, life-wide
education, adult education, mass education, media-based education, self-learning,
personalized learning. This is according to National Policy on Open and Distance
learning. Guidance and Counseling service in NOUN is geared towards helping
students to understand ‘self and to take appropriate steps in taking educational
(academic), psychological, life-long decisions, social and emotional.
Akinboye (2001) in Ogbodo (2014: P:36), added that it is necessary to help the
students gain adequate knowledge and understanding about the skills, attitudes
and values that they must cultivate to live comfortably in a constant challenging
society.
However, the National Policy on Education, (NPE) 1977, 1981 and revised 2004
endorsed its total commitment and support to the Guidance and Counseling
program by stating that: Given the apparent ignorance of many young people
about career prospects, and because of personality maladjustment among school
children, career officers and counselors will be appointed in post-primary
institutions. Guidance and counseling will also feature in the teacher education
program, (NPE 1981 P.30).
Since then, the government has been funding the training of guidance counselors
in Nigeria and overseas. The National Careers Advisory Council was also
proposed to coordinate careers throughout the country. Today, Guidance and
Counseling have gained prominence.
The government is fully aware of the vital role Counseling services play in the
personality adjustment, and development of the youth and their vocational
planning, introduce counseling services in all universities and schools.
Meanwhile, Guidance and Counseling in Open and Distance learning could be
remote, face-to-face or both. The British Association of Counseling (1985: P.8)
proffered a detailed definition of educational counseling as:
(a) People become engaged in Counseling when a person, occupying a regularly
or (b) Temporarily, the role of counselor, offers time, attention and respect to
another person or persons temporarily in the role of clients. The tasks of
counseling to allow the client to explore discover and clarify ways of living more
resourcefully and toward greater well being.
However, the NOUN has 47 study centers, which are located in the state
capitals, major and important towns in all the six geo-political zones of the
country as well as the Federal Capital Territory (Abuja). Some of these centers
have permanent NOUN structures, while others are situated within some selected
colleges of education and polytechnics. In these centers, in addition to academic
tutoring, Guidance and Counseling services are provided by the University
through her professional counselors. Every study center has two Counsellors and
always around to confer with students who seek needed guidance and counseling
on both academic and non-academic issues and concerns.
The students are encouraged to learn to confide in their counselors so that the
counselors would assist them with solving problems, difficulties or concerns that
borders on academic or social issues. The students contact the counselor
periodically concerning course registration, enrollment, choice of program and
courses, when and how to study/reading. The counselors guide these students
through how to study/reading. The counselors guide these students through
NOUN support services such as the use of the library, timetable, method of
paying a fee, data of assignment, TMA, E-examination preparation, completion
of assignment/submission. NOUN Counselors guide and direct students on how
to understand the NOUN program, academic curriculum, procedures and policies.
These services could be individual or group counseling based on the counselor(s)/
Student (s).
Also, the NOUN will soon start the Master’s degree program in Guidance and
Counseling (M.ED G &C) to trainable counselors that will help to meet the
challenges of the time. The NOUN has enough quality lecturers in the unit.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the writer was able to trace the history and development of
Guidance and Counseling, since the origin of man in the society; the evolution of
Guidance and Counseling since Greek Philosophers like Plato and others
(427337) B.C, its development in USA and Nigeria, the present position of
Guidance and counseling in NOUN, hence, Guidance and Counseling is one of
the leading professions in the present day institutional capacity building and in
general human resource development.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Dele Braimoh (RSA)-Frist Editor-in-Chief
  • Prof
Prof. Dele Braimoh (RSA)-Frist Editor-in-Chief
RSA)-Second Editor-in-Chief
  • Prof
  • E Obiora
Prof. Obiora E. (RSA)-Second Editor-in-Chief
Counselling in Search of a Definition. WWW.Ccpa-accp.cal-document Notebook Ethics/What is counseling? \Denga
British Association of Counseling (1986) 'Counselling in Search of a Definition. WWW.Ccpa-accp.cal-document Notebook Ethics/What is counseling? \Denga, D.J. (2009). The School Counselor in Developing Nations: Problems and Prospects. Jos savannah Publishers Ltd.
The problems & prospect of counseling services in Developing Countries
  • S A Gesinde
Gesinde, S.A. (1976). The problems & prospect of counseling services in Developing Countries; The case in Nigerian Enugu, Anambra State.
Introduction to Guidance and Counseling psychology published by Eureka Academic foundation
  • R T Sekuk
Sekuk, R. T. (2013). Introduction to Guidance and Counseling psychology published by Eureka Academic foundation, Pankshin, Plateau State.
Guidance for Schools: An introduction
  • A K Ikeotuonye
Ikeotuonye, A.K. (1984). Guidance for Schools: An introduction, Hudhuda Publishing Company, Zaria.
Essentials of Guidance and Counseling Krisbec Publications Agbor -Delta State
  • U S Ijehi
Ijehi U.S. (2009). Essentials of Guidance and Counseling Krisbec Publications Agbor -Delta State.
Foundation of Guidance & Counseling
  • B C Iwuama
Iwuama, B.C. (1991). Foundation of Guidance & Counseling, Benin City. Supreme Ideal Publishers, International Ltd.
National Open University of Nigeria Students' Handbook (2006) Lagos. The Regent Ministry and Publishing Ltd
  • O Makinde
Makinde O. (1983), Fundamentals of Guidance and Counseling, Macmillan Publishers. National Open University of Nigeria Students' Handbook (2006) Lagos. The Regent Ministry and Publishing Ltd. National Policy on Education (1977, 1981 & 2004);
Basic Career Information for students, Gracehands publishers
  • R O Ogbodo
Ogbodo, R.O. (2014), Basic Career Information for students, Gracehands publishers, Abuja.