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Higher Order Thinking Skills in the Language Classroom: A Concise Guide

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Abstract

In this book, we try to provide a practical, down-to-earth guide for those who are involved in language learning and teaching. We hope that this book will be a useful reading for those who would like to incorporate higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)-enhancing techniques in their teaching practice. We set out from the position that, although it is hardly doubtful that it is at the heart of education, critical thinking is in reality often not given its due attention in pedagogy, particularly in language education. This book offers readers some practical advice on how to implement HOTS in their own practice. It has been written to take the reader through each technique with the ultimate goal of promoting HOTS step-by-step. In the introductory chapter, we present an overview of the theory behind HOTS, its definition, its relation to Bloom’s Taxonomy, its two dimensions (critical thinking and reflective thinking), and the ideas of some influential thinkers in this area. The subsequent chapters present six HOTS-enhancing techniques that classroom teachers can draw from, namely graphic organizers, critical discourse analysis, argumentation, emotion regulation and emotional intelligence enhancing techniques, reflective journals, and mindfulness-based strategies. As the book draws on a wide-ranging review of literature with exercises for direct use with language learners, we hope that this provides both theoretical and practical support for the teaching process to help language learners become effective critical thinkers. The compilation of the ideas in this book took us a long time, over a decade. Something that takes such a long time requires much engagement and life experience; so did this book.
... In order to make reading text become very interesting, the researchers require the right issues reading comprehension achievement. (Ghanizadeh, Al-Hoorie, & Jahedizadeh, 2020) thinking process to seek the fact or truth concerning the ability to think critically, logically, creatively, and metacognitive. For this reason, HOTS should be realized in various texts in teaching and learning process such as descriptive text, recount text, narrative text and others. ...
... almost of students chosen strongly agree' (SA) and 'agree' (A), in each statement of every criteria in the questionnaires, in contrast it refers that HOTS as learning strategy is creative, criticize and problem solving to the course content in descriptive text and can enhance their skills in teaching and learning process. The findings in line to (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020) that inform that HOTS is very useful to enrich the capability in understanding literacy skills in reading comprehension. In the current study, the use of HOTS is effective to contribute student to enhance their confidence in comprehending the main ideas and vocabulary. ...
... C-6: the ability to create a new knowledge and ideas into sensory domains revealed the quality of mind achieved. According to (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020), who cite the study's six aspects of success. The aspect belongs to the issues of remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating, these issues are investigated concern with student achievement in reading comprehension descriptive text, the relationship with reading comprehension, the use of HOTS in descriptive text can enhance the ability of student to introduce an object to the readers in detail such as people, things , animals and the student able to identify and describe each paragraph and main ideas critically, creatively and problem solving, dealing with the assumption of reading is already fully achieved skills means that to perform text-level of cognitive task by (Abusamra, Difalcis, Formoso, Low, & Martinez, 2020). ...
Article
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This research aims to find out the students’ achievement by using HOTS as learning strategy in reading comprehension at grade VIII of SMP Yayasan Perguruan Keluaraga Pematangsiantar. The aspect of students’ achievement overwhelming, remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. These aspects were seen in Descriptive text. The research subject belongs to students in class VIIIA and VIIIB. The data are collected using qualitative method, namely the type of basic interpretative studies in which the data obtained used questionnaires to the student in the form of a Google form. In collecting data questionnaires were shared to 65 respondents. It was used to describe the topic related to the phenomenon happen in reading comprehension through HOTS. The research findings highlight C1-C6 phase which almost of students gave positive response to each statement of criteria HOTS. The achievement in six aspects of reading comprehension used HOTS, they are remembering text with strongly agree scale 58,4%, understanding supporting sentence with strongly agree 50,2%, applying decoding process with agree scale 49,2%, analyzing main ideas with strongly agree 50,2%, evaluating inference with agree scale 51,7%, and creating new ideas with agree scale 53,3%.
... Furthermore, students are guided by the teacher to do a critical reflection on the mathematical activities they do. Critical reflection is defined as awareness of the reasons behind emotions, actions, and insights, including the conscious and unconscious motives of the individual behavior (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020). ...
Article
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In implementing Ethnomathematics-Realistic Mathematics Education (Ethno-RME), teaching mathematics correctly is needed through learning practices in teaching and learning activities. This pedagogical activity requires guidance in the form of a curriculum. So, the teacher can determine the ethnomathematics context as a starting point in teaching mathematics using Ethno-RME. Therefore, this paper focuses on constructing an Ethno-RME curriculum to guide teachers to apply Ethno-RME in their learning process. This research was collected data from a few relevant kinds of literature to build the Ethno-RME curriculum, such as literature about the D’Ambrosio trivium curriculum, the principles, and character of RME, and literature about the implementation of RME and Ethnomathematics in school. Then, the data were reviewed, criticized, and synthesized, which was done by integrating the ideas in the literature with the new ideas to form the new concept and formula for Ethno-RME curriculum. This study comprehensively explains the goal of Ethno-RME learning, Ethno-RME competencies, and the procedure of Ethno-RME learning. Its process consists of several steps: determining, exploring, processing, and finding mathematics in the ethnomathematics context. Furthermore, this procedure continues with conducting self-development models and critical reflection as an assessment.
... Since critical thinking has been a longstanding educational goal, it is worth exploring how technology can be utilised to cultivate critical thinkers in different disciplines. For instance, in English language education, it is important to teach both language skills and thinking skills so that students can use language as a tool for thinking (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020;Mercer et al., 2019). One powerful strategy is to use technology to create favourable conditions for critical-thinking development (Tathahira, 2020). ...
Article
In view of the burgeoning research on technology-assisted critical-thinking cultivation but scarce research synthesis on this important topic in the field of English language education, this systematic literature review sought to address two issues. First, it identified the types of technology used in recent research published from 2017 to 2022. Second, it generated a framework comprising a set of evidence-based design principles to provide pedagogical assistance to English teachers and instructional designers for their use of technology to support critical-thinking cultivation. Drawing on a fine-grained analysis and synthesis of 33 eligible studies, this review suggested that informative technology, communicative technology, or informative and communicative technology is the most used technology to foster students’ critical thinking in English language education. The review also proposed a framework with four evidence-based design principles: (1) allow self-study and thorough understanding of learning materials; (2) engage students in practising various critical thinking skills; (3) engage students in classroom interaction, group discussion, collaboration, and reflection; and (4) engage students in decision-making and problem-solving. Implications of the review findings are discussed.
... Secara tekstual, pernyataan ini bermakna mendidik pikiran tanpa mendidik hati sama dengan tidak ada pendidikan sama sekali. Tentu saja, pernyataan klasik ini menggugah nalar akademik para ilmuan pendidikan kontemporer yang memosisikan pengolahan kecerdasan intelektual seperti lower and higher order thinking skills menjadi titik sentral dalam proses pendidikan dan pembelajaran masa kini (Conklin, 2011;Ghanizadeh et al., 2020). ...
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Sebuah argumen etis-konstruktif terbangun dalam suatu pernyataan inspiratif seorang filsuf Yunani, Aristoteles (384 SM – 322 SM) bertajuk “Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all. Secara tekstual, pernyataan ini bermakna mendidik pikiran tanpa mendidik hati sama dengan tidak ada pendidikan sama sekali. Tentu saja, pernyataan klasik ini menggugah nalar akademik para ilmuan pendidikan kontemporer yang memosisikan pengolahan kecerdasan intelektual seperti lower and higher order thinking skills menjadi titik sentral dalam proses pendidikan dan pembelajaran masa kini. Tulisan ini ini bertujuan untuk menjinakkan inteligen artifisial dengan inteligensi manusia.
... Secara tekstual, pernyataan ini bermakna mendidik pikiran tanpa mendidik hati sama dengan tidak ada pendidikan sama sekali. Tentu saja, pernyataan klasik ini menggugah nalar akademik para ilmuan pendidikan kontemporer yang memosisikan pengolahan kecerdasan intelektual seperti lower and higher order thinking skills menjadi titik sentral dalam proses pendidikan dan pembelajaran masa kini (Conklin, 2011;Ghanizadeh et al., 2020). ...
... Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) reexamined and updated Bloom's taxonomy's cognitive domain, known as Revised Bloom Taxonomy. It includes a hierarchical scale of skills -remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating-which have been connected to critical thinking (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020). Critical thinking as an essential aspect has been promoted to be taught (Abrami et al., 2008). ...
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Numerous studies have investigated the integration of critical thinking in EFL classrooms and textbooks. Still, relatively few have investigated the integration of critical thinking into reading lesson plans and classroom instructions. The current study adopted a qualitative case study approach to provide insight into how pre-service EFL teachers infused critical thinking skills into online reading classrooms. The study also gives information on pre-service EFL teachers' challenges in critical thinking integration into reading classrooms. Eight pre-service EFL teachers who completed all three phases of the faculty-mandated teaching practicum program participated in the study. Document analysis, virtual classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection techniques to fulfill the research objectives. As the study framework, Bloom's revised taxonomy was applied to lesson plan data to examine how critical thinking components are incorporated. Virtual classroom observations illuminated the incorporation of critical thinking into reading lessons. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather more information regarding the challenges of integrating critical thinking skills. The present study reveals that pre-service EFL teachers integrated critical thinking aspects into reading online classes with a greater emphasis on lower-order cognitive than higher-order cognitive processes. It implies that pre-service EFL teachers had insufficient preparation for teaching practicum programs. Due to the significance of critical thinking skills for EFL students, this study recommends that teacher training institutes strengthen the critical thinking abilities of pre-service EFL teachers so that they are more equipped to teach and promote critical thinking in EFL classrooms.Keywords: classroom instructions, critical thinking, lesson plans, pre-service teachers
... Of course, Bloom's Taxonomy's popularity lies in its application to various disciplines and groups. Scholars in different fields have used it for different purposes (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020). In the notes of Krathwohl and Anderson, Bloom has laid a foundation in his taxonomy related to higher-order thinking: C4 analysis, C5 evaluation, and C6 creation. ...
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Seeing the increasingly fierce scientific competition in the international world, the government has begun to implement HOTS-based learning (Higher Order Thinking Skills) in the 2013 curriculum. HOTS has been applied in learning, including learning Arabic. Using HOTS-based Arabic learning is expected to produce human resources who can think critically about global issues and competition. This study aims to find the effect of learning Arabic based on HOTS and critical thinking skills. This study uses a mixed method approach called sequential explanatory design, started with quantitative and then followed by qualitative. The population in this study is students of X graders of MAN 1 Kota Malang. The data collection technique used is random cluster sampling using X graders of Language Class 1 as the experimental class and Language Class 2 as the control class. Collecting data is done using tests that is analyzed by independent sample t-test. The study results indicate that HOTS-based Arabic learning significantly affects students' critical thinking skills. It is shown by the average value of the experimental class students, which is 68.13, while the average value of the control class is 54.69, with a significance (sig-2 tailed) of 0.00 0.05. It means that HOTS-based learning positively impacts learning Arabic so that it can improve students' ability to think critically. Further research is recommended to measure its effectiveness.
... Reflective thinking skills are the process of acquiring experience in problem-solving by identifying what is previously known, modifying understanding to solve problems, and applying the output produced in new scenarios (Angkotasan, 2013). John Dewey defines reflective thinking as anything done actively, repeatedly, with thought and belief based on clear reasoning and capable of drawing conclusions or resolving a solution to a given problem (Ghanizadeh, Al-Hoorie, & Jahedizadeh, 2020). In summary, reflective thinking skills take the shape of an exercise that requires students to try to connect their newly acquired information to solve new problems related to their prior knowledge (Karli, 2018). ...
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This study elucidates the reflective thinking ability as one of the higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in thematic learning of grade I students. It also identifies factors affecting students’ reflective thinking ability at MI Al-Islam Kartasura. This study is nested in a qualitative method with a descriptive case study. Involving students of class IA and a class teacher, data collection was carried out using non-test techniques in the form of observation, interviews, and documentation. The results indicated that students could answer the "why" and "how" questions given by the teacher with various answers. They showed their interest or feelings as well as expressed their opinion on pictures or objects about pictures presented by the teacher. They also enjoy having a simple game. Factors supporting the reflective thinking ability as a part of HOTS are the availability of media, infrastructure, and learning resources, good delivery of lessons by teachers, and curiosity. The obstacle is that its execution takes a long time and demands a high level of focus in student learning.
... Critical thinking disposition is a "habit of the mind" or "frame of mind" that is essential for exercising CT (Davies & Barnett, 2015). The disposition toward CT is an indicator of intrinsic motivation to make decisions and solve problems depending on reasoning (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020). Facione et al. (1994) conducted a Delphi study and the factor analysis created seven dispositional constructs which are: ...
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This study investigated the influences of critical thinking disposition (CTD) on EFL undergraduates' situated academic writing self-efficacy (SAWSE). A total of 243 Saudi students completed Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition (YCTD) instrument and the Situated Academic Writing Self-Efficacy Scale (SAWSES). The findings revealed that students had medium levels of CTD (M=3.26, SD=0.56) and SAWSE (M=3.20, SD=0.68). Eagerness, fairness, and objectivity scored the highest levels on CTD, whereas prudence had the lowest level. In addition, findings revealed significant differences in levels of situated academic writing self-efficacy among students who had high, medium, and low levels of critical thinking disposition. The correlations between subscales of CTD and SAWSE were all positive and statistically significant. Besides, the self-confidence subscale of CTD had the most significant impact on all three aspects of SAWSE. The study paved the way to understand how students' situated academic writing self-efficacy changes as a result of critical thinking deposition. Implications for EFL teachers and future directions were discussed.
... Most definitions (e.g. [13], [12], [14], [15], [16] and others), however, agree it is an active and conscious process that can be trained. Paul and Elder [15, p. 9] provide comprehensible characteristics of critical thinking as "the art of analyzing and evaluation thought processes with a view to improving them. ...
... The decisions taken by the individual may be arbitrary and may be rational and deliberate in light of the available information [18,19]. If the teacher wants to help his students make logical decisions themselves, then he must offer them alternatives that they can understand their consequences, because without that understanding they do not make a logical decision, and with the continuation of the training, the number of alternatives and the degree of their complexity can increase to enhance their self-confidence and their ability to make the right decisions [20,21]. ...
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This research aims to know the essence of the correlation between decision-making skills and academic achievement among students of computer science departments in the colleges of education in the province of Baghdad. The size of the research sample from the two colleges in Baghdad governorate was (200) male and female students, distributed among (104) male and (96) female students. To measure the decision-making skill and academic achievement, the researcher built two tests, the first to measure the decision-making skill, and the second an achievement test in numerical analysis scheduled for second-year students of the Department of Computer Science, and the validity and reliability of each test were verified. After collecting and analyzing the data, the researcher concluded that the students of the computer science departments in the colleges of education in Baghdad governorate have the decision-making skill compared to the hypothetical average that was compared, while the female students outperformed the male students in the decision-making skill test that was prepared for this research. While their achievement was good compared to the hypothetical average that was compared, female students outperformed male students in the achievement test for the subject of numerical analysis. There is a correlation between decision-making skill and the academic achievement of students as a whole. However, there is no correlation between decision-making skill and students' academic achievement, while there is an inverse relationship between decision-making skill and student achievement. Accordingly, the research reached several recommendations.
... In a recent book on cultivating higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in language classes, Ghanizadeh et al. (2020) introduced several techniques. One of the techniques revolves around regulation of attention and selfawareness, i.e., mindfulness-intervention procedure. ...
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The main aim of education is to provide students with academic knowledge and skills. In this process, some students experience burnout, which negatively affects their productivity and effectiveness. This study experimentally examines the impact of mindfulness-based instruction on burnout and students’ achievement in receptive language skills among 64 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) via a mixed-methods approach (QUAN→ qual) within a single framework. The techniques implemented in the experimental group, i. e. 32 participants, included observance of all experience , analyzing , planning , judging , reasoning , and fantasizing (van Vreeswijk et al., 2014). Furthermore, the techniques were inspired by Pirson et al. (2012) conceptualization that mindfulness comprises novelty producing, novelty seeking, engagement, and flexibility. The results of posttest revealed these techniques efficiently enhanced the abovementioned variables.
... HOTS is a student thinking activity that involves a high level cognitive level from Bloom's taxonomy of thinking which includes analyzing, evaluating, and creating [11][12][13]. HOTS activities help skilled students find knowledge in inductive and deductive reasoning to think about answers or identify and explore scientific examinations of existing facts. Table 1 describes HOTS in the learning to be achieved and the operational verbs used in learning. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to identify Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in mathematics education study program students in the Mathematical statistics course. HOTS in this study is based on the Revised Bloom Taxonomy which includes analyzing, evaluating and creating, especially in the dimensions of factual knowledge and conceptual knowledge. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. The research subjects were 35 students of the fourth semester mathematics education study program of Al Asyariah Mandar University. The data collection techniques such as essay test and each of which consisted of 3 items of dimension of procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge, which was C4 (analyzing), C5 (evaluating), C6 (creative) level. HOTS data were obtained from test answers given to students and then analyzed descriptively. HOTS criteria include low, medium, and high. The results of the research on the factual knowledge dimension with a C4 level (analyzing) of 6.7 (medium), a C5 level (evaluating) of 4.6 (low), and a C6 level (creating) of 4.3 (low). Whereas in the conceptual knowledge dimension with a C4 level (analyzing) of 6.9 (medium), a C5 level (evaluating) of 4.7 (low), and a C6 level (creating) of 4.1 (low). In general, students’ HOTS are in low criteria.
... These three theories are highly interrelated and lie at the heart of education in any subject and help to design a lesson plan. They work as catalysts for making an effective lesson plan (Ghanizadeh, Hoorie, & Jahedizadeh, 2020;Green & Tolman, 2019, pp. 125-147). ...
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Traditional teaching practice in the classroom is dominated by teacher-centered lecture practice where a well-designed lesson plan is rarely followed. Having no lesson plan in the classroom, students' role become passive. This study explores the potential contributors to lesson plans and designs a policy for effective lesson plans. A mini-experiment was conducted at the Department of Economics in Government Edward College, Pabna and the survey were conducted at different colleges in the same district of Bangladesh. The survey (n = 151) is used for attributes selection, questionnaire development, and data collection. Theory-based lesson plan, seating arrangement in the classroom, monitoring class activities, and teaching experience are essential for designing and implementing lesson plans in the classroom. Findings of the study are very important for every teacher to enhance their quality of teaching and assessment technique. These are also significant for every student because it provides support to increase the engagement of learning in the classroom.
... In [17], the author thinks Mathematics is an abstract science of human mind formation and imagination. It is achieved within theories, techniques, and thought patterns, using many ways of thinking, for example, a logical inference to verify mathematical data and a mathematical knowledge extrapolation [18,19]. The classification of thought into patterns was stated by [20], as it is done by two bases: analog, objective and logical. ...
Article
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This research aims to know the essence of the correlative relationship between tactical thinking and solving mathematical problems. The researchers followed the descriptive research method to analyze relations, as all students from the mathematics department in the morning study were part of the research group. The research sample of (100) male and female students has been chosen based on the arbitrators' views. The tools for studying the sample of research composed of (12) items of the multiple-choice test in its final form to measure tactical thinking and require establishing a test of (6) test-type paragraphs to solve mathematical problems. The findings showed that sample students' tactical thinking and their capacity to overcome mathematical problems are flattering for all students.
... In [17], the author thinks Mathematics is an abstract science of human mind formation and imagination. It is achieved within theories, techniques, and thought patterns, using many ways of thinking, for example, a logical inference to verify mathematical data and a mathematical knowledge extrapolation [18,19]. The classification of thought into patterns was stated by [20], as it is done by two bases: analog, objective and logical. ...
Article
This research aims to know the essence of the correlative relationship between tactical thinking and solving mathematical problems. The researchers followed the descriptive research method to analyze relations, as all students from the mathematics department in the morning study were part of the research group. The research sample of (100) male and female students has been chosen based on the arbitrators' views. The tools for studying the sample of research composed of (12) items of the multiple-choice test in its final form to measure tactical thinking and require establishing a test of (6) test-type paragraphs to solve mathematical problems. The findings showed that sample student's tactical thinking and their capacity to overcome mathematical problems are flattering for all students.
... Language learning researchers have capitalized on the potential of stories (Ghanizadeh et al., 2020;Lucarevschi, 2016). Some research has compared the incorporation of storytelling in language teaching with traditional textbook teaching. ...
Article
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Motivating students is an important concern for language teachers. One of the most direct ways to motivate students is for the teacher to talk them into it. This study investigates the effectiveness of narrating inspirational stories about successful role models on motivating a sample of Saudi university learners of English (N = 270). Teachers of the experimental group told their students motivational stories about famous people associated with the English culture as a warm-up activity for a period of about four weeks. Results of t-tests showed that the experimental group reported a significant reduction in anxiety (d = 0.41). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in integrativeness, motivation, or attitudes toward the learning situation. The role of creating role models for language learners is discussed in light of the present results.
... These three theories are highly interrelated and lie at the heart of education in any subject and help to design a lesson plan. They work as catalysts for making an effective lesson plan (Ghanizadeh, Hoorie, & Jahedizadeh, 2020;Green & Tolman, 2019, pp. 125-147). ...
... While administrators of the institutes and language schools see teachers accountable for students' demotivation, they occasionally forget about their teachers and their motivation. We take a look at this case as a causality dilemma implying that we do not know what comes first, teachers' or students' motivation, but the only aspect that we are sure about is that both of them are integrated and required in an English language classroom (Ghanizadeh, et al., 2020). ...
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The aim of the current quantitative research was to design and validate a scale assessing the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ motivation and employing the scale to investigate the association between teachers’ motivation, job commitment, and work engagement. In order to design the scale, the collected data from a triangulated qualitative study by Pourtoussi et al. (Int J Instruct 11(4):175–190, 2018) were employed. The researchers designed the questionnaire based on five factors (teacher-related, administrative, student-related, non-human-related, and immediate environment) rated on a fivepoint Likert scale. The proposed model was tested via confirmatory factor analysis using the LISREL 8.50 statistical package. Afterwards, we probed the interrelationship between motivation, work engagement, and job commitment via structural equation modeling. The results demonstrated that EFL teachers’ motivation positively and significantly predicted work engagement and job commitment. Work engagement positively influenced job commitment.
Article
To improve the effectiveness of English teaching and learning, it is necessary for learners to develop critical thinking skills. Despite being a common-used skill of students worldwide, it has not been effectively acquired by Vietnamese students when using English textbooks as Life Pre-Intermediate (Vietnam edition). Using the methodological triangulation, we set the task of helping English learners and their teachers in conceiving, designing, implementing and operating critical thinking construction in the textbook, and in relevance to their background knowledge. The results of a survey of freshmen at Vinh University show that the participants' capacity of critical thinking, their embodied experience and learning methods are rather far from what the textbook requires. Therefore, the essential way to learning and teaching English as a second language with Life Pre-Intermediate is to re-recognize and adhere to the principles of foreign language teaching and learning, and that teachers need to play the role of advisors.
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Social distancing due to COVID-19 has necessitated the immediate implementation of Internet-based English language teaching (ELT) in developing countries. This abrupt transition from face-to-face to online learning and teaching environment has brought up many concerns, particularly about maintaining ELT education in crises, one of which is how teachers scaffold students in Internet-based classrooms. Although there is an extensive body of research devoted to scaffolding students’ learning in face-to-face ELT classes, effective teachers’ scaffolding strategies in online classes are still worth receiving further scholarly attention. Therefore, this article reviews contemporary research on scaffolding strategies for teachers to apply in their Internet-based ELT classes. After discussing the inherent difference between scaffolding and support, and the relationship of scaffolding, support, and linguistic competence, the author synthesizes and systemizes scaffolding functions, intentions, and strategies applicable to the Internet-based English class. The author also suggests practical recommendations that teachers can utilize to scaffold students in differential teaching and learning contexts on the Internet. Finally, this article addresses some common challenges and suggests solutions for teachers to conduct scaffolding strategies effectively in Internet-based ELT classrooms.
Article
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Social distancing due to COVID-19 has necessitated the immediate implementation of Internet-based English language teaching (ELT) in developing countries. This abrupt transition from face-to-face to online learning and teaching environment has brought up many concerns, particularly about maintaining ELT education in crises, one of which is how teachers scaffold students in Internet-based classrooms. Although there is an extensive body of research devoted to scaffolding students’ learning in face-to-face ELT classes, effective teachers’ scaffolding strategies in online classes are still worth receiving further scholarly attention. Therefore, this article reviews contemporary research on scaffolding strategies for teachers to apply in their Internet-based ELT classes. After discussing the inherent difference between scaffolding and support, and the relationship of scaffolding, support, and linguistic competence, the author synthesizes and systemizes scaffolding functions, intentions, and strategies applicable to the Internet-based English class. The author also suggests practical recommendations that teachers can utilize to scaffold students in differential teaching and learning contexts on the Internet. Finally, this article addresses some common challenges and suggests solutions for teachers to conduct scaffolding strategies effectively in Internet-based ELT classrooms.
Article
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The need to develop higher order thinking skills (HOTS) for prospective primary school teachers in facing society 5.0 has been motivating this research. This development process requires valid data regarding the HOTS description of prospective primary school teachers. The research is aimed to determine the HOTS ability of prospective primary school teachers in facing society 5.0. This is a qualitative descriptive study involving 125 senior students in the department of primary school teacher education. The data collection instrument utilized the validated mathematical HOTS test questions. The resulting score is then converted to an ideal score and mapped. The average score attained by prospective primary school teacher students was 57.01, according to the findings. This score indicates that prospective teachers' HOTS ability is in the fairly good category. The findings of this study can be used to improve HOTS for future teachers.
Conference Paper
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This lecture summarizes the results of a recent study on the use of Turnitin to promote critical thinking using controversial essays. The participants provided feedback on essays written by their peers. We analyzed the proportion of local (i.e., language-related) and global (e.g., ideas, argumentation). We found that the participants provided significantly more global comments on controversial essays than on non-controversial essays. We argue that the use of controversial essays can be a potential approach to enhancing critical thinking.
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This book defines engagement for the field of language learning and contextualizes it within existing work on the psychology of language learning and teaching. Chapters address broad substantive questions concerned with what engagement is or looks like, and how it can be theorized for the language classroom; methodological questions related to the design, measurement and analysis of engagement in language classrooms and beyond; as well as applied issues examining its antecedents, factors inhibiting and enhancing it, and conditions fostering the reengagement of language learners who have become disengaged. Through a mix of conceptual and empirical chapters, the book explores similarities and differences between motivation and engagement and addresses questions of whether, how and why learners actually do exert effort, allocate attention, participate and become involved in tangible language learning and use. It will serve as an authoritative benchmark for future theoretical and empirical research into engagement within the classroom and beyond, and will be of interest to anyone wishing to understand the unique insights and contributions the topic of engagement can make to language learning and teaching.
Article
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The 40 th anniversary of the Journal of Language and Social Psychology occurs around the corner of another anniversary, the language motivation field reaching 60 years. At this occasion, we pause to reflect on the contribution of language motivation research to language teaching practice. We argue that this contribution has been negligible and put forward two main reasons. The first is related to an identity crisis in the language motivation field, falling at the intersection of applied linguistics, education, and psychology; the second is the marginalization of the role of context. To address these issues, we first present insights from two perspectives-sociocultural theory and complex dynamic systems theory-and then propose three solutions to incorporate these insights: 1) moving from the abstract notion of "motivation" to the more tangible construct of "engagement", 2) encouraging rigorous transdisciplinary research, and 3) taking advantage of the potential of artificial intelligence to translate research findings into practice.
Article
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Although an important goal of learner peer feedback is promoting critical thinking, little attention has been paid to the nature of the topic, particularly whether it is controversial. In this article, we report on a study where 52 English majors were asked to comment on essays written by their peers using the PeerMark module of Turnitin. Half of the essays were about controversial topics in the Saudi society (e.g., women driving and banning cigarettes), whereas the other half were less controversial (e.g., importance of sleep and respecting parents). Our results showed that the participants provided significantly more critical, global comments on controversial essays. At the same time, this increase in global comments did not come at the expense of local, language-related comments-in that the participants did not provide significantly fewer language comments on controversial essays. The participants also reported favorable attitudes toward this task due to the convenience and anonymity of online feedback, thus allowing them to express their opinions more freely on controversial topics. We therefore concluded that utilizing an online platform that permits double-blind peer review on controversial essays seems to have to the potential to stimulate critical thinking among language learners.
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In language teaching, current understanding of complex classroom contexts and post-methods L2 pedagogy encourages us to adopt a situated and dynamic perspective of the language classroom. Exemplary teaching in such contexts is characterized by critical moment to moment decision-making for building L2 classroom environments that are engaging, demanding, and supportive of learners’ development. Parallel to this, the notion of teacher reflection (aka. reflective practice) has gained considerable momentum in the field, evidenced by existing work on the topic and its continued popularity in scholarship on language teachers. However, a review of this topical area reveals inconsistencies and unresolved dilemmas, suggesting that notions of teacher reflection and reflective practice in our field are ripe for reconceptualization. In response, we propose that the field of L2 teaching adopt the superordinate notion of teacher metacognition in order to better address the links between language teachers’ inner worlds, their classroom teaching, and students’ learning. We discuss the implications of adopting a perspective that is informed by current evidence in teacher education research and the learning sciences for understanding the interface between teacher thought and action, and students’ development.
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Given the prominence of mindfulness in educational settings and the fact that little attention has been given to this concept in foreign language learning, the present study sets out to explore the influence of mindfulness and L2 resilience on Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' self-fulfilment, and L2 motivation. To meet this objective, 221 EFL learners were recruited to participate in this study. They were asked to respond to the Langer mindfulness scale (LMS), L2 resilience inventory, measurement of actualisation of potential (MAP), and motivation scale. Afterwards, structural equation modeling (SEM) utilising the LISREL 8.50 statistical package was exploited to shed light on probable relationships. The findings demonstrated that mindfulness is a positive and consistent predictor of self-fulfilment and resilience and also exerts positive influence on L2 motivation both directly and indirectly via its effect on self-fulfilment. Resilience was positively and significantly associated with self-fulfilment. Resilience has a positive relationship with L2 motivation, both directly and indirectly via self-fulfilment. In addition, it was found that L2 motivation was predicted by self-fulfilment positively and significantly. Taken together, the pivotal role of mindfulness in language learning was demonstrated, and according to the findings, some suggestions are put forward regarding the implications of the study.
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This book brings together contributions from the leaders of the language learning motivation field. The varied chapters demonstrate how Gardner's work remains integral to a diverse range of contemporary theoretical issues underlying the psychology of language, even today, 60 years after the publication of Gardner and Lambert's seminal 1959 paper. The chapters cover a wide selection of topics related to applied linguistics, second language acquisition, social psychology, sociology, methodology and historical issues. The book advances thinking on cutting-edge topics in these diverse areas, providing a wealth of information for both students and established scholars that show the continuing and future importance of Gardner and Lambert's ideas.
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In Islam, hadith is regarded as a secondary source after Holy Quran covering various aspects of life including psychological and anthropological matters. Due to the critical role of hadiths in Islamic cultures, the researchers of the present study decided to scrutinize one of the Imam Reza’s hadiths from psychological points of view. The present study, therefore, is an attempt to provide psychological and statistical evidence for the hadith: “The best of the intellect is a person’s knowledge of his own self,” exploring the strength of causal relationships among the pertinent variables. To do so, 327 university students responded to six questionnaires measuring spiritual intelligence, self-fulfillment, mindfulness, emotional self-awareness, self-esteem, and personal best goals. The analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that spiritual intelligence is a positive indicator of self-fulfillment and mindfulness directly and indirectly, respectively. Besides, self-fulfillment was found to influence mindfulness, emotional self-awareness, and self-esteem positively and significantly. Moreover, mindfulness predicted emotional self-awareness and personal best goals directly. Self-esteem, emotional self-awareness, and self-fulfillment were also significant predictors of personal best goals.
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This book provides practical guidance on research methods and designs that can be applied to Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) research. It discusses the contribution of CDST to the field of applied linguistics, examines what this perspective entails for research and introduces practical methods and templates, both qualitative and quantitative, for how applied linguistics researchers can design and conduct research using the CDST framework. Introduced in the book are methods ranging from those in widespread use in social complexity, to more familiar methods in use throughout applied linguistics. All are inherently suited to studying both dynamic change in context and interconnectedness. This accessible introduction to CDST research will equip readers with the knowledge to ensure compatibility between empirical research designs and the theoretical tenets of complexity. It will be of value to researchers working in the areas of applied linguistics, language pedagogy and educational linguistics and to scholars and professionals with an interest in second/foreign language acquisition and complexity theory.
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In mindfulness practice, psychological sciences have been representing a core premise for multidisciplinary efforts. Research has been undertaken to explain how mindfulness meditation plays its beneficial impact on physical and mental health, as well as to study the effects on cognitive performance and emotional regulation in a variety of educational settings. Although mindfulness meditation shares common principles with other psychological interventions, such as acceptance and empathy, a specific focus on relational aspects and sense of belonging remains uncertain. The practice of mindfulness provides a potential framework by supporting individuals in the research of meanings, whereas mindfulness-based groups encourage social interactions between practitioners as part of the training sessions. This article will review mindfulness group interventions based on mindfulness group membership, whilst a sense of belonging through mindfulness will be referred to emerging prospects in individual practice. It follows that mindfulness intervention models are being offered to promote psychological well-being in terms of learning requirements and group membership.
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Technology enhanced learning is a wide area that covers all uses of digital technology to support learning and teaching activities. The computer-based concept mapping has shown potential in enhancing meaningful learning in education. Concept mapping is an important tool that is used in the field of education to help students in understanding the basic concepts and the relationships between them. This research proposes a computer-based concept mapping (CBCM) environment combined with Google classroom to help students reduce their misconceptions and to improve their problem solving skills. Furthermore, it examines the effect of CBCM on the sustainability of concept learning according to student views. The participants were first-year engineering students. The study was conducted in a physics class, and a true-experimental design was used. The experimental group students learned with the Google classroom combined with computer-based concept mapping (CBCM), while the concept group students learned with Google classroom and the traditional method. Data were collected from a physics concept test, problem solving inventory, and semi-structured interviews. The research results indicated that teaching in the CBCM environment combined with Google Classroom provides meaningful learning by correcting the misconceptions of the students. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the problem solving skills of the experimental group as compared to the control group. According to the students’ views, it was determined that CBCM enhances the sustainability of concept learning. The results of this study can help educators and researchers to integrate computer-based concept mapping (CBCM) techniques into Google Classroom.
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This quasi-experiment examined how incorporating an instructor narrative into teaching augmented students’ recall, affect, and sustained attention. One hundred and ninety-four undergraduate students were assigned to one of two teaching conditions in a college classroom: a lecture that included an instructor narrative summarizing the lesson’s key points (treatment) or the same lecture that utilized comparable examples instead, reviewing the lesson’s key points (control). Results indicated that students in the narrative lecture condition liked the instructor more and indicated they were likely to take a future course with the instructor. In addition, students in the narrative condition reported more sustained attention toward the lecture and performed slightly better on a test of short-term recall compared with students in the examples condition. Finally, students also performed better on a retention test of extraneous information, suggesting that instructor narratives serve a double-edged function by facilitating student recall about course content, but at the expense of students remembering more extraneous information and adding to their overall cognitive load.
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Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is a skill demanded in 21st century. HOTS is trained in mathematics learning which one of its execution uses teaching materials such as textbook. This article aims to describe the urgency of HOTS content analysis in mathematics textbook. The results of literature review show that HOTS is one of the main goals in education and become one of the top five variables that can improve student achievement. HOTS can be developed but cannot be automated and requires practice. Textbook is one of the learning media that can be used in training HOTS because the textbook is the main learning media for teachers and students. Teacher's decisions in selecting teaching materials and strategies are also directly influenced by textbook used by teachers. Some studies even mentioned that there is a strong relationship between textbook used with student achievement. Thus, it can be said that the more HOTS content in a textbook, the greater the probability of HOTS to be trained and taught to the students. Therefore, a mathematical textbook analysis is needed to find out how the HOTS content in textbook is used by teachers and students.
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In this study we investigate the situated and dynamic nature of the L2 Learning Experience through a newly-purposed instrument called the Language Learning Story Interview—adapted from McAdams’ Life Story Interview (2007). Using critical case sampling, data were collected from an equal number of learners of various L2s (e.g., Arabic, English, Mandarin, Spanish) and analyzed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (Rihoux & Ragin, 2009). Through our data analysis, we demonstrate how language learners construct overarching narratives of the L2 learning experience and what the characteristic features and components that make up these narratives are. Our results provide evidence for prototypical nuclear scenes (McAdams et al., 2004) as well as core specifications and parameters of learners’ narrative accounts of the L2 learning experience. We discuss how these shape motivation and language learning behavior.
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This article reports the first meta-analysis of the L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005, 2009). A total of 32 research reports, involving 39 unique samples and 32,078 language learners, were meta-analyzed. The results showed that the three components of the L2 Motivational Self System (the ideal L2 self, the ought-to L2 self, and the L2 learning experience) were significant predictors of subjective intended effort (rs = .61, .38, and .41, respectively), though weaker predictors of objective measures of achievement (rs = .20, –.05, and .17). Substantial heterogeneity was also observed in most of these correlations. The results also suggest that the strong correlation between the L2 learning experience and intended effort reported in the literature is, due to substantial wording overlap, partly an artifact of lack of discriminant validity between these two scales. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
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Mindfulness has transdiagnostic applicability, but little is known about how people first begin to practice mindfulness and what sustains practice in the long term. The aim of the present research was to explore the experiences of a large sample of people practicing mindfulness, including difficulties with practice and associations between formal and informal mindfulness practice and wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, 218 participants who were practicing mindfulness or had practiced in the past completed an online survey about how they first began to practice mindfulness, difficulties and supportive factors for continuing to practice, current wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Participants had practiced mindfulness from under a year up to 43 years. There was no significant difference in the frequency of formal mindfulness practice between those who had attended a face-to-face taught course and those who had not. Common difficulties included finding time to practice formally and falling asleep during formal practice. Content analysis revealed “practical resources,” “time/routine,” “support from others,” and “attitudes and beliefs,” which were supportive factors for maintaining mindfulness practice. Informal mindfulness practice was related to positive wellbeing and psychological flexibility. Frequency (but not duration) of formal mindfulness practice was associated with positive wellbeing; however, neither frequency nor duration of formal mindfulness practice was significantly associated with psychological flexibility. Mindfulness teachers will be able to use the present findings to further support their students by reminding them of the benefits as well as normalising some of the challenges of mindfulness practice including falling asleep. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s12671-018-0951-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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A recent development in educational psychology is the study of academic buoyancy—the capacity to overcome the setbacks, challenges, and pressures that are part of the ordinary course of school life. This paper reports the first attempt to test the relevance of buoyancy to second language (L2) learning and achievement. Questionnaire data were collected from 787 college-level L2 learners in South Korea to assess their academic buoyancy and a set of six hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, self-regulation, ideal L2 self, anxiety, and teacher–student relationship). In the initial stage, a two-step cluster analysis of the data identified five prominent L2 learner archetypes across the spectrum of buoyancy, providing evidence for the existence of distinct buoyancy profiles within the domain of L2 learning. Subsequently, structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the links among the six predictor variables, buoyancy, and L2 achievement and GPA. The results showed that buoyancy significantly predicted both L2 achievement and GPA, mediated the effect of the other predictors on these two outcome variables better than all alternative models tested, and remained significant after controlling for baseline L2 achievement. These results suggest that buoyancy captures a conceptually distinct dimension of L2 motivation and may represent an essential yet underexplored capacity for success in language learning. Our study highlights the potential contributions of positive psychology and character strengths for the field of second language acquisition.
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This study unveils a tertiary EFL reading teacher’s reader identity and its interconnectedness with her pedagogical decisions through narrative inquiry. Community of Practice was employed to elucidate the sources of this reading teacher’s reader identity and the interplay between that and her teaching practice. Findings from the categorical content analysis show that this reading teacher’s reader identity was projected through her strong passion towards reading. An interactive reading process that results in a better self-understanding is experienced through the reader’s reflection on her readings. She reified her reader identity in her teaching practice by forming a readers club. Reader (teacher)-text- reader (student) interaction is thus the most salient feature of this readers club and serves as a mediator that connects the members. Along with this feature, her competence of synchronicity with students was observed in this experienced reading teacher. Pedagogical implications concerning teacher education are discussed.
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The article explores undergraduate students' experiences of developing mindful agency as a positive learning disposition, their perceived change as a learner, and the possible impact of mindful agency coaching on students' learning and personal growth, using a narrative research method. Seventy Chinese undergraduate students generated personal reflective journals and eight participants' journals were selected to enter into the narrative-oriented inquiry. Our analysis revealed a number of primary themes based on which we produced a meta-story. The supplements of the story were exacted for further critical cross-case discussion. The finding indicated that the multifaceted development of mindful agency involved learning methods, emotional regulation, strategic thinking, and awareness of planning, openness to experience, self-acceptance and self-esteem, and learning engagement, with enhanced sense of personal awareness and awakening. The coaching was supportive for students to foster positive self-identities and become more reflective, mindful, and self-determined.
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Scholars in higher education deem reflective thinking as integral to the development of professional disciplinary practices. One of the major issues in studying reflective thinking pivots around its conceptualization and assessment. Over the years, researchers have used several methods and scales to measure reflective thinking. One of the most widely known scales of reflective thinking was constructed and validated by Kember et al. (2000). It is entitled 'Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ)' and includes 16 items measuring four types of reflective thinking: understanding (UND); reflection (REF); critical reflection (CREF); habitual action (HA). The present study aimed at validating the Persian version of RTQ among one hundred ninety six English as a foreign language (EFL) university students. It then scrutinized the role of reflective thinking in academic achievements measured by grade point average (GPA). The association of learners' reflective thinking style with their educational level and gender was also estimated. To conduct the research, the scale was first translated into Persian and its validity (computed via confirmatory factor analysis, convergent, and divergent validity estimates) and reliability (computed via Cronbach's alpha) were substantiated. It was indicated that among the comprising factors of reflective thinking, UND received the highest mean followed by REF and CREF
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This article offers a historical analysis of the major themes that the language motivation field has examined in its 60-year history. The discussion starts by briefly reviewing the social-psychological and the situated–cognitive periods. The former was primarily concerned with affective factors in intergroup relations, while the latter with learners in classroom contexts. The second half of the article surveys a number of emerging themes in the field to highlight major findings and potential future directions. These themes include the dynamic, affective, unconscious, and long-term aspects of motivation to learn English and other languages, as well as the implications of the pervasive presence of technology in daily life.
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Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated changing compatibility across individuals and experience, with two basic types of experiences and three types of transitions. We labeled experiences when informants were unable to activate Being mode while engaging Doing mode as Entanglement, and those when informants reported simultaneous co-activation of Being and Doing modes as Disentanglement. This combination was a valuable resource for offsetting important limitations of the typical reliance on the Doing cognitive mode. Overall our results have yielded an inductive model of mindfulness at work, with the core experience, outcomes, and antecedent factors unified into one system that may inform future research and practice.
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This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2) academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311) completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that attachment to the L1 community and the ought-to L2 self were negatively associated with achievement, while explicit attitudes toward the L2 course and implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers were positively associated with it. The relationship between implicit attitudes and achievement could not be explained either by social desirability or by other cognitive confounds, and remained significant after controlling for explicit self-report measures. Explicit–implicit congruence also revealed a similar pattern, in that congruent learners were more open to the L2 community and obtained higher achievement. The results also showed that neither the ideal L2 self nor intended effort had any association with actual L2 achievement, and that intended effort was particularly prone to social desirability biases. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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In this article, we introduce a template of methodological considerations, termed “the dynamic ensemble,” for scholars doing or evaluating empirical second language development (SLD) research within a complexity/dynamic systems theory (CDST) framework. Given that CDST principles have yielded significant insight into SLD and have become central to the concerns of applied linguists in many domains, we propose the need for a practical blueprint to ensure compatibility between its theoretical tenets and empirical SLD research designs. Building on “complexity thought modeling” (Larsen–Freeman & Cameron, 2008), we present a practical catalog of 9 considerations intended to inform research design at multiple stages. We contextualize the 9 considerations of the dynamic ensemble by discussing how these have been framed and addressed within one previous CDST study. Finally, we address the issue of what practical implementation of this dynamic ensemble would entail and introduce several case-based methods for building off of the considerations in our dynamic ensemble. We hope that this user guide can help orient researchers interested in working within a complexity framework and spur continued methodological discussion in the field.
Chapter
The relationship between language, discourse and identity has always been a major area of sociolinguistic investigation. In more recent times, the field has been revolutionized as previous models - which assumed our identities to be based on stable relationships between linguistic and social variables - have been challenged by pioneering new approaches to the topic. This volume brings together a team of leading experts to explore discourse in a range of social contexts. By applying a variety of analytical tools and concepts, the contributors show how we build images of ourselves through language, how society moulds us into different categories, and how we negotiate our membership of those categories. Drawing on numerous interactional settings (the workplace; medical interviews; education), in a variety of genres (narrative; conversation; interviews), and amongst different communities (immigrants; patients; adolescents; teachers), this revealing volume sheds light on how our social practices can help to shape our identities.
Book
This handbook offers an authoritative, one-stop reference work for the dynamic and expanding field of language learning motivation. The 32 chapters have been specially commissioned from the field’s most influential researchers and writers. Together they present a compelling picture of the motivations people have for learning languages, the diverse ways we can research motivation, and the implications for promoting and sustaining learners’ motivation. The first section outlines the main theoretical approaches to language learning motivation; the next section presents ways in which motivation theory has been applied in practice; the third section showcases examples of motivation research in particular contexts and with particular types of language learners; and the final section describes the exciting directions that contemporary research is taking, promising important new insights for academics and practitioners alike. Martin Lamb is Senior Lecturer in TESOL at the University of Leeds, UK. He previously worked as a language teacher and trainer in Sweden, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and Bulgaria. His main research interest is in language learner motivation and how it interacts with features of context like teaching in school. Kata Csizér is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of English and Applied Linguistics at Eötvös University, Hungary. Her main field of research interest is the social psychological aspects of L2 learning and teaching, as well as second and foreign language motivation. Alastair Henry is Professor of Language Education at University West, Sweden. His research involves the psychology of language learning and teaching. In addition to motivation, his work has focused on teacher identities and language choices in contexts of migration. Stephen Ryan is Professor of Applied Linguistics in the School of Culture, Media and Society at Waseda University, Japan. His research covers various aspects of psychology in language learning, and he has several co-authored books in the field.
Article
Concept mapping has been widely used to foster meaningful learning and support the communication of complex ideas. With a focus on conceptual understanding, traditional concept mapping is found to be inadequate in supporting problem solving particularly in eliciting and representing the complex process of applying knowledge to practice. In this study, a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach was used to extend traditional concept mapping by allowing learners to represent the problem-solving process and the underlying knowledge in a visual format. By representing ideas both verbally and pictorially, the cognitive mapping approach has a high potential to foster effective thinking and reflection in problem-solving contexts. This study examined the effects of the computer-based cognitive-mapping approach by comparing it to a note-taking approach that represents ideas in verbal text only. Forty-nine senior year medical students participated in the study. The experimental group used the cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used a note-taking approach, to articulate complex thinking and actions when working with simulated clinical diagnostic problems in a computer-based learning environment. The results show the promising effects of the cognitive-mapping approach on improving students' problem-solving performance, subject-matter knowledge, and intrinsic motivation to learn with complex problems.
Article
Reflection is an essential dimension of effective teaching. It prompts classroom teachers to subject themselves to a process of self-observation or self-evaluation. By reflecting on what they do in the classroom, teachers specifically explore their teaching practices and beliefs and whether these, indeed, work. This then may lead teachers to continue or modify their teaching strategies for the improvement of their class instruction. Grounded on the notions of reflective practice (in: Kumaradivelu 2003; Freeman 2002; Borg 2003), this brief report aims to share insights from a case study conducted in the Philippines. Initially, the study presents challenges teachers face in the Philippine education system in terms of actualizing reflective teaching. Using a case study approach among teachers taking a master’s class on English Language Teaching issues, the presentation proceeds with discussing the teachers’ views on reflective teaching and the existing challenges faced in actualizing this practice in their respective contexts. The presentation further identifies teachers’ contrasting views about existing theoretical viewpoints on reflective teaching that may serve as potential areas for further investigation.
Article
Pre-service teacher identity research has directed limited attention to the construction and development of professional teacher identity through narrative interaction. An analysis of narrative interactions among pre-service teachers in the present study explored the ways in which they negotiated emotional flux in the process of training to become a teacher. Overall, findings show that emotional flux and identity change are connected, and hidden 'emotional rules' are embedded in the teaching practicum. The pre-service teachers' negative emotions gradually escalated due to contextual constraints, hierarchical structures, and lack of support from their mentors. This escalation diminished the development of their teacher identity. However, increasing recognition and progress by their students can stimulate pre-service teachers to perceive their assumed roles and reconstruct professional identity. Within the context of exploring this interconnection between teacher emotions and teacher identity, the present study argues that narrative interaction can complement existing knowledge on the subject.
Article
This study provides strong evidence that certain dramatic style behaviors systematically covary with whether one is perceived as an effective teacher. Almost 500 students evaluated target teachers, representing 97 separate classes, on two independently administered instruments. The first instrument measured dramatic style behaviors that had been generated from earlier work. The second instrument measured teacher effectiveness. A special unit of analysis was created for this research—namely, the average perception of the teacher across students and across classes. The major conclusion is that effective teachers seem to be doing something qualitatively different in terms of dramatic style behaviors than poor teachers.
Book
A much-cited and highly influential text by Alastair Pennycook, one of the world authorities in sociolinguistics, The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language explores the globalization of English by examining its colonial origins, its connections to linguistics and applied linguistics, and its relationships to the global spread of teaching practices. Nine chapters cover a wide range of key topics including: international politics colonial history critical pedagogy postcolonial literature. The book provides a critical understanding of the concept of the ‘worldliness of English’, or the idea that English can never be removed from the social, cultural, economic or political contexts in which it is used. Reissued with a substantial preface, this Routledge Linguistics Classic remains a landmark text, which led a much-needed critical and ideologically-informed investigation into the burgeoning topic of World Englishes. Key reading for all those working in the areas of Applied Linguistics, Sociolinguistics and World Englishes.
Article
Effective learners are cognizant of their own basic needs and abilities so as to maximize their capabilities, dispositions, as well as potentialities up to become self-actualized individuals. To delve into the process of university students' self-actualization, we strived to amalgamate this construct with two motivational-associated factors, i.e., mastery goal and intrinsic motivation. To do so, a three-phase mixed-methods study was designed. In the first phase, the reliability and validity of the ‘Measurement of Actualization of Potential (MAP)’ (measuring five sub-scales, namely, openness to self, openness to others, openness to life, adaptability, and autonomy) were determined in the present study via a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In the second phase, our proposed model containing the three constructs was examined using a structural equation modeling (SEM). Eventually, to procure a deeper perception of self-fulfillment valence in actual behaviors, feelings, and assertions of the participants, a semi-structured interview was conducted on seven randomly selected participants from a general sample population of 253 Iranian university students in its first and second phases. The results demonstrated that the proposed model had a good fit with the empirical data. The contribution of mastery goal and intrinsic motivation was demonstrated in the model. It was also found that among the sub-scales of self-fulfillment, ‘openness to self’ had the highest association with intrinsic motivation followed by ‘openness to life.’ Mastery goal had the highest correlation with ‘openness to life’ followed by ‘autonomy.’ The analysis of interview protocol revealed that self-rating percentages of the delineated lists were all in congruence with the number of selected activities and traits the respondents preferred.
Article
This paper reports the first investigation in the second language acquisition field assessing learners’ implicit attitudes using the Implicit Association Test, a computerized reaction-time measure. Examination of the explicit and implicit attitudes of Arab learners of English (N = 365) showed that, particularly for males, implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers are associated with self-reported openness to the L2 group and with strength of correlations among attitudinal and motivational variables. Implicit attitudes also moderated important paths in the L2 Motivational Self System. The paper concludes that implicit attitudes seem to be a meaningful individual difference variable, adding a new dimension to our understanding of language motivation.
Chapter
E-portfolios are becoming an increasingly common component of higher education programmes, serving as constructivist learning spaces where students can reflect on their learning journeys, as centralised collections of work on which students can be assessed, and as integrated showcases where students can demonstrate their accomplishments to potential employers. At the same time, many working professionals are currently being required or encouraged to build e-portfolios which demonstrate continuing learning for the purposes of maintaining employment, seeking promotion, and applying for new positions. Pre-service teacher education courses are among the higher education programmes where participants are now commonly asked to build e-portfolios which they will be able to continue to expand and develop once they have obtained employment as teachers. This chapter is based on the reflections of two teacher educators in a pre-service teacher education programme in Australia, looking back on the first five years of an e-portfolio initiative, covering the period 2011–2015. They reflect on key lessons learned about engaging students, engaging staff, and integrating technology. They outline changes which have occurred in the e-portfolio space over the past half-decade, due both to the changing nature of technology users and the changing nature of technology itself. It is suggested that e-portfolios may have a role to play in supporting a shift away from today’s administratively oriented, pedagogically limited learning management systems (LMSs), and towards personal learning environments (PLEs) where students can engage in more individualised, autonomous learning practices.
Article
The purpose of this study is to integrate three related theoretical frameworks classroom social climate, self-determination theory (SDT), and L2 willingness to communicate (WTC) and investigate connections between key individual and situational factors for motivation and L2 achievement in a formal secondary school setting in Korea (N = 381). We propose a model of the impact of the classroom social climate on secondary school 12 learners' self-determined motivation and WTC, before extending our analysis to the effect of these individual and contextual factors on L2 achievement. Structural equation modeling showed that self-determined motivation was predicted by satisfaction of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), which are in turn predicted by positive classroom social climate. WTC was predicted strongly by satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and weakly by perceived competence and identified regulation, but not by intrinsic motivation. L2 achievement was initially predicted significantly by identified regulation and perceived competence, but after controlling for prior achievement only perceived competence remained a significant, but weak ((beta = 0.07), predictor. These findings support the notion that context is an empirically relevant frame of reference for the study of individual factors, and highlight the impact a classroom environment exerts on important L2 learning outcomes. However, our findings also underscore the work remaining in the 12 learning field to uncover robust predictors of L2 achievement. We hope this study will stimulate further research into the situated and interrelated nature of motivation, WTC, and achievement that will both consolidate and refine current theoretical and empirical insights.
Article
The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) is similar to other fields in that we must not take it for granted that novice teachers will survive their first year without some kind of support. This paper outlines how three novice ESL teachers in Canada survived their first year without any support from the school they were placed. Specifically, the paper outlines how they, with the aid of a facilitator, engaged in reflective practice by using a framework for reflecting on practice to help them navigate complex issues and challenges they faced during their first year of teaching. Had they not engaged in such structured reflection during their first year, they would have probably become another statistic of those who quit the profession and contribute to the growing perception that TESOL is a profession that eats its young. The paper suggests that language teacher educators and novice teachers should not just wait until their first year to learn the skills of reflective practice but should do so much earlier in their teacher education programs so that they can be better prepared for the transition from their teacher education programs to the first year of teaching.