Reflexion als zentrales Element von Service Learning. Eine theoretische Bestimmung.

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Als zentrales Lernelement beim Service Learning gilt, dass Studierende über die Erfahrungen, die sie während ihrer praktischen Tätigkeit beim Service machen, nachdenken. Dieser Reflexionsprozess, den wir als bewusste, gerichtete Erwägung vergangener Erfahrungen im Hinblick auf festgelegte Ziele definieren, ist unzureichend expliziert und empirisch wenig untersucht. Wir nehmen an, dass überraschende negative oder positive Erlebnisse, die als bedeutsam erscheinen, Reflexionen auslösen. Studierende können darauf abhängig von Ursachenattributionen mit einer von drei Kategorien reagieren: Verleugnung, Assimilation und Adaptation. Wir fragen, welche kognitiven Operationen aktiviert werden müssen, damit die jeweils beim Service Learning verfolgten Ziele (Theorie-Praxis-Verständnis, Persönlichkeitsentwicklung und gesellschaftliche Einstellungen) erreicht werden können. Das Modell dient unter anderem dazu, Leitfragen zu generieren, um angestrebte Reflexionsprozesse zu unterstützen.

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Eine Vielzahl an Forschungsarbeiten hat sich mit Einflüssen von Stereotypen und Vorurteilen auseinandergesetzt und auch im schulischen Kontext gezeigt, dass diese Voreingenommenheit Einfluss auf die Beurteilung von und den Umgang mit Schüler*innen nehmen können. Befunde über solche Beeinflussungen finden sich konsistent für verschiedenste Schüler*innenmerkmale, wie beispielsweise den Migrationshintergrund oder das Geschlecht von Schüler*innen. Dadurch können Disparitäten verstärkt werden. Weniger Forschung gibt es bisher jedoch dazu, welche Konsequenzen aus dem Wissen, dass Stereotype zu Bildungsbenachteiligungen beitragen, gezogen werden. Eine mögliche Konsequenz sind Interventionen für (angehende) Lehrkräfte, um sie für den Einfluss von Stereotypen und Vorurteilen in ihren Urteilen und ihren Handlungen zu sensibilisieren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine Kurzintervention (AHA-Intervention) zur Anregung von Reflexionsprozessen und Bewusstmachung eigener Voreingenommenheit mit Blick auf ihre Wirksamkeit getestet.
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Service-learning is an experience-based approach to education and learning that has a set of diverse learning outcomes. Because of the uniqueness of its pedagogical approach and breadth of potential learning outcomes, management and business scholars have recognized its value. Much theory and supporting research has been generated on the effect of service-learning on college and university students. Through meta-analytic techniques, we found support for the hypotheses that service-learning has a positive effect on understanding of social issues (Est. � � .34); personal insight (Est. � � .28); and cognitive development (Est. � � .52). We also found significant moderating evidence for research design, type of reflection, type of measurement, and the service experience as optional or required. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings along with suggestions for future research.
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Service learning places teaching and learning in a social context, facilitating socially responsive knowledge. The purposes of this meta-analysis were to summarize evidence on (a) extent and types of change in participants in service learning programs, (b) specific program elements (moderators) that affect the amount of change in participants, and (c) generalizability of results across educational levels and curricular versus noncurricular service. We included 103 samples and found positive changes for all types of outcomes. Changes were moderate for academic outcomes, small for personal outcomes and citizenship outcomes, and in between for social outcomes. Programs with structured reflection showed larger changes and effects generalized across educational levels. We call for psychologists to increase their use of service learning, and we discuss resources for doing so.
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Proposes a theory of motivation and emotion in which causal ascriptions play a key role. Evidence is presented indicating that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions, and it is suggested that the perceived causes of success and failure share the 3 common properties of locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal structures. The perceived stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success; all 3 dimensions of causality affect a variety of common emotional experiences, including anger, gratitude, guilt, hopelessness, pity, pride, and shame. Expectancy and affect, in turn, are presumed to guide motivated behavior. The theory therefore relates the structure of thinking to the dynamics of feeling and action. Analysis of a created motivational episode involving achievement strivings is offered, and numerous empirical observations are examined from this theoretical position. The strength of the empirical evidence and the capability of this theory to address prevalent human emotions are stressed, and examples of research on parole decisions, smoking cessation, and helping behavior are presented to illustrate the generalizability of the theory beyond the achievement-related theoretical focus. (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
We argue service-learning pedagogy and the associated educational experiences provide a partial solution to the significant problem of narrowness in business education. Service-learning pedagogy seeks to balance academic rigor with practical relevance, set in a context of civic engagement, which furnishes students with a broader and, we argue, richer, educational experience. We present four specific critiques of business education: (1) the business curriculum focuses on functional and discrete rather than cross-functional and holistic knowledge; (2) coursework emphasizes practical problem-solving "tool kits" rather than deep theoretical knowledge; (3) the underlying paradigm of business education views humanity and human interactions in purely transactional terms; (4) the grounding morality of business education asserts the supremacy of shareholder wealth. Based on our collective experience with service-learning, we believe that the pedagogy presents a needed counterpoint to the narrow focus of business education. The four Rs of service-learning: Reality, Reflection, Reciprocity, and Responsibility each yield a broader educational and experience base for students.
An interpretation of the concept of the practical for the field for curriculum must pay critical attention to the philosophies of knowledge in which the interpretation is grounded. The main traditions of social science (broadly conceived as the empirical-analytic, the hermeneuticphenomenological, and the critical-dialectical) each have associated with them quite distinct ways of knowing and distinct modes of being practical. This paper seeks to demonstrate that it is only through such critical reflection that the questions of greatest significance to the field can be adequately addressed.
In this paper, the author proposes that a social reconstructionist framework of reflective practice provides an important orientation for preservice teachers to more successfully negotiate the rapidly changing contexts in which they will no doubt teach. She first illuminates the influence others have had on her understanding of reflection, arguably a somewhat elusive concept. Next, she briefly describes a group of preservice teachers engaged in a reflective study group and presents the framework she developed as result of her role as participant observer/facilitator of this group. The framework is primarily intended to be used as a tool for teacher educators to define and identify patterns of reflection in preservice teachers' oral and written discussions. In an effort to illuminate the social reconstructionist orientation of the framework and to situate it more specifically in the context of teacher preparation, the author utilizes examples of dialogue that took place in the study group. The preservice teachers' voices become a definition of sorts and provide models of reflective practice. This framework can help teacher educators consider how they might scaffold reflective development within a teacher education program and provide a structural tool for modeling and assessment. In the concluding remarks, she delineates how this reflective framework more broadly contributes to teacher education. (Contains 1 table.)
The present article is concerned with first considerations and data for a theory of social cognitions. A taxonomy of social cognitions is suggested comprising three classes: causal, evaluative and finalistic thinking. These classes are subdivided according to the social perspective taken, i.e. self-directed versus other-directed thinking. The situational preconditions of these social cognition classes are studied in different social episodes each comprising either positive or negative, expected or unexpected events. The results show that the most reasoning about a situation occurs when it is an important private episode with an unexpected and affectively negatively experienced event. The data concerning the natural occurrence of the three cognition classes is interpreted as providing suggestions of their functional meaning: The functions of the three classes of social cognitions are labelled ‘information integration’ (self-directed evaluative thinking), ‘action planning’ (self-directed finalistic thinking and other-directed causal thinking), ‘control of negative feelings’ (self-directed causal, and finalistic thinking) and ‘understanding’ (other-directed finalistic and evaluative thinking and self-directed causal thinking).
The pressure towards more school-based teacher education pro-grams, visible in many countries, creates a need to rethink the re-lationship between theory and practice. The traditional application-of-theory model appears to be rather ineffective and is currently being replaced by other, more reflective approaches. However, until now the variety of different notions and assumptions un-derlying these new approaches have not provided a sound basis for further development. Two related theoretical bases are presented for a new paradigm in teacher education. Thefirst uses the concepts of episteme and phronesis to introduce a new way of framing rele-vant knowledge. The second is a more holistic way of describing the relationship between teacher cognition and teacher behavior, lead-ing to a model of three levels in learning about teaching, the Gestalt level, the schema level and the theory level, which are illustrated by interview data. Building on these two theoretical;frameworks, a so-called "'realistic approach" to teacher education is introduced. The teacher educator's role within this approach is analyzed as well as organizational consequences. First evaluative results are presented.
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