Laser scanning 3D imaging technology, because it can get accurate three-dimensional surface data, has been widely used in the search for wrecks and rescue operations, underwater resource development, and other fields. At present, the conventional underwater rotating laser scanning imaging system maintains a relatively fixed light window. However, in low-light situations underwater, the rotation ... [Show full abstract] of the scanning device causes some degree of water fluctuation, which warps the light strip data that the system sensor receives about the object's surface. To solve the problem, this research studies an underwater 3D scanning and imaging system that makes use of a fixed-light window and a spinning laser (FWLS). A refraction error compensation algorithm is investigated that is based on the fundamentals of linear laser scanning imaging and the dynamic refraction mathematical model is established by the motion of the imaging device. During the imaging process, the incident angle between the laser and the light window varies due to the scanning mode of the system. The experimental results show that the reconstruction radius error is reduced by 60% (from 2.5 mm to about 1 mm) when the measurement data for a standard sphere with a radius of 20 mm are compensated. Moreover, the compensated point cloud data exhibits a higher degree of correspondence with the model of the standard spherical point cloud. This study has a specific reference value for the refractive error analysis of an underwater laser scanning imaging system, and it provides certain research ideas for the subsequent refractive error analysis of various scanning imaging modalities.