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Nutritional, biochemical and organoleptic properties of high protein-fibre functional foods developed from plantain, defatted soybean, rice-bran and oat-bran flour

Authors:

Abstract

Purpose: This study was aimed to develop and evaluate nutritional efficacy and bio-efficacy of food products from plantain, soycake, rice-bran and oat-bran flour. Design/methodology/approach: The flour samples were blended as follows: plantain 70% and soycake 30% (PS); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and rice bran 5% (PSR); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and oat bran 5% (PSO); and plantain 60%, soycake 30%, rice bran 5% and oat bran 5% (PSRO). Antioxidant and nutritional properties of the blended foods and controls (100% plantain and Cerolina) were determined. Findings: Protein (16.2–19.4 g/100g) and biological values (98.5–99.3%) of the food samples were significantly (p = 0.03) higher than 100% plantain (5 g/100g, 31.6%) and Cerolina (17.9 g/100g, 98.3%). Pack cell volume (36.2–42%), serum protein (7.3–9.3 mg/dL), urea/creatinine (1.1–2.8) and aspartate-aminotransferase/alanine-aminotransferase ratio (0.9–1) of the foods were significantly (p = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively) higher than 100% plantain (28%, 1.6 mg/dL, 4.6 and 0.8) and Cerolina (46%, 4.9 mg/dL, 3 and 0.73). In vivo antioxidant activity of the food samples decreased from PSRO to PSO, PSR and PS, respectively and were higher than control samples. Nutritional performance of formulated foods in rats was similar to that of Cerolina, but higher than in 100% plantain. Cerolina and 100% plantain were rated higher in overall acceptability than formulated foods; however, PSO was most preferred followed by PSRO for the formulated foods. Originality/value: The study established that PSRO was rated best in terms of nutrition, growth performance and antioxidant activities. Hence, this food may be suitable as functional food to prevent malnutrition and oxidative stress.
Nutritional, biochemical and
organoleptic properties of high
protein-bre functional foods
developed from plantain,
defatted soybean, rice-bran
and oat-bran our
Timilehin David Oluwajuyitan,Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi and
Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi
Department of Food Science and Technology,
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Abstract
Purpose This study was aimed to develop and evaluate nutritional efcacy and bio-efcacy of food
products from plantain, soycake, rice-bran and oat-bran our.
Design/methodology/approach The our samples were blended as follows: plantain 70% and
soycake 30% (PS); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and rice bran 5% (PSR); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and
oat bran 5% (PSO); and plantain 60%, soycake 30%, rice bran 5% and oat bran 5% (PSRO). Antioxidant
and nutritional properties of the blended foods and controls (100% plantain and Cerolina)were
determined.
Findings Protein (16.219.4 g/100g) and biological values (98.599.3%) of the food samples were
signicantly (p= 0.03) higher than 100% plantain (5 g/100g, 31.6%) and Cerolina (17.9 g/100g, 98.3%). Pack
cell volume (36.242%), serum protein (7.39.3 mg/dL), urea/creatinine (1.12.8) and aspartate-
aminotransferase/alanine-aminotransferase ratio (0.91) of the foods were signicantly (p= 0.03, 0.01, 0.02
and <0.01, respectively) higher than 100% plantain (28%, 1.6 mg/dL, 4.6 and 0.8) and Cerolina (46%, 4.9 mg/
dL, 3 and 0.73). In vivo antioxidant activity of the food samples decreased from PSRO to PSO, PSR and PS,
respectively and were higher than control samples. Nutritional performance of formulated foods in rats was
similar to that of Cerolina, but higher than in 100% plantain. Cerolina and 100% plantain were rated higher in
overall acceptability than formulated foods; however, PSO was most preferred followed by PSRO for the
formulated foods.
Originality/value The study established that PSRO was rated best in terms of nutrition, growth
performance and antioxidant activities. Hence, this food may be suitable as functional food to prevent
malnutrition and oxidative stress.
Keywords Plantain-based dough, Protein quality, Antioxidant activities, Oxidative stress,
Food acceptability
Paper type Research paper
The authors wish to acknowledge Richardson Milling Limited, Portage La Prairie, Manitoba,
Canada, for the donation of oat-bran our sample for the research and also, Tertiary Education
Trust Fund (TETFUND) of the Federal Government of Nigeria for the research grant (VCPU/
TETFund/155C).
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
Received 15 June2020
Revised 15 July2020
4August2020
11 August 2020
18 August 2020
Accepted 18 August2020
Nutrition & Food Science
© Emerald Publishing Limited
0034-6659
DOI 10.1108/NFS-06-2020-0225
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
https://www.emerald.com/insight/0034-6659.htm
Introduction
Adequate nutrition is one of the prerequisite for normal growth in children and healthy
living at adulthood. A diet is adequate when it is capable to provide energy and all
essential nutrients such as protein, micronutrients and bre in the required amounts.
Recently, epidemiological studies reported that healthy diets are required to prevent
chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes and hypertension in adults (Wild et al.,
2004). The recent high prevalence of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes in many
parts of developing countries has been attributed to many factors such as dietary
modication from plant-based to diets high in energy density (Popkin et al., 2012;
Olatona et al., 2018).
Type-2 diabetes is a disease that is characterized with inability of the body to
metabolized blood glucose because of inefcient in or low insulin production. To manage
type-2 diabetes, regular use of synthetic medications and dietary modication has been
adopted (Goldstein, 2007). However, the use of synthetic drugs has recently been implicated
with several side effects (Goldstein, 2007). This has necessitated efforts in the formulation of
anti-diabetic diets from locally available food materials such as plantain, soycake and rice
bran to manage type-2 diabetes and other chronic diseases (Odom et al.,2013;Oluwajuyitan
and Ijarotimi, 2019).
Plantain is widely grown in the southern parts of Nigeria and other African
countries. In many parts of African countries, plantain is consumed as a cheap source of
energy (Eleazu and Okafor, 2015). Plantain, particularly unripe, is a good source of
energy, dietary bre, irons, potassium and vitamins (Randy et al., 2007;Tribess et al.,
2009). Apart from being a good source of calories and other nutrients, plantain is
considered nutritionally poor, because it is decient in fat and protein (Ilelaboye, 2019).
Therefore, supplementation of plantain our with inexpensive staples, such as
legumes, cereals and pulses, helps to improve the nutritional quality of plantain
products (Famakin et al., 2016). In Nigeria, plantain our is added to cereals to produce
bread (Ju
arez-García et al., 2006) and spaghetti (Mastromatteo et al., 2014) or is prepared
in the form of dough meal for diabetic patients (Famakin et al., 2016). Soycake is a by-
product of soybean after oil extraction, and is high in protein content. In Nigeria,
soycake is used in various food products such as soy-ogi, soy-daddawa and soy-
plantain (Coulibaly et al., 2012;Oluwajuyitan and Ijarotimi, 2019). Rice bran is a by-
productofrice(Oryza sativa L.) kernel obtained during rice milling (Mendel, 2013). Rice
brans contains many health promoting bioactive compounds and have been used in
food products such as noodles, bread and plantain-based dough meals (Odebode et al.,
2017; Famakin et al., 2016;Oluwajuyitan and Ijarotimi, 2019). Oat bran is a by-product
of oat (Avena sativa) and it is a good source of antioxidants and
b
-glucan (Bhatty,
1993).
b
-glucan is a soluble bre with ability to delay gastric emptying, nutrient
absorption and reduce blood glucose level (Welch, 1995).
Recently, efforts have been geared towards production of functional foods from local
food materials (Odom et al., 2013;Famakin et al., 2016;Oluwajuyitan and Ijarotimi,
2019). Despite all these, there is scanty information on the combination of plantain, oat
bran, rice bran and soycake our in food formulation. Hence, this study aimed to
produce and evaluate nutritional quality, antioxidant and sensory attributes of dough
meals from plantain, oat bran, rice bran and soycake; while specic objectives of the
study were to determine nutrient composition, phytochemicals, nutritional quality (i.e.
in vivo protein quality, biochemical activities and antioxidants) and acceptability of the
formulated food samples.
NFS
Materials and methods
Sources of food sample
Unripe mature plantain (Musa ABB), defatted soycake (Glycine max), rice bran
(Oryza sativa)andoatbran(Avena sativa) were obtained from Teaching and
Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA), Nigeria; Rom mill
factory, Ibadan, Nigeria; Igbimo rice processing company, Aisegba-Ekiti, Nigeria;
and Richardson Milling Limited, Portage La Prairie, Manitoba, Canada, respectively.
All food samples were authenticated at Crop, Soil and Pest Management Department,
FUTA, Nigeria.
Processing of our samples and food formulation
Plantain our: The plantain our was processed using the method described by Mepba
et al. (2007) with slight modication. The plantains were manually peeled and sliced
into 2 cm thick pieces, blanched in sodium hydrogen sulphate (1.25% NaHS0
3
)solution
at 100°C for 10 min and drained to prevent browning. The blanched plantains were
dried in hot-air oven (Plus11 Sanyo Gallenkamp PLC, Loughborough, Leicestershire,
UK) at 60°C for 24 h, milled (Laboratory blender, Model KM 901D, Kenwood Electronic,
Hertfordshire, UK) and sieved through 200 mm mesh sieve (British Standard) to obtain
plantain our.
Soycake our. The soycake our was further processed as described by Ijarotimi and
Owoeye (2017). The soycake was oven dried at 60°C for 6 h (Hot-air oven, Plus11 Sanyo
Gallenkamp PLC, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK), milled (Laboratory blender, Model
KM 901 D, Kenwood Electronic, Hertfordshire, UK) and sieved through 200 mm wire-mesh
(British Standard) to obtain soycake our sample.
Rice-bran our: Fresh rice bran was washed with distilled water, drained and oven dried
at 60°C for 10 h (Hot-air oven, Plus 11 Sanyo Gallenkamp PLC, Loughborough,
Leicestershire, UK), milled (Laboratory blender, Model KM 901 D, Kenwood Electronic,
Hertfordshire, UK) and sieved through 200 mm wire-mesh (British Standard) to obtain rice
bran our.
Oat-bran our: The oat bran was oven dried at 60°C for 2 h (Hot-air oven, Plus11 Sanyo
Gallenkamp PLC, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK), milled (Laboratory blender, Model
KM 901 D, Kenwood Electronic, Hertfordshire, UK) and sieved through 200 mm wire-mesh
(British Standard) to obtain oat bran our sample. The our sample was stored in a plastic
container at room temperature (approximately 27°C).
Formulation of our samples
The plantain, soycake, rice bran and oat bran our samples were blended using mixture
response surface methodology, Design-ExpertV
Rversion 10.0.0 (Stat-Ease, Inc., USA) with
reference to protein (14 g) and bre (5g). After blending, 16 runs were generated from which
4 blends were selected for further study based on the outcome of preliminary sensory
evaluation and ability of the samples to provide 25% of daily requirement of protein
(14 g/day) and bre (5 g/day) for adults. The selected runs were as follows: plantain 70% and
soycake 30% (PS); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and rice bran 5% (PSR); plantain 65%,
soycake 30% and oat bran 5% (PSO); and plantain 60%, soycake30%, rice bran 5% and oat
bran 5% (PSRO). Cerolina (wheat and soybean blend, a commercial dough meal our
sample produced by More Foods Lagos, Nigeria) and 100% plantain were used as control
samples.
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
Nutrient composition analysis
Proximate composition determination: Moisture content, total ash, crude bre, crude fat and
crude protein content of the blended our samples and control samples (100% plantain and
Cerolina) were determined using the standard methods of Association of Ofcial Analytical
Chemist (AOAC), 2012. Carbohydrate (CHO) content wasobtained by difference as follows:
CHO %
ðÞ
¼100 %Moisture þ%Crude fat þ%Total ash þCrude fibre þCrude protein
ðÞ
Mineral compositions determination: Calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc were
determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS Model SP9). Sodium and
potassium were determined using ame emission photometer (Sherwood Flame Photometer
410, Sherwood Scientic Ltd. Cambridge, UK) with NaCl and KCl as the standards
(Association of Ofcial Analytical Chemist [AOAC], 2012). Phosphorus was determined
using Vanado-molybdate method.
Calculation of mineral molar ratios (bioavailability index): The Na/K, Ca/P, Ca/Mg,
[K/Ca þMg], Phytate:Zn, Ca:Phytate and [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios were calculated as
described by Ferguson et al. (1988), and results were expressed as millimolar ratios.
Phytochemical composition determination
The phytochemical compositions of the experimental samples were determined as described
by standard methods as follows: total phenol concentration (George et al., 2005), total
avonoids (Boham and Kocipai-Abyazan, 1994), tannin concentration (Jaffe, 2003), phytate
(Association of Ofcial Analytical Chemist [AOAC], 2012), oxalate (Munro, 2000), trypsin
inhibition activity (Grifths, 2000) and saponin (Obadoni and Ochuko, 2001).
Nutritional quality evaluation
Statement of animal rights: The Ethical Committee for Laboratory Animals of School of
Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Akure, Nigeria (FUTA/SAAT/2018/021)
approved the study protocol. The experiments on animals were conducted in accordance
with the force laws and regulations as regards animal use and care as contained in the
Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and Protocol Review (CCAC, 1993).
Nutritional status of the rats: The anthropometric measurements, i.e. weight and length,
of the rats were measured at 3 days interval for 28 days. Weight-for-length (wasting), length-
for-age (stunting), weight-for-age (underweight) and body mass index (under-nutrition) (BMI
[g/cm
2
] = wt.g/length cm
2
) of Albino Wistar rats fed on experimental food and control
samples for 28 days were measured.
Protein quality evaluation
Experimental animals: A total of 35 Wistar Albino rats (male and female) of body weights
between 120150 g were divided into 7 groups (5 rats/group), and the rats were housed
individually in metabolic cages in a climate-controlled environment with free access to feed and
water for 7 days acclimatization. After 7 days of acclimatization, the rats in each of the groups
were fed on formulated diets, control and basal diet with water ad libitum for 28 days. The food
samples were administered to the rats in pelleted form. Records were kept on the food intakes,
weight and length gained by the rats. Faeces and urine voided for the past seven days of the
experimental periods were collected. The faeces were oven dried at 60°C, while urine was
preserved in 10 mL of 10% sulphuric acid to eliminate microbial activities and to prevent
nitrogen losses by evaporation of ammonia, and the samples were stored in a deep freezer
NFS
(20°C) prior to nitrogen determination. The feed efciency, protein efciency ratio, biological
value (BV) and feed conversion ratio were calculated (Agbede and Aletor, 2003).
Haematological and biochemical indices determination
Collection of blood sample: At the end of 28-day experimental period, the Albino rats
were fasted overnight with access to water ad libitum and sacriced under chloroform
anaesthesia. The blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture with syringe
and poured into heparinised and non-heparinised tubes. The non-heparinised tubes
were allowed to clot and were centrifuged at 3,000 xg for 25 min to obtain the sera, and
the blood samples were stored in a deep freezer prior to haematological and biochemical
analyses at the Medical Laboratory Unit of University Health Centre, Federal
University of Technology, Akure (Agbede and Aletor, 2003;Shittu et al., 2013). The
ratsorgans, that is, liver, kidney and heart were excised, freed of fat, blotted with clean
tissue paper and then weighed.
Haematological and biochemical indices determination: The haematological indices, that
is, pack cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hbc), white
blood cells (WBC), neutrophil (NEU) and lymphocytes (LYM) were determined using
methods described by Dacie and Lewis (2002). Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean
corpuscular haemoglobin concentrated (MCHC) and means corpuscular volume (MCV) were
calculated (Dacie and Lewis, 2002). The biochemical parameters, that is, total blood protein,
albumin, globulin, creatinine and urea were analysed using standard methods (Jasper et al.,
2012). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline
phosphate (ALP), urea and creatinine were determined using the procedure described by
Lab test Diagnostica S.A. (Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil).
In vivo antioxidant activities determination:Thein vivo antioxidants parameters were
determined as described by the following methods, i.e. malondialdehyde (MDA) by Ohkawa et al.
(1979), glutathione (GSH) by Ellman (1959), superoxide dismutase (SOD) by Mistra and Fridovich
(1972) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activity by Mannervik and Gutenberg (1981).
Sensory evaluation of food samples
Sensory analyses were conducted in a sensory laboratory with adequate lighting and no
odour environment. Panellists were selected based on their familiarity with control samples,
recognition and perception of common odour. The our samples were prepared in the form
of dough meal (dough) by stirring our in boiling water 1:4 (w/v) at 100°C for 30min. The
reconstituted formulated food samples and the controls were coded and presented to 30
untrained panellists. The panel members were assigned individually to well illuminate
laboratory booths, and the prepared dough meals were served at 40°C coded with random
three-digit numbers. Water at room temperature was provided for mouth rinsing in between
successive evaluation. Sample attributes (colour, texture, taste, aroma, mouldability, etc.)
were rated on a nine-point scoring scale, where 1 = dislike extremely and 9 = like extremely,
in line with the test procedures reported by Olapade (2014).
Statistical analysis
Data were analysed using Statistical Analysis Programme for Social Sciences. Results were
expressed as mean 6standard deviation (SD). The signicant differences between means
were determined using Duncan with level of signicant at p#0.05. Graphs were plotted
using GraphPad Prism version 8.0.
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
Results and discussion
Chemical composition and energy value of formulated food samples
Macronutrient composition: The macronutrient composition and energy value of formulated
foods and control samples are presented in Table 1. The moisture content, bre, protein and
energy values ranged as follows: 4.35.4 g/100g, 2.15.4 g/100g, 16.219.4 g/100g and
374386 kcal/100g, respectively. The moisture content of the food samples was comparable to
that of 100% plantain (4.2 g/100g), Cerolina (5.3 g/100g) and recommended value (<10 g/100 g)
for our samples (NIS, 2004). This nding indicates that the water activity in the formulated food
samples was low, and this could inhibit the growth of microorganisms that are responsible for the
food spoilage. Hence, prolonging the shelf life of the formulated food products. This nding
agreed with previous studies, which reported that food products with low moisture content have
long shelf life (de Morais et al.,2018). The protein contents of the formulated food samples were
signicantly (p= 0.03) higher than 100% plantain our (5 g/100g), but comparable to that of
Cerolina (17.9 g/100g). This result agreed with similar studies (Famakin et al.,2016;Odebode et al.,
2017;Oluwajuyitan and Ijarotimi, 2019), which reported that the protein content of plantain-based
dough meals was increased on the inclusion of soycake our. Evidences have shown that
combination of two or more food materials such as cereals and legumes usually increased
nutritional properties of the nal food products (Tsehayneh et al.,2020). Nutritionally, it is evident
that regular intakes of food products that are high in plant bioactive compounds, such as in the
present study food formulations, usually prevent diseases such as obesity, diabetes and
hypertension (Bensalah et al.,2019;Ardiansyah et al.,2019;Tan et al.,2019).
The crude bres in the formulated food samples ranged from 2.1 to 5.4 g/100 g, and were
signicantly (p<0.01) higher than that of 100% plantain (1.2 g/100g), but similar to that of
Cerolina (3.3 g/100 g) and recommended values (<5.0 g/100g) (NIS, 2004). Recent studies
have linked regular intakes of food containing high bre with blood glucose and lipid
regulation (Threapleton et al., 2013;Escobar et al., 2019); hence, leading to weight gain
reduction and lowering of blood pressure (Threapleton et al., 2013;Ardiansyah et al.,2019;
Escobar et al.,2019).
Mineral composition: The mineral composition of the formulated foods and control
samples are presented in Table 1. The result showed that phosphorus (16.421.6 mg/100 g)
was present in abundant, while copper had the lowest value (0.090.13 mg/100g), and the
values were higher than 100% plantain (6 and 0.08mg/100g, respectively) and Cerolina (15.1
and 0.06 mg/100 g, respectively). For the iron and zinc, the values ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 mg/
100 g and 0.22 to 1.2 mg/100 g, respectively, and they were also lower than Food and
Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization recommended values (16 mg/100 g,
3.2 mg/100 g) (WHO/WHO, 1991). This implies that the present studys food products are
not a good source for zinc and iron; hence, supplementation of these minerals may be
required for the consumers of the food products. Epidemiological studies have established
that iron and zinc elements are very essential, and that their low status in man may lead to
anaemia and low immunity (Abbaspour et al.,2014;Angelova et al., 2014).
The Na/K and Ca/P molar ratios of the food samples ranged from 0.31 to 0.45 and 0.11 to
0.16, respectively, and these values were lower than recommended levels i.e. <1and>1,
respectively (Jacob et al., 2015;Gemede, 2020). This implies that the food products in this study
may be suitable for hypertensive patients; however, the consumers of the food products may
require calcium supplement to avoid bones deformation such as osteoporosis and rickets.
Phytochemical composition of formulated food samples
The phytochemicals in the formulated food samples are presented in Table 1. The
concentration of phytochemicals ranged from 11.4 to 18.4 mg/g, 0.3 to 0.54 mg/g, 2 to
NFS
Samples Cerolina 100% plantain PSRO PSO PS PSR p-value *Ref.
Proximate composition (g/100g) and energy value (kcal./100g)
Moisture 5.3 60.02
b
4.2 60.02
f
5.4 60.02
a
5.2 60.01
c
4.3 60.01
e
4.5 60.02
d
<0.01 <10.00
Ash 1.6 60.38
e
1.9 60.01
f
3.8 60.02
b
360.02
d
3.3 60.01
c
4.1 60.02
a
0.01 <3.00
Fat 8.5 60.02
a
260.01
e
6.5 60.02
b
5.9 60.03
c
4.5 60.01
d
660.03
d
<0.01 1025
Fibre 3.4 60.03
c
1.2 60.01
f
4.6 60.05
b
2.9 60.02
d
2.1 60.02
e
5.4 60.02
a
<0.01 <5.00
Protein 17.9 60.03
c
5.0 60.05
e
19.4 60.02
a
19.1 60.12
b
16.2 60.02
d
16.2 60.03
d
0.03 >16.00
Carbohydrates 63.2 60.29
e
85.6 60.09
a
61.4 62.12
f
63.9 60.11
c
69.6 60.06
b
63.7 60.11
d
0.01 64.00
Energy 401 61.41
a
381 60.12
d
382 68.66
e
386 60.08
b
384 60.12
c
374 60.08
f
0.02 400425
Mineral composition (mg/100g)
Calcium 2.2 60.01
b
1.9 60
c
3.3 60.02
a
2.2 60
b
1.9 60.02
c
1.9 60.02
d
0.01 500
Magnesium 1.9 60.02
b
1.2 60
e
2.4 60.02
a
1.7 60.01
c
1.2 60.02
d
1.1 60.02
f
0.01 76
Phosphorous 15.1 60
e
6.1 60.02
f
19.9 62.02
b
21.6 60
a
18.6 63.03
c
16.4 60.3
d
0.03 456
Potassium 6.9 60
e
7.3 60.02
f
9.8 60.01
a
8.9 60.01
b
8.8 60.02
d
8.8 60.02
c
<0.01 516
Sodium 2.6 60
f
3.3 60
d
3.1 60.02
e
3.9 60
b
4.2 60.11
a
3.7 60.02
c
<0.01 296
Iron 1.4 60.02
f
1.5 60
e
1.6 60.03
d
1.9 60
b
1.8 60.02
c
2.3 60.02
a
0.01 16
Zinc 1.360.02
a
1.2 60
c
1.2 60.01
b
1.2 60.01
b
0.22 60.03
d
1.2 60.03
c
0.01 3.20
Copper 0.06 60.02
e
0.08 60.02
d
0.09 60.01
c
0.13 60.02
a
0.1 60
b
0.09 60.02
c
0.02 0.89
Manganese 0.12 60.01
f
0.16 60
e
0.23 60.02
b
0.22 60.02
c
0.2 60
d
0.27 60.02
a
<0.01 1.50
Na/K 0.37 60.02
d
0.45 60.02
a
0.31 60.00
e
0.43 60.01
b
0.45 60
a
0.41 60
c
<0.01 <1.00
Ca/P 0.14 60.01
c
0.33 60.02
a
0.16 60.01
b
0.1 60
d
0.11 60
d
0.12 60
d
<0.01 >1.00
Phytochemicals composition (mg/g)
Phenol 13.9 60.03
d
8.5 60.02
f
18.4 60.11
a
18.2 60.14
b
11.4 60.03
e
16.6 60.03
c
<0.01
Flavonoid 0.29 60.01
c
0.22 60.01
d
0.54 60.01
a
0.35 60.01
b
0.3 60.01
c
0.3 60.01
c
0.03
Tannin 2.1 60.01
d
0.62 60.01
f
3.1 60.01
a
3.2 60.01
b
1.9 60.01
e
2.2 60.01
c
0.03 3.0 mg/100g
Phytate 4.4 60.01
a
4.4 60.01
a
2.8 60.01
c
2.7 60.01
c
3.6 60.01
b
3.6 60.01
b
<0.01 56g/100g
Oxalate 0.63 60.01
b
0.72 60.01
a
0.54 60.01
c
0.54 60.01
c
0.72 60.01
a
0.63 60.01
b
<0.01 2.5g/100g
Trypsin 13 60.02
a
760.02
d
10.1 60.03
b
7.1 60.02
c
5.1 60.03
f
6.2 60.02
e
0.01 0.25g/100g
Phytate/mineral (Ca, Zn and Fe) millimolar ratio
*Phytate/Ca 12 60.2
b
14 60.6
a
560.1
e
860.3
d
11 60.8
c
11 60.9
c
<0.01 240
*Phytate/Zn 32 60.8
c
38 60.6
b
22 60
f
23 63.4
e
161 62.1
a
30 61.1
d
<0.01 15,000
*Phytate/Fe 27 60.2
a
25 60.1
b
15 60.4
d
13 60.7
e
17 60.
c
13 60.2
e
0.01 >1,000
*Phytate*Ca/Zn 2 60
b
260
b
260
b
160.0
c
860.2
a
160
c
0.01 >200,000
Note: Means (6SD) with different alphabetical superscripts in the same row are signicantly different at P<0.05. SD of 0represents a value of <0.01. Key: Plantain 70%, Soycake
30% (PS), Plantain 65%, Soycake 30%, Rice bran 5% (PSR), Plantain 65%, Soycake 30%, Oat bran 5% (PSO) and Plantain 60%, Soycake 30%, Rice bran 5%, Oat bran 5% (PSRO).
*Ref.: NIS (2004); phytate:calcium; phytate:zinc (Morris and Ellis, 1985); phytate:iron (Hurrell, 2003); and phytate:calcium/zinc (Hemalatha et al., 2007)
Table 1.
Chemical
composition and
energy value of
formulated food
samples from
plantain, soycake,
rice bran and oat
bran and controls
(100% plantain and
Cerolina)
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
3.1 mg/g and 2.8 to 3.6 mg/g for total phenol, avonoid, tannin and phytate, respectively.
While oxalate and trypsin inhibitor, their values varied from 0.54 to 0.72 mg/g and 6.2 to
10.1 mg/g, respectively. Comparatively, the phytochemicals in these food samples were
lower than critical levels, i.e. 3 mg/100g, 56 g/100g, 2.5 g/100g and 0.25 g/100g for tannin,
phytate, oxalate and trypsin, respectively (McLaughlin et al.,1983;Holmes and Kennedy,
2000;Al Hasan et al.,2016;Delimont et al.,2017). The phytochemicals in these food products
were low, and this could be attributed to the processing methods. This nding agreed with
previous studies, which reported that processing methods usually reduced antinutrient
concentrations in food products (Gilani et al., 2005;Ijarotimi and Keshinro, 2012;Temesgen,
2013). Although, it has been established that regular intake of phytochemicals at low
concentration have some health benets such as preventing oxidative stress, diabetes and
hypertension (Messina and Messina, 2010;Josipovi
cet al.,2016;Tan et al., 2019).
The interrelationship between phytate and minerals bioavailability is presented in
Table 1. The phytate/mineral millimolar ratios varied as follows: phytate/calcium (514),
phytate/zinc (22161), phytate/iron (1327) and phytate*calcium/zinc (18). These values
were lower than critical levels, i.e. phytate/Ca (240), phytate/Zn (15,000), phytate/Fe (>1,000)
and phytate*Ca/Zn (200,000) (Morris and Ellis, 1985; WHO, 1996; Hurrell, 2003;Hemalatha
et al.,2007). This implies that Ca, Fe and Zn in the food samples will be readily available for
absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (Walter et al.,2002), and thereby will prevent
deciency of these minerals. Nutritionally, zinc and calcium are essential elements in human
nutrition particularly in glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin production. Hence, these
elements play important roles in diabetes management (Mamza et al., 2016;Ramaswamy
et al.,2016).
Nutritional evaluation of formulated food samples
Inuence of experimental diets on anthropometric measurements of rats: The inuence of the
formulated food samples on the growth pattern of Wistar Albino rats is presented in
Figure 1(a)(d). The nutritional status of the animals with reference to weight-for-length
(wasting), length-for-age (stunting), weight-for-age (underweight) and BMI (under-nutrition)
showed that the rats fed on formulated food samples, particularly PSRO, had better growth
performance than those rats fed on 100% plantain, but were comparable to Cerolina. The
growth performance of rats in this study further indicates the nutritional quality and
suitability of the food products for the prevention of proteinenergy malnutrition in
developing countries. Previous studies have reported on the increase of proteinenergy
malnutrition in developing countries because of low nutritional qualities of traditional foods
(Ikujenlola and Adurotoye, 2014;Adepoju and Etukumoh, 2014). Hence, a low-cost food that
is high in protein and energy density, such as the present study food products, could be a
desirable substitute for expensive imported foods and low quality of local foods (Ijarotimi
and Keshinro, 2012).
Protein quality of experimental food samples: The protein quality indices and relative
organ weights of experimental rats fed on the food samples are presented in Table 2. The
BVs of the food samples varied from 98.5% to 99.3%, and were signicantly (p= 0.02)
higher than in 100% plantain (31.6%), but comparable to that of Cerolina (98.3%). The BVs
of these formulated food samples were comparatively higher than FAO/WHO (1989)
recommended value (70%) for an ideal food sample that may biologically support growth
and development of children and physiological maintenance in adults.
The relative organ weights, that is, kidney, liver and heart, varied as follows: 0.31
0.38%, 2.72.9% and 0.240.42%, respectively. These values were comparatively higher
than those rats fed on 100% plantain (0.15%, 0.93% and 0.15%), but comparable to Cerolina
NFS
(0.4%, 3.7% and 0.46%). This nding agreed with the reports of previous studies on
formulated diets from local food materials (Okpala and Okoli, 2011;Oluwajuyitan and
Ijarotimi, 2019).
Inuence of experimental diets on haematological and biochemical indices of rats
The haematological and biochemical properties of Albino Wistar rat fed on formulated food
samples are presented in Table 3. The results of PCV, RBC and Hbc were 3642%, 3.94.6
(x10
3
mm
3
) and 12.114 g/dL, respectively, and were signicantly (p= 0.03, 0.01) higher
than those rats fed on 100% plantain, but similar to Cerolina. The high concentration of
Figure 1.
Nutritional status of
Albino Wistar rats
fed on formulated
food samples from
plantain, soycake,
rice bran and oat bran
and controls (100%
plantain and
Cerolina) for 28 days
28 36 44 52 60 68
10
11
12
13
14
15
Age (Days)
Length (cm)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSO
PSR
PSRO
CEROLINA
Length-For-Age (Stunting)
28 36 44 52 60 68
20
40
60
80
100
Age (Days)
Weight (g)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
Weigth-For-Age (Under weight)
12.0 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.6
0
20
40
60
80
100
Length (cm)
Weight (g)
PS
PSRO
CEROLINA
100% PLANTAIN
PSR
PSO
Weight-For-Length (Wasting)
28 36 44 52 60 68
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
Age (Days)
Body Mass Index (g/cm
2
)
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
100% PLANTAIN
Body Mass Index (Under nutrition)
Notes: Plantain:soycake (70:30%) (PS); plantain:soycake:rice bran (65:30:5%) (PSR);
plantain:soycake:oat bran (65:30:5%) (PSO); and plantain:soycake:rice bran:oat bran
(60:30:5:5) (PSRO)
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
Parameters Cerolina 100% Plantain PSRO PSO PS PSR p-value
Weight gained (g) 41.5 62.01
a
8.7 60.03
f
29.2 63.01
c
37.1 62.11
b
25.7 62.01
d
24.2 63.03
e
<0.01
Food intake (g) 1344 63.2
b
472 67.1
f
1239 63.32
d
1289 64.5
c
1142 64.1
e
1403 65.2
a
0.04
FER 0.03 60
a
0.02 60
b
0.02 60
b
0.02 60
b
0.02 60
b
0.02 60
b
0.01
NR (%) 31.4 61.01
d
2.23 60.02
f
35 61.01
b
37.2 61.11
a
25.6 63.22
e
33.9 61.03
c
<0.01
BV (%) 98.3 63.6
c
31.6 61.11
d
98.7 62.31
b
99.3 62.02
a
98.5 62.91b
c
98.9 62.6
b
0.03
NPU (%) 81.1 63.98
e
16.9 60.91
f
90.2 62.01
c
92.9 60.78
a
85.2 63.02.
d
91.5 63.03
b
<0.01
TD (%) 21.2 63.32
d
45.5 60
f
30.19 63.76
b
33.3 64.45
a
16.5 60.31
e
29.6 60.55
c
0.02
PER 2.3 60.01
a
1.5 60
f
1.5 60.03
c
1.4 60
e
1.6 60.01
b
1.5 60.02
d
<0.01
Relative organs weight (%)
Kidney 0.4 60.02
a
0.15 60.01
e
0.38 60.01
b
0.35 60.00
c
0.31 60.00
d
0.36 60.02
c
<0.01
Liver 3.7 60.01
a
0.93 60.03
f
2.9 60.02
c
2.9 60.02
b
2.7 60.01
e
2.8 60.01
d
<0.01
Heart 0.46 60.01
a
0.15 60.01
e
0.42 60.01
b
0.37 60.01
c
0.34 60.00
d
0.38 60.00
c
0.01
Notes: Means (6SD) with different alphabetical superscripts in the same row are signicantly different at p<0.05; SD of 0represents a value of <0.01. Key:
plantain 70% and soycake 30% (PS); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and rice bran 5% (PSR); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and oat bran 5% (PSO); and plantain 60%,
soycake 30%, rice bran 5% and oat bran 5% (PSRO). FER: feed efciency ratio; NR: nitrogen retention; BV: biological value; NPU: net protein utilization; TD: true
digestibility; and PER: protein efciency ratio
Table 2.
Protein quality
indices and weight of
the organs of rats fed
on formulated food
samples from
plantain, soycake,
rice bran and oat
bran and controls
(100% plantain and
Cerolina)
NFS
Parameters Cerolina 100% plantain PSRO PSO PS PSR p-value *NR
PVC% 46 62.1
a
28 62.6f 42 60.3
b
41 63.4
c
36 62.3
e
38 61.6
d
0.03 37.650.6
Hbc (g/dl) 15.3 60.8
a
9.3 60.8f 14 62.7
b
13.7 61.3
c
12.1 61.1
e
12.7 60.8
d
0.01 11.516.1
WBC (x10
3
mm
3
) 4.8 60.1
d
7.8 60.7
a
5.2 60.3
d
5.8 60.7
c
4.4 60.3f 6.7 60.3
b
<0.01 6.612.6
RBC (x10
3
mm
3
)560
a
3.1 60.1f 4.6 60.4
b
4.5 60.4
c
3.9 60.1
e
4.2 60
d
0.03 6.769.75
MCHC (g/dL) 33.2 62.2
d
33.2 61
d
33.3 62
c
33.4 63.8
b
33.6 61.6
a
33.4 61
b
0.02 28.234.1
MCH (pg) 30.6 62.9
a
30 63.8
d
30.4 62.2
b
30.4 61.7
b
30.6 62.3
a
30.2 60.1
c
0.02 16.023.1
MCV (fL) 9263.1
a
90.3 62.1
a
91.3 63.7
a
91.1 64.1
a
91.1 62.2
a
90.4 62.4
a
0.06 50.077.8
NEUs (%) 38 60.8
b
28 62f 35 62.1
c
33 61.5
d
42 63.3
a
30 63
e
0.04 5.338.1
LYMs (%) 60 62.7
d
68 64.2
a
62 61.7
c
62 62.5
c
55 63.7
e
64 62.5
b
0.01 56.793.1
Monocytes (%) 2 60
c
460
a
160
d
260
c
260
c
360.4
b
<0.01 0.007.7
Eosinophils (%) 1 60
d
1.7 60.3
c
260.1
b
360
a
260
b
360
a
<0.01 0.03.4
Serum protein (mg/dL) 4.9 60.3
e
1.6 60f 9.3 60.2
a
7.3 60.2
d
7.9 60.8
c
8.2 60
b
0.01 6.08.0
Albumin (mg/dL) 1.4 60
c
0.2 60.1f 1.9 60
a
1.3 60.1
d
1.7 60.1
b
0.8 60
e
<0.01 3.55.0
Globulin (mg/dL) 3.5 60
e
1.4 60.1f 7.4 60.3
b
6.1 60.3
d
6.3 60.1
c
7.4 60.1
a
<0.01
Kidney function indices
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.3 60
c
2.1 60.4
a
0.3 60f 1.2 60.7
d
1.3 60.1
b
160
e
0.02 0.20.8
Urea (mg/dL) 3.9 60
c
9.7 60.3
a
0.9 60f 1.6 60.5
d
5.1 60.1
b
1.2 60
e
0.02 720
Urea/creatinin
e
360.1
c
4.6 60.2
a
2.8 60
c
1.4 60.1
d
3.8 60.3
b
1.1 60
e
<0.01 815
Liver function indices
AST (m/L) 33 61.3
b
55.2 63.4
a
29.3 62.1f 30.2 61.2
d
30.1 60.3
e
30.5 62.2
c
0.02 45.780.8
ALT (m/L) 45.5 61.1
b
66.8 63.1
a
30 63.7f 32 62.4
d
33 62.5
c
30.9 61.2
e
0.01 17.530.2
ALP (m/L) 98.4 62.6
b
114.8 63.1
a
56.3 61.1f 76.6 61.8
d
93.2 61.5
c
60.1 63.9
e
<0.01 56.8128
AST/ALT ratio 0.7360.1
e
0.8 60
d
160
a
0.9 60
b
0.9 60.1
c
160.1
a
<0.01 <1.00
Notes: Means (6SD) with different alphabetical superscripts in the same row are signicantly different at P<0.05. SD of 0represents a value of <0.01.
Plantain 70%, Soycake 30% (PS), Plantain 65%, Soycake 30%, Rice bran 5% (PSR), Plantain 65%, Soycake 30%, Oat bran 5% (PSO) and Plantain 60%, Soycake
30%, Rice bran 5%, Oat bran 5% (PSRO). AST: Aspartate Aminotransferase, ALT: Alkaline Aminotransferase, ALP: Alkaline Phospahate. *NR: Giannini et al.
(1999) and Diana (2007). NB: Basophil was nil for the samples
Table 3.
Biochemical
parameters of rat fed
on formulated food
samples from
plantain, soycake,
rice bran and oat
bran and controls
(100% plantain and
Cerolina)
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
PCV, Hbc and RBC in this study further established the protein quality of the formulated
food products. Evidence have shown that diets containing quality protein and iron usually
enhance production of haemoglobin and immunity in animals, whereas low-quality protein
food lead to poor production of RBC and haemoglobin, hence, leading to anaemia (Ijarotimi
and Keshinro, 2012;Oluwajuyitan and Ijarotimi, 2019). The WBC and LYM concentration
(indices of toxic/infection and immunity) ranged from 4.4 to 6.7 (x10
3
mm
3
) and 55 to 62%,
respectively, and the concentrations were within the recommended values (i.e. 6.612.6
x10
3
mm
3
and 56.793.1%, respectively). This indicates that these food products were free
of toxic chemicals and infectious microorganisms; hence, it is suitable for consumption. The
total blood protein, serum albumin and globulin concentrations of the formulated diets
ranged from 7.3 to 7.9 mg/dL, 0.8 to 1.9 mg/dL in PS and 6.1 to 7.4 mg/dL, respectively. The
total serum protein, serum albumin and globulin concentrations of the rats fed on the
formulated food samples were signicantly (p<0.01) higher than in rats fed on 100%
plantain and Cerolina, but were within the recommended values (serum protein, 6.08.0 g/
dL; albumin, 3.55.0 g/dL) (Giannini et al.,1999;Diana, 2007). The variation in the blood
proteins of the experimental rats could be because of protein contents of the blended food
products. Study has shown that total blood protein concentration depends on the amount
and quality of protein in the food intakes (Fujita et al.,1978).
Antioxidant activity of experimental diets
The in vivo antioxidant activities of formulated food and control samples are presented in
Figure 2(a)(d). The antioxidant activities of the experimental foods on the lipid
peroxidation (MDA), GSH, SOD and GST ranged from 2.2 to 4.1mg/dL, 50.2 to 51.3 mg/dL, 6
to 8 mg/dL and 1.7 to 2.9 mg/dL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the food samples
decreased in this order PSRO >PSO >PSR >PS, and were signicantly (p= 0.02) higher
than 100% plantain (1.2, 48.5, 2 and 1.5 mg/mL) and Cerolina (a commercial dough meal
our) (1.4, 49.4, 5 and 1.6 mg/mL), respectively. The ability of the formulated food samples to
increase MDA, GSH, SOD and GST in serum shows better endogenous antioxidant
activities status of the formulated food products compared to that of 100% plantain and
Cerolina. This could be attributed to the synergistic contribution of bioactive compounds
such as phytochemicals, bres and proteins present in the food samples. This observation
indicates that the food samples in this present study are good antioxidant agents with
ability to prevent formation of the free radicals and oxidative stress.
Scientic studies have shown that inhibition of free radicals formation could prevent
oxidative damage to the cells (Wang et al.,2004;Harrat et al.,2019) and chronic diseases
such as diabetes and cardiac dysfunction (Wang et al.,2004;Birben et al., 2012;Harrat et al.,
2019). Evidence has shown that when there is imbalanced between the free radicals
production and enzymatic antioxidants activities, a non-enzymatic antioxidant (dietary
supplements) may be required to maintain optimal cellular functions (Kurutas, 2016). The
antioxidant property of this present studys food products agreed with the reports of
Butnariu and Grozea (2012),Yoshida et al. (2013) and Adefegha et al. (2016) who observed
synergetic effects between non-enzymatic (i.e. plant extract) and enzymatic antioxidants
activities to prevent oxidative stress in rats.
Inuence of experimental diets on the functionality of organs
Liver function: The inuence of formulated food samples on the functionality of organs (liver
and kidney) with reference to ALT, AST and ALP indices are presented in Table 3. The
values of AST ranged from 29.3 m/L in PSRO to 30.5 m/L in PSR, and were signicantly (p=
0.02) lower than 100% plantain (55.2 m/L) and Cerolina (33 m/L), but were within the normal
NFS
ranged values (45.780.5 m/L) (Giannini et al.,1999;Diana, 2007). For ALT, the values
ranged from 30.00m/L in PSRO to 32m/L in PSO, and were signicantly (p= 0.01) lower
than in Cerolina (45.5 m/L) and 100% plantain (66.8 m/L). While ALP values ranged from
56.4 m/L in PSRO to 93.2 m/L in PS, and were signicantly (p<0.01) lower than 100%
plantain (114.8 m/L) and Cerolina (98.4 m/L). The AST/ALT ratios ranged from 0.91 to 0.98
for the rats fed on PS and PSR, which was higher than those rats fed on 100% plantain (0.83)
and Cerolina (0.73), respectively; however, the values were lower than normal value (<1.0).
Figure 2.
In vivo antioxidant
activities in rats fed
on formulated food
samples from
plantain, soycake,
rice bran and oat bran
and controls (100%
plantain and
Cerolina)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
0
1
2
3
4
5
1.39
4.12
3.39
3.19
2.24
1.15
MDA Inhibition (mg/mL)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
a
c
d
b
f
e
MDA
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
0
20
40
60
80
49.36
51.27
50.63
51.27
50.21
48.51
GSH (mg/mL)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
GSH
c
a
b
a
b
d
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
0
2
4
6
8
10
5.00
8.00
7.00
7.00
6.00
2.00
SOD activity (mg/mL)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
SOD
d
a
b
b
c
e
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
0
1
2
3
4
1.61
2.86
1.96
1.64
1.70
1.46
GST (mg/ mL)
100% PLANTAIN
PS
PSR
PSO
PSRO
CEROLINA
GST
a
b
d
c
e
d
Notes: Bars with different letters have mean values that are significantly different at p = 0.02.
Key: plantain:soycake (70:30%) (PS); plantain:soycake:rice bran (65:30:5%) (PSR);
plantain:soycake:oat bran (65:30:5%) (PSO); plantain:soycake:rice bran:oat bran (60:30:5:5)
(PSRO)
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
This observation implies that the food products in this study may be suitable for human
consumption, and that regular intake of these food products may not cause any damage to
the vital organs such as the liver cells. Scientic studies have reported that high
concentration of AST or ALT in the blood is an indication of liver function and damage
(Al-Mamary et al.,2002;Aniagu et al.,2005;Aliyu et al.,2007).
Kidney function: The creatinine and urea concentration (indices of kidney functionality)
of the rats fed on the experimental food samples ranged from 0.33 mg/dL in PSRO to
1.34 mg/dL in PS and 0.93 mg/dL in PSRO to 5.1 mg/dL in PS, respectively. Comparatively,
the creatinine and urea concentration of the rats fed on food samples were signicantly (p=
0.02) lower than in 100% plantain (2.1 mg/dL and 9.7 mg/dL), but were comparable to the
values of Cerolina (1.34mg/dL and 3.97 mg/dL). However, the values were within the
reference levels for creatinine (0.20.8 mg/dL) and urea (720 mg/dL) (Kunitoshi et al.,1997).
Based on these results, it could be deduced that the formulated food samples were free from
toxic chemicals or microorganisms that could have hazard effects on the consumerskidney.
Hence, the food samples may be suitable for human consumption.
Sensory attributes of experimental diets
The sensory attributes of the formulated food samples and controls (100% plantain and
Cerolina) were presented in Table 4. The mean scores of appearance, aroma, taste, texture,
mouldability and overall acceptability of the formulated food samples were signicantly
(p= 0.00) lower than Cerolina and 100% plantain. The variation in the sensorial attributes of
the Cerolina and the formulated food samples could be attributed to the differences in food
composition of the blends, processing techniques and familiarity of the panellists to the
plantain and Cerolina products. Besides, Cerolina was made from wheat, soybean our and
other sensory-enhancing agents, and these could have inuenced the choice of Cerolina over
formulated food samples in all the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. This
observation agreed with a study which reported that commercial food products usually
rated higher by the panellist over newly developed food products because of the processing
techniques and their familiarities (Mahmoud and El Anany, 2014).
Selection criteria for determining optimal formulated food sample
The best formulated food sample was determined using a ranking system with reference to
six nutritional criteria, that is, protein content, bre, energy value, biochemical parameter
(total blood protein), growth performance, antioxidant activities and sensory attributes as
described by Grifth et al. (1998) with slight modication. Based on the relative importance
and interrelationship of these criteria, ranking was reported on an equal score basis. The
scoring scale of these criteria was to produce identical conclusive results. The experimental
food samples were ranked from 1 (worst) to 6 (best) to objectively determine the choice of the
blends. The blend scored the highest percentage and was considered to possess the best
nutritional qualities (Table 5). Using these criteria, PSRO sample had the highest score
(81 %) compared to 100% plantain (33.3%) and Cerolina (a commercial our) (71.4%).
Conclusion
The study reported on nutritional quality, antioxidant activities and sensorial attributes of
food samples developed from the combination of plantain, soycake, oat-bran and rice-bran
ours. Also, the study established that PSRO sample was ranked best over other food
products including 100% plantain and Cerolina in terms of protein content, essential
minerals, BV, antioxidant activities, ability to support growth in rats and acceptability.
Hence, PSRO food sample may be suitable as a functional food in preventing and treating
NFS
Parameters Cerolina 100% Plantain PSRO PSO PS PSR P value
Appearance 7.9 60.93
a
7.4 60.93
ab
6.6 60.06
c
6.9 61.04
bc
6.4 61.52
c
6.5 61.4
c
0.03
Arom
a
7.6 60.74
a
6.4 61.45
b
6.4 60.87
b
6.4 60.83
b
661.46
b
5.9 61.18
b
0.01
Taste 7.4 61.17
a
6.3 61.23
b
6.2 61.12
b
5.9 60.99
bc
5.4 61.49
cd
5.2 61.18
d
<0.01
Texture 7.8 61.16
a
6.7 61.38
b
661.39
bc
6.1 61.51
bc
5.9 61.36b
c
5.7 61.85
c
0.02
Mouldability 8 60.82
a
6.1 61.54
b
5.7 61.56
b
6.4 61.45
b
6.2 61.33
b
5.6 61.85
b
0.02
Overall Acceptability 8.2 60.69
a
760.96
b
6.4 61.07
bc
6.5 61.11
bc
6.2 61.23
cd
5.8 61.32
d
0.04
Mean 7.8 60.29
a
6.7 60.48
b
6.2 60.33
d
6.4 60.34
c
660.35
e
5.8 60.43f <0.01
Notes: Means (6SD) with different alphabetical superscripts in the same row are signicantly different at p<0.05. Plantain 70% and soycake 30% (PS);
plantain 65%, soycake 30% and rice bran 5% (PSR); plantain 65%, soycake 30% and oat bran 5% (PSO); and plantain 60%, soycake 30%, rice bran 5%, oat bran
5% (PSRO)
Table 4.
Sensory attributes of
formulated food
samples from
plantain, soycake,
rice bran and oat
bran and controls
(100% plantain and
Cerolina)
High protein-
bre
functional
foods
proteinenergy malnutrition in children and oxidative stress along with associated diseases
in adults.
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Corresponding author
Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi can be contacted at: soijarotimi@gmail.com
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High protein-
bre
functional
foods
... Wistar rats' urine and feces were collected in the last 7 days of experiments separately and preserved using 5% sulphuric acid for protein quality determination. Protein properties such as biological value (BV), efficiency of protein ratio (EPR), nitrogen retention (NR), net protein utilization (NPU) and protein rating ratio (PRR) were calculated using as previously described by Oluwajuyitan et al. [47] and Ijarotimi et al. [24]. ...
... BCAA are reported to perform crucial functions in secretion of insulin which helps in regulation of high blood sugar levels, thereby reducing the risk of diabetics. Likewise, a high arginine/lysine ratio (>1.0) is beneficial because arginine performs modulating function in reduction of high blood pressure by secretion of nitric oxide which relax the blood arteries for ease flow of blood [25,26,47]. ...
... Hence, consumption of developed extruded breakfast cereal may be beneficial to diabetic and hypertensive patient [45,47]. Also, TEAA /TAA ratio shows that all extrudates had values that were significantly above 36% are acceptable for model quality protein diet for toddlers (26%) and grown-up individuals (11%) according to FAO/WHO [17]. ...
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The study evaluated macro-micronutrient, amino acids, in-vivo protein quality, growth performance, biochemical indices of rat fed with extruded breakfast cereal from finger millet, soybean cake, and carrot pomace. Raw materials F:100% finger millet; FS: Finger millet:soybean cake (75:25)%; FC: Finger millet:carrot pomace (90:10)%; FSC: Finger millet:soybean cake:carrot pomace (60:25:15)% were blends and extruded in to ready-to-eat breakfast cereal respectively. A significant increase in crude protein was recorded in FSC (19.2 g/ 100 g) compared to 10.2 g/100 g obtained in F. Potassium was the most predominant mineral (34.7-41.4 mg/ 100 g). Total and branch chain amino acids (72.8-75.8 and 13.2-14.8) g/100 g of protein was highest in FSC. In-vivo efficiency protein ratio and biological value of rats fed follows the same trend with FSC (2.16 and 93.0%) having the highest value. Biochemical indices show that experimental samples have no negative effect on rats. Extrusion of finger millet, soybean cake, and carrot pomace enhanced nutritional values (macro and micro-nutrient). However, sample FSC (60% finger millet: 25% soybean cake and 15% carrot pomace) perform better among experimental diets and comparable to casein in terms of high protein, total amino acids, biological value, growth performance, biochemical indices and was ranked highest in overall acceptability.
... The result of calculated amino acid scores revealed that arginine was present in abundant in the formulated flour samples, while phenylalanine and lysine were in lowest concentration in WHF and CER, respectively. Scientific studies have established that Arginine is required for nitric oxide synthesis, and that this oxide (NO) helps in relaxation of blood arteries, and thereby enhances free flow of blood, and reducing the risks of hypertension (Ijarotimi et al., 2022c;Oluwajuyitan et al., 2020). With the abundance of arginine in experimental samples, the diets may be suitable as functional food to manage and prevent high blood pressure (Abdel-Aal, 2021). ...
... Ijarotimi et al. (2019a),Oluwajuyitan et al. (2020),CRediTauthorship contribution statement Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi : Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Supervision, Project administration, Writingreview & editing. Oluwaseun Grace Ogunjobi : Conceptualiza-tion, Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Writingoriginal draft, Visualization. ...
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Gluten-free wheat-based composite flour [WSF=wheat:soycake (70:30)%; WSR =wheat:soycake:rice bran (70:25:5)%; WSO =wheat:soycake:oat bran (70:25:5)% and WSRO = wheat:soycake:rice bran:oat bran (70:20:5:5)%] were developed. Developed and control flours [Cerolina (CER) and 100% gluten-free wheat (WHF)] were subjected to macro-micronutrient, functional, sensory evaluations. Crude-protein (23.91 - 23.94 g/100g) and crude-fiber (2.54 - 3.78 g/100 g) of the experimental flour were more than the value of CER (17.59; 3.51 g/100g) and 100% WHF (14.56; 0.89 g/100g). Minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn) of WSRO follow the same trend. Similarly, the essential amino acids (34.42 g/100 g), biological value (70.73%) and nutritional index of WSRO (15.91%) were higher than those of the other samples. Water absorption capacity and least gelation of WSRO were low than those of other flour samples, including controls. Sensory attributes of the dough meals prepared from the flour blends were ranked in the following order CER>WHF>WSR>WSRO>WSO>WSF. Study established that WSRO = wheat:soycake:rice bran:oat bran (70:20:5:5)% contains higher amount of macro- micronutrient.
... The best formulated complementary food was determined using a ranking system with reference to some nutritional criteria, that is, protein content, energy value, total essential amino acids, selected minerals (Fe & Zn), mineral molar ratios (Ca/P & Na/K), biological values, overall acceptability and growth performance as described by Oluwajuyitan et al. (2020) with slight modification. Based on the relative importance and interrelationship of these criteria, ranking was reported on an equal score basis. ...
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Abstract Traditional complementary foods in Africa are cereal-based, low in nutrient-density; hence, causing severe-acute-malnutrition. This study was aimed to formulate and evaluate nutritional quality of complementary foods (CF) using locally available food materials. Yellow maize (raw, germinated & fermented), defatted groundnut (DGF) and ginger flour (GGF) were blended to obtain RDG (76.7% raw yellow maize, 20.8% DGF and 2.5% GGF), GDG (74.4% germinated yellow maize, 23.1% DGF, 2.5% GGF), and FDG (72.6% fermented yellow maize, 24.9% DGF, 2.5% GGF). Food samples were evaluated for nutritional qualities and sensory attributes using standard methods. Protein (g/100 g), energy value (kCal/100 g), total amino acids and essential amino acids (g/100 g protein) of formulated CF ranged from 19.38 to 28.58, 373.49 to 394.53, 87.33 to 91.89 and 36.17 to 37.63, respectively, and were comparable to control (17.07, 401.22, 94.47 & 35.35). Minerals were present in appreciable amount in the foods, while phytate/mineral (Ca, Fe, Zn) and oxalate/calcium molar ratios were lower than critical levels. Bulk density (1.4 - 1.6 g/mL), least gelation (4 - 6%), water absorption capacity (10.5 - 15.8%) and swelling capacity (0.5 - 1.2%) were significantly (p
... International Journal of Health, Metabolism and Nutrition StudiesValues are Mean of triplicate determination ± S.D Different superscripts on the same row are significantly different (p≤ 0.05) according to Duncan Multiply range test. Source ;(Oluwajuyitan et al., 2020).Key: KC = Food given to primary school's pupil of Kano central KN = Food given to primary school's pupil of Kano North KS = Food given to primary school's pupil of Kano South Mineral composition (mg/100 g), Ca/P, Na/K and WHO references of school mealsTable 3 shows the minerals concentration of food samples given to primary school pupils under the school feeding programme in Kano state. From the table it was observed that there is no significant difference (P< 0.05) on Phosphorous content of all the samples.A significant difference (P< 0.05) was observed between KC and "KN, KS" on sodium, copper, Potassium and Manganese content of all the samples. ...
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he anti-nutrient properties of the meals shows 0.49%, 9.25mg/100g, 0.20%, 0.59mg/100g and 232.65mg/100g as the oxalate, Tannin, saponin, Cyanogenicglycocide, and phytate content respectively of KC, while 0.24%, 5.75 mg/100g, 0.43%, 0.59 mg/100g, and 200.30 mg/100g were that of KN and 0.29%, 17.50 mg/100g, 0.58%, 0.38 mg/100g and 381.54 mg/100g was that of KS. The phytate-minerals molar ratios of the meals shows that the values were relatively low when compared to the critical values.The anti-oxidant properties of the meals shows that 8.31, 13.08 and 2.75% were the flavonoid, total phenol and alkaloid content of KC respectively, 10.21, 8.99, and 4.08% was that of KN and lastly 03.28.2022 BERKELEY PUBLICATION
... This finding implies that processing of MCSs may enhance the antioxidant power thereby improving their ability to scavenge free radicals and reduced the occurrence of degenerative diseases risk. Recently, scientific findings have demonstrated significant decrease of antioxidants in the body may increase the causes of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis [49][50][51][52]. Hence, high antioxidant activities observed in MCSs roasted samples is beneficial in reduction of occurrences of these cardiovascular diseases. ...
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Ability of plants to prevent degenerative diseases is based on the biological activities of their bioactive components. Bioactive components are more biologically available for the body to utilize when the plant undergo processing which aid their potential in treatment and management of several chronic diseases like diabetes. Thus, the present study evaluated the effect of processing (cooking and roasting) on antioxidant activity and blood glucose reduction potential of Malabar Chestnut Seeds (MCSs) in Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetic Rats. Fresh MCSs were divided into three portion. First portion were cooked at 100 °C for 20 min (Cooked), second portion were roasted at 200 °C for 40 min (Roasted) while, the last portion were used as fresh MCSs (Raw). Rattus norvegicus were obtained and grouped in number of 5 rats per sample. The antioxidant activities assay shows that processing (cooking and roasting) enhanced free radical scavenging ability of MCSs samples against DPPH which ranged from 41.27% in raw to 58.77% in roasted. Glycemic index of cooked and roasted MCSs (42.29% and 37.77%) were also observed to be lower than 44.78% obtained in raw MCSs. Low density lipoprotein concentration (99.74 and 86.78 mg/dl) of rats fed on processed (cooked and roasted) MCSs samples shows ameliorating potential compared with 113.01 mg/dl obtained in rats induced with STZ and fed with Chow only. Highest blood glucose level reduction potential (73.90%) was obtained in roasted MCSs followed by cooked MCSs (70.09%). These values were higher than 0.43% and 67.45% obtained in STZ induced rats fed on chow and acarbose (2.0 mg/day) respectively. The study established that processing of MCSs enhanced free radical scavenging abilities, lower glycemic index (
... University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria were grouped (4 rats/group), and housed individually in metabolic cages with free access to feed and water ad libitum. The rats were acclimatized under standard laboratory conditions (22 °C ± 3 °C; 12 h light and dark periods, respectively and humidity-40-45%) [42] for 7 days. After 7 days acclimatization, the experimental food samples (WBO 1 , WBO 2 and WBO 3 ), control samples (CWF and LWF) and glucose in a portion that was calculated to contain 2.0 g of available carbohydrate were dissolved in warm distilled water (40 °C, 5 mL) and administered to the rats through oral gavage. ...
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The research was designed to ascertain the potential of bambara groundnut inclusion in wheat bread to improve antioxidant activity, modulate carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities, and lower glyceamic index/ load. Protein (g/100 g) (11.2—11.73) and energy value (kcal/100 g) (421.5—435.5) of the bread were significantly higher than commercial wheat flour bread (CWF—10.45; 388.7). However, developed experimental bread samples exhibited higher growth performance in rats, free radical scavenging potentials, inhibitory activities against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes and low glycemic index than other bread samples. Nevertheless, experimental bread samples were rated lower compared with the controls samples as regards organoleptic properties. The study authenticates that WBO3—25% wheat, and 75% bamabara groundnut WBO3 exhibits higher potentials as regards nutritional composition, growth indices, free radical scavenging potentials, ability to modulate carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme and lower glycemic index/ load. Hence, WBO3 may be recommended as functional bread for hyperglycemia prevention/ management.
... This finding agreed with the report that enzymatic bioactive peptides are more potent as antioxidant agent ( Zhang et al., 2018 ). Antioxidant, a chemical substance that inhibit oxidation process by preventing free radical's formation, play major roles in preventing chronic diseases (hypertension & diabetes) ( Lillioja et al., 2013 ;Oluwajuyitan et al., 2020 ). ...
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s White melon seed (Cucumeropsis mannii) contain essential nutrients and medicinal properties. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the chemical composition, angiotensin-1-converting, α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory properties of undefatted (UMF), defatted (DMF) and protein isolate (MPI) of white melon seeds. Protein content of the seed flour varied from 38.2±0.12 to 85.6±0.61 g/100g, and the samples contain appreciable amount of mineral elements. The essential amino acid profile of the samples ranged between 19.9 and 30.1%. The MPI exhibited higher antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP, iron chelation and hydroxyl free radicals compared to UMF and DMF samples. The inhibitory potential (%) of melon seed flour samples against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin1-1-converting enzymes varied from 10.5±0.45 - 93.8±0.40, 4.4±0.38 - 91.8±0.04 and 65.4±0.23 - 90.0±0.18%, respectively. In conclusion, MPI had highest antioxidant and inhibitory activities against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-1-converting enzymes. Hence, the MPI may be applicable in functional food production for the management of diabetes and hypertension.
... In developing countries Nigeria inclusive, there are different methods used for the processing of agricultural products like legumes, and this include cooking, fermentation and germination. Food processing such as fermentation, germination, etc. is used to enhance the nutrient bio-accessibility, bioavailability [11], and also to improves organoleptic properties as well as extending the shelf life [12][13][14]. Food processing makes food safe by inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and to detoxifies aflatoxin [15,16]. ...
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Food processing either enhances or lowers nutritional parameters of agricultural products. Hence, this study investigated effects of some traditional processing methods on chemical, antioxidant, glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL) properties of groundnut kernel flours. The processed flours, i.e., cooked (CGN), germinated (GGN), fermented (FGN), co-germinated-cooked-fermented (GCF) and raw (RGN) flour samples were evaluated for chemical compositions, antioxidant activities, and glycaemic index/load. The crude protein, essential amino acids (+ histidine), aromatic amino acids, branched chain amino acids (g/100 g protein) and Arginine/Lysine ratios of groundnut flours were 10.95–27.0, 24.85–34.41, 43.32–56.5, 6.13–8.87, 11.58–17.33 and 1.33–2.20, respectively. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic acid (37.88–42.38%) and linoleic acid (34.38–39.64%), respectively, while polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (1.45–1.82) were higher than recommended value (> 1.0). The minerals in GGN, FGN and GCF were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than CGN and RGN, while phytate- and oxalate-mineral molar ratio of groundnut samples were lower than critical levels. The GI (29–37.9%) and GL (4.4–13.1%) were lower than recommended value for low GI (< 55%) and GL (< 10%). The antioxidant activity, i.e., total phenol, iron chelation, DPPH, OH⁻ Free radicals and Ferric reducing antioxidant power were higher in GCF than other samples. The present study established some local processing methods (cooking, germination and fermentation) influenced chemical, antioxidant and glycaemic properties of groundnut. For instance, co-germination-cooking-fermentation increased protein content, antioxidant activity and lower glycaemic index/load (< 55%; < 10%) of groundnut samples.
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Cereal and legume flours are intensively being used by food experts to formulate cookies. But their byproducts are discarded in spite of being nutrient rich. The study was conducted to determine nutrients, organoleptic properties and shelf-life of highly nutritive multibran cookies formulated with partial replacement of wheat flour along with the milling byproducts i.e., chickpea husk, moong bean husk, rice bran, broken rice, and wheat bran. The percentages of the byproduct flour, taken for the formulation of the product, was determined using central composite design of response surface methodology. According to the obtained data, Multi-bran cookies (MBC) possessed rich nutrient composition in comparison with the control sample i.e., the wheat flour cookies (WFC). MBC showed 18% crude protein, 5% crude fiber, higher than the crude protein (7.78%) and crude fiber (2%) of WFC. However, total sugar concentrations of MBC (3.08 g/100 g) was lower than WFC (4.89 g/100 g). Calcium and phosphorus present in MBC were 115.06 mg/100 g and 195.88 mg/100 g respectively, significantly higher (p < 0.05) than WFC. The overall acceptability of MBC as indicated by 9-point hedonic scale (8.13) was satisfactory. On the basis of the obtained data it can be said that the selected milling byproducts can be used as potential plant-based sources to develop significant functional products like cookies without affecting its sensory quality and to improve nutritional status of consumer. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-022-05559-1.
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Malnutrition is a great concern in developing countries which affects infants and young children in their early age. The objective of this study was to formulate low-cost complementary foods from selected cereals and legumes using household technologies and an attempt was made to evaluate nutritionally. Four complementary blends were formulated based on protein basis of the ingredients and their nutritional characteristics were compared with the commercial complementary food (Cerifam). Standard official procedures were used to determine the macronutrient composition of the developed diets and ingredients. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify vitamins of the formulated diets, while minerals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The crude protein values of cereal-legume based diets were ranged from 12.20-17.14% on dry matter basis. Mean separation using Least Significant Difference indicated that protein values to be significantly (p< 0.05) differed between the different composite flours. However, the crude protein content of all blended diets were statistically greater (p<0.05) than the control value. Energy values of the blends were ranged from 394-560 kcal/100g and the values met the WHO recommendations of 0.8 -1.0 kcal/g from complementary foods. In general, the formulated diets were better than the reference diet and meet the recommended levels for protein, energy and problem nutrients like as zinc, iron and vitamin A based on an estimated daily intake of 65 g of weaning foods. Therefore, the formulated diets have a significant potential in poor rural and urban mothers for use in sub-Saharan Africa.
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This study was aimed to evaluate nutritional and antinutritional contents of complementary foods from locally available and affordable raw materials (maize, pea, and anchote) grown in Western Ethiopia. The six formulated complementary diets analyzed for their proximate, mineral, and antinutritional continents were compared with Codex standards. The mineral ratios and molar ratios of the formulated diets were also evaluated and compared with each standard values. Six formulations were generated by d‐optimal mixture design. The formulated ingredient ranges 45%–61% maize, 23%–31% pea, and 14%–28% anchote. Design‐Expert® 6 (Stat‐Ease) was used to constrain the three components. The formulated diets ranged from 14.92% to 20.99%, 5.95% to 9.94%, 2.75% to 3.41%, and 59.10% to 66.22% of protein, fat, fiber, and utilizable carbohydrate, respectively. Mineral contents (mg/100 g) of the formulated diet ranged from 225.45 to 261.32, 11.48 to 12.61, 2.73 to 3.00, 357.92 to 391.13, 298.55 to 332.63, 252.00 to 278.01, and 44.26 to 51.56 for calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorous, potassium, sodium and magnesium, respectively. The proximate and mineral contents of the formulated diet 5 meet the Codex standards, except the fat contents of the complementary food standards. The molar ratios of the formulated diets in this study were below standard reference and which show the high mineral bioavailability in all the formulated diets. The results of the study revealed that the formulated diets contain very low antinutritional factors and high mineral bioavailability. The paper's findings show that the complementary food formulated from maize, pea, and anchote flours particularly diet 5 may be suitable to alleviate protein energy malnutrition and it can be used as a substitute for the expensive commercial complementary food.
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Purpose Literature has shown that phenolic acids and flavonoids are bearing with hypoglycemic and anti-adipogenic properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the possibility of phenolic-rich soya bean husk powder extract (SHPE) in combating diabetes and obesity using in vitro models. Design/methodology/approach The hypoglycemic properties were evaluated by determining the ability of SHPE (25-100 µ g/mL) in inhibiting a-amylase and a-glucosidase enzymes and in triggering insulin secretion in BRIN-BD11 cells. Murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for evaluating the anti-adipogenic properties of SHPE through the determination of relative lipid accumulation, triglyceride content and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. Findings The hypoglycemic properties of SHPE was in the dose-dependent manner, where 100 µ g SHPE/mL exhibited a significant higher ( p < 0.05) a-amylase inhibitory activity (56.8 ± 0.11 per cent) and insulin secretion activity (0.73 ± 0.02 µ g/l) against other concentrations. In contrast to the aforementioned findings, a significant lower a-glucosidase inhibitory activity (52.0 ± 0.44 per cent) was also observed in 100 µ g SHPE/mL. Nevertheless, findings revealed that all the SHPE were able to inhibit the activity of a-amylase and a-glucosidase and stimulated the insulin secretion in BRIN-BD11 cells. On the other hand, the anti-adipogenic properties of SHPE were in the reverse dose-dependent manner, where 100 µ g SHPE/mL demonstrated a significant lower ( p < 0.05) relative lipid accumulation (48.5 ± 0.03 per cent), intracellular triglyceride content (5.7 ± 0.07 mg/dL) and GPDH activity (1.0 ± 0.01 mU/mL). These findings reflected that 100 µ g SHPE/mL was a potent anti-adipogenic agent when compared with other concentrations. In conclusion, soya husk could emerge as a potential hypoglycemic and anti-adipogenic agents in in vitro models. Originality/value This was the first study to explore the effectiveness of phytochemicals derived from soya bean husk in ameliorating hyperglycemia and adipogenesis. Promising findings that derived from the present study could enable the scientists to re-evaluate the potential use of agricultural wastes, especially in the formulation of nutraceuticals.
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The study aimed at determining nutritional, antioxidant and blood glucose lowering potentials of improved plantain-based dough meals enriched with defatted soybean and tigernut flour. The constituted dough meals [PSB (plantain 64.46, defatted soybean 35.54%), TNS (tigernut 59.83, defatted soybean 40.17%); PTS (plantain 51.07, tigernut, 11.50, defatted soybean, 37.43%); TNT (100% tigernuts); PLT (100% plantain) and CNT (a commercial flour)] were evaluated for nutritional, antioxidant and blood glucose concentration in streptozotocin-induced diabetics rats. The improved dough meals contained appreciable amount of protein, energy value, and high in antioxidative activity than PLT. Blood glucose reducing potential of improved plantain-based dough meals (60.5–71.9%) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was higher than PLT, but comparable to acarbose (anti-diabetic drug) (69%). The present study established that improved traditional plantain-based dough meals (particularly PTS) was high in essential nutrients, antioxidative activities, and blood glucose reducing potentials. Hence, the dough-meals may be suitable for diabetes management.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prickly pear ( Opuntia ficus indica ( OFI )) nopalitos on body weight, food consumption, arterial blood pressure, glucidic homeostasis, cholesterol metabolic pathway and tissues redox status in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Design/methodology/approach Rats were fed by a HFD containing 30 per cent sheep fat for 10 weeks, after which they were rendered diabetic by an injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg). The diabetic rats were then divided into two groups. The first group consumed the HFD supplemented with 5 per cent (g/100 g diet) of freeze-dried OFI nopalitos (HFD- OFI ), and the second group received the HFD without supplementation (HFD). Findings OFI nopalitos treatment decreased significantly arterial diastolic (−20%; p = 0.0001) and systolic (−16%; p = 0.0001) pressures, glycemia (−14%; p = 0.03), insulinemia (−50%; p = 0.04), glycated hemoglobin (−49%; p = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (−67%; p = 0.03), cholesterolemia (−31%; p = 0.003), very-low and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−38%; p = 0.002 and −63% p = 0.0002, respectively); thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxide contents, respectively, in liver (−26% p = 0.02, −20% p = 0.02), adipose tissue (−30% p = 0.002, −25% p = 0.001), muscle (−29% p = 0.003, −25% p = 0.008) and kidney (lipid hydroperoxides only (−28%; p = 0.001) but increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL 2 ) cholesteryl esters (+61%; p = 0.0001), serum lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity (+21%; p = 0.006) and antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) of some tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscle and kidney). Originality/value Freeze-dried OFI nopalitos improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic control, metabolic pathway of cholesterol and redox status in T2D rats.
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Background Unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with metabolic changes and increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), but these associations have not been investigated in representative populations of university undergraduates in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). Methods This study was conducted in the three universities in Lagos State, Nigeria to assess the dietary pattern and metabolic risk factors of NCDs among university undergraduate population. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 506 undergraduates from the universities. Pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics and dietary patterns. Body mass index and metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, dyslipidemias, high blood pressure and hyperglycemia) were assessed following standard procedures. SPSS (version 20) was used for data entry and analysis. Association between variables was determined using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results The mean age was 20.3 ± 3.5 years; 54.7% of them were female. More than one third (37.6%) had no consistent source of income or received less than N10, 000 ($31.7) per month. Less than one third (31.0%) ate three daily meals, 23.0% ate breakfast regularly, and only 2% consumed the recommended daily amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half (44.0%) ate pastry snacks daily. Refined rice was the commonest cereal (28.2%) consumed while meat was more commonly consumed daily (32.0%) than milk (14.0%) and fish (10.0%). Twenty-nine (29.0%) and 6.2% of the population daily consumed carbonated soft drinks and alcohol, respectively. Prevalence of abdominal obesity (based on waist circumference) was 5% (1.3% in males and 8.4% in females), dyslipidemias (57.3%), pre-hypertension (8.2%), hypertension (2.8%), and pre-diabetes (1.0%). Obesity was positively associated with consumption of alcohol (χ² = 13.299,p < 0.001). Conclusion Unhealthy diets and metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases are prevalent in the undergraduate population studied. Well-recognized recommendations regarding adequate consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains should be emphasized in a targeted manner in this population. Carbonated soft drinks and alcohol consumption should be discouraged to stem a rising tide of metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases among undergraduate students.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition of unripe banana flour from Southeast Brazil and verify its nutritional, physiological and biochemical properties in adult Wistar rats. Design/methodology/approach Analysis of soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrate, resistant and total starch and energy was obtained. In all, 18 male Wistar rats were given different concentrations of unripe banana flour (0, 10 and 20 per cent) and these assessments were performed: feed, caloric and water intake; weight gain; coefficient of food efficiency; weight of organs; body, tibia and femur length; total mineral of bones; and biochemistry of blood, hepatic fluids and feces. Findings Unripe banana flour showed a potential for weight control as well as increased fecal cholesterol excretion. These results showed the potential of unripe banana flour for obesity treatment and lipid excretion. Nevertheless, plasma triacylglycerol levels increased in the animals that received the largest amount of banana flour (20 per cent w/w), possibly because of the large amount of resistant starch in the flour, indicating the need for additional studies to confirm the mechanisms responsible for this increase. Originality/value Unripe banana flour may promote beneficial health effects (such as weight control and increased elimination of cholesterol in feces); however, the large amount of resistant starch present may be responsible for an increase in blood triacyglycerol.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of three varieties of Indonesian fermented rice bran (RB) (Inpari 6, Inpari 30 and Inpara 1). Design/methodology/approach Three types of RB were fermented using Rhizopus oligosporus. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau method, and antioxidant activity was analyzed by measuring the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (RSA). For in vivo analyses, one week after acclimatization, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 4, 12 weeks of age) were divided into two groups and orally administered fermented RB (40 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water as a control after 16 h of fasting. Blood pressure (BP) was measured before and 2, 4 and 6 h after administration with a BP monitor without warming. Six days later, the rats were subject to the same procedure and sacrificed after 6 h of oral administration. Blood was collected and the plasma was separated to measure nitric oxide, glucose and insulin levels. Findings The highest TPC and RSA of fermented RB were obtained from Inpari 30 after incubation for 72 h (260.33 ± 0.39 mg GAE/100 g dry basis and 83.71 ± 0.61 per cent), respectively. Furthermore, single oral administration of fermented RB improved BP (p < 0.05) and glucose metabolism after 6 h of administration (p < 0.05). Originality/value This is the first study to evaluate the effects of fermented RB on improving high BP and glucose profiles by using a spontaneously hypertensive animal model.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design/methodology/approach T2DM was induced by feeding male rats with an HFD for 10 weeks, followed by a low dose of streptozotocin. T2DM rats were then divided into four homogeneous groups. Three groups consumed an HFD containing 45 per cent (g/100 g diet) whole oat, oat bran or refined oat. The fourth untreated group (control) received the HFD. Findings The results showed that whole oat and oat bran, compared with refined oat and control, effectively reduced food intake (p < 0.007), arterial blood pressure (p = 0.0001), glycemia (p < 0.001), insulinemia (p < 0.01), glycosylated haemoglobin (p < 0.001) as well as homeostasis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001). They also improved blood lipid levels and reverse cholesterol transport by reducing serum total cholesterol (p = 0.0001), triacylglycerols (p < 0.05), very-low- (p = 0.0001) and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol contents (p < 0.02) increasing lipids (p < 0.002) and cholesterol excretion (p = 0.0001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL2-CE) concentrations (p = 0.0001) and stimulating lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (p = 0.0001). Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation by increasing paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) atheroprotective activity (p < 0.05). Originality/value In T2DM rats, whole oat and particularly, its bran incorporated into an HFD improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic balance and lipid metabolic pathway by reducing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and increasing atheroprotective activities of LCAT and PON-1. In contrast, refined oat accentuates the risk factors associated with diabetes.