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Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and Livestock Feeding

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Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and Livestock Feeding

Abstract and Figures

The increasing competition for available resources and inefficient use of those limited resources necessitates the need to improve the use of available resources. If these inefficacies are not corrected, the resource-poor farmers, mainly living in developing countries will be most affected. Yet these resource farmers contribute immensely for food production in developing countries. Smallholder farmers must be proactive and learn to adopt new strategies that can assist them in continuing farming with maximum use of limited agricultural resources and even wastes in agriculture. Several methods are available to improve the use of agricultural wastes, including non-agronomic benefits. Furthermore, we suggest the integration of waste resources, such as from both the trilogy of human–animal–crop wastes. Similarly, inexpensive techniques are encouraged among the farmers, including composting and vermicomposting of human–crop–animal wastes and/or slaughterhouse/abattoir wastes, biocharing of crop and animal wastes as various means of recycling/recovering nutrients in the soil system. Furthermore, the deployment of fungi could also improve the resource use efficiency through mushroom growth and sales, crop residue fermentation to enhance its feed value. Livestock farmers facing nutritional problems can apply microbes through fermentation to reduce antinutritional factors (lignin, tannins) in plants, and improve the safety of kitchen and dairy waste before feeding. Alternatively, farmers are encouraged to raise microlivestock (rabbits, snails, and grasscutters) on their farm to improve the use of resources. On a large scale, nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from cow urine, slurry, human feces, and fermentation of phytate rich plants with phytate on industrial scales is recommended. This chapter aims to provide insight into the methods by which farmers and industries, especially those in developing countries, can improve their available resources for agricuture and as livestock feeds.
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Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input
Use Efficiency in Agriculture and Livestock
Feeding
1
Moyosore Joseph Adegbeye, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem,
Poonooru Ravi Kanth Reddy, Mona Mohamed Mohamed Elghandour,
and Kehinde Johnson Oyebamiji
Contents
1.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 3
1.2 Waste Resources Integration .............................................................. 6
1.2.1 CropLivestock System ........................................................... 6
1.2.2 Human Wastes .................................................................... 6
1.2.3 Rural/Peri-urban Approach ....................................................... 7
1.3 Improving the Use of Agricultural Wastes ............................................... 7
1.3.1 Insect . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.2 Biogas ............................................................................. 10
1.4 Wastewater ................................................................................ 11
1.4.1 Productive Use of Wastewater from the Cassava Processing Industry .......... 13
1.4.2 Wastewater from the Livestock ................................................... 13
1.5 Nutrient Recovery/Recycling Methods ................................................... 14
1.5.1 Composting and Vermicomposting ............................................... 14
1.5.1.1 Use of Human Feces Through Composting and Vermicomposting . . . 16
1.5.1.2 Vermicomposting of Agricultural Waste ............................... 17
1.5.1.3 Enrichment of Manure through Co-Composting ....................... 17
1.5.2 Soil Amendment with Abattoir and Slaughterhouse Waste ..................... 18
1.5.3 Biochar ............................................................................ 18
M. J. Adegbeye
Department of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola
University, Ilesha, Osun State, Nigeria
A. Z. M. Salem (*) · M. M. M. Elghandour
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México,
Toluca, Mexico
e-mail: salem@uaemex.mx;mmohamede@uaemex.mx
P. R. K. Reddy
Veterinary Dispensary, Taticherla, Andhra Pradesh, India
K. J. Oyebamiji
Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola
University, Ilesha, Osun State, Nigeria
#The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive licence to
Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020
S. Kumar et al. (eds.), Resources Use Efciency in Agriculture,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6953-1_1
1
1.5.3.1 Biochar from Animal Manure . . . . . . .................................... 19
1.5.3.2 Biochar from Crop Waste .............................................. 19
1.5.3.3 Biochar on Plant Performance .......................................... 21
1.6 Fungi as a Source for Improving the Resource Use Efciency of Crop Residue .... . . . 22
1.6.1 Fungi on Crop Residue Quality .................................................. 22
1.6.2 Fungi on Greenhouse Gases Mitigation .......................................... 23
1.6.3 Edible Fungi (Mushroom) ........................................................ 23
1.6.3.1 Mushroom Growth/Fortication with Animal Waste/By-Product . . . . . 24
1.6.3.2 Mushroom Waste and Spent Substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.7 Waste and Their Use in Livestock Feeding .............................................. 25
1.7.1 Cassava and Fruit Waste .......................................................... 25
1.7.2 Antinutritional Factor/Plant Metabolite Removal . . . ............................. 26
1.7.3 Kitchen and Dairy Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.8 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Recovery and Release . . . . .................................... 27
1.8.1 Phosphorus Use: Recovery and Release .......................................... 28
1.8.2 Controlled Release of Nitrogen ................................................... 29
1.9 Microlivestock Farming ................................................................... 29
1.9.1 Snail Farming ..................................................................... 29
1.9.2 Rabbits Farming . . . . . .............................................................. 30
1.9.3 Grasscutter . . ....................................................................... 30
1.10 Phytotherapy ............................................................................... 31
1.11 Conclusions ................................................................................ 33
1.12 Future Perspectives ........................................................................ 34
References ......................................................................................... 34
Abstract
The increasing competition for available resources and inefcient use of those
limited resources necessitates the need to improve the use of available resources.
If these inefcacies are not corrected, the resource-poor farmers, mainly living in
developing countries will be most affected. Yet these resource farmers contribute
immensely for food production in developing countries. Smallholder farmers
must be proactive and learn to adopt new strategies that can assist them in
continuing farming with maximum use of limited agricultural resources and
even wastes in agriculture. Several methods are available to improve the use of
agricultural wastes, including non-agronomic benets. Furthermore, we suggest
the integration of waste resources, such as from both the trilogy of human
animalcrop wastes. Similarly, inexpensive techniques are encouraged among
the farmers, including composting and vermicomposting of humancropanimal
wastes and/or slaughterhouse/abattoir wastes, biocharing of crop and animal
wastes as various means of recycling/recovering nutrients in the soil system.
Furthermore, the deployment of fungi could also improve the resource use
efciency through mushroom growth and sales, crop residue fermentation to
enhance its feed value. Livestock farmers facing nutritional problems can apply
microbes through fermentation to reduce antinutritional factors (lignin, tannins)
in plants, and improve the safety of kitchen and dairy waste before feeding.
Alternatively, farmers are encouraged to raise micro livestock (rabbits, snails, and
grasscutters) on their farm to improve the use of resources. On a large scale,
2 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from cow urine, slurry, human feces, and
fermentation of phytate rich plants with phytate on industrial scales is
recommended. This chapter aims to provide insight into the methods by which
farmers and industries, especially those in developing countries, can improve
their available resources for agricuture and as livestock feeds.
Keywords
Biochar · Biogas · Microlivestock · Nutrient recovery · Resource use efciency ·
Smallholders · Waste recycling
Abbreviations
C Carbon
Ca Calcium
CEC Cation exchange capacity
CH
4
Methane
CN Carbon nitrogen
CO
2
Carbon dioxide
Fe Iron
GHGs Greenhouse gases
ha Hectare
K Potassium
kg Kilogram
mg g
1
Milligram per gram
mg l
1
Milligram per liter
Mg Magnesium
Mn Manganese
N Nitrogen/nitrogenous
N
2
O Nitrous oxide
NH
3
Ammonia
NUE Nutrient use efciency
P Phosphorus
RUE Resource use efciency
tha
1
Tonne per hectare
Tg Teragrams
TKN Kjeldahl N
Zn Zinc
1.1 Introduction
Globally, the livelihood of billions of people depends on the agricultural industry. It
employs over 1.3 billion people worldwide and contributes to the lives of 0.6 billion
smallholder farmers (Thornton 2010). This indicates that it is an industry that
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 3
arguably generates more means of livelihood and services to humanity than any
other industry worldwide. In the agricultural sector (crop, livestock, forestry,
processing, and packaging industries), smallholder farmers are key players in food
availability and security. Over 0.57 billion farms are available universally, and most
of them are small and family-operated, often having less than 2 ha (hectare)
producing about 75% of worlds agricultural lands (Lowder et al. 2016). About
2.5 billion smallholder farmers depend on natural resources to contribute to food
availability and security (Rockstrom et al. 2017). These smallholder farmers, in
hundreds of millions, primarily feed more than a billion worlds poor people, mainly
residing in Africa and Asia (Herrero et al. 2009; Kumar et al. 2017). Due to negative
environmental impacts (from nitrogenous (N) and phosphatic (P) fertilizers), water
scarcity, depletion of some nonrenewable inputs, slowness in land expansion, and
competition from other industries, agriculture systems are confronted with the
problem of produce from available resource bases without encroaching into new
ones. This calls for the need to change strategies from current farming practice, such
that there is an improvement in practices and total efciency of resources employed
in agriculture-based industry (Adegbeye et al. 2020).
Land, water, and nutrients are essential resources on which agriculture owes its
function and existence. Efcient use of these resources while providing access to
food produced characterizes a good agricultural system. Resource(s) use efciency
(RUE) may be referred to as benets/improved benets that could be derived from
each unit of input. Inefciency in resource utilization occurs in the livestock and
agro-food processing industry through excessive usage and wastage. To improve the
efciency of available resources, there is a need to improve nutrient use efciency
(NUE) by reducing the excessive use of synthetic fertilizer and improving the
fertilizing value of animal manure. Furthermore, there is a need to recover and
recycle N and P from wastewater, human and animal waste, as well as improve
the quality of wastewater to improve its irrigation value.
Since the 1990s, increasing productivity has been associated with improved input
use efciency (Ramankutty et al. 2018). Additionally, overall global increases in
agricultural output have shifted towards enhanced efciency-based improvement
from the previous input-based increment (Fuglie and Wang 2012). Improving the use
of available resources by resource-poor farmers could increase the output per input.
As such, a multi-user system that allows a circular use of resources for crop and
livestock production will ensure that agricultural resources are judiciously used.
However, for quick and permanent adoption, such a system should not be alien to the
farmer in developing countries; rather, it should improve their current practices. This
indigenous-knowledge upgradingapproach will be farmer-friendly and afford
them the privilege of relating to the system. An alteration in management may
seek to integrate crop and livestock production systems, etc. Similarly, other pro-
cesses such as product processing, anaerobic fermentation, composting,
vermicomposting, irrigating with wastewater, upgrading manure fertilizing value,
and insect farming can be associated. The overview of resource improving
techniques for resource-poor farmers to enhance agricultural efciency through
reuse and recycling of nutrients of farming systems is presented in Fig. 1.1.
4 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
Fig. 1.1 Overview of improving the resource use efciency (Adopted from FAO 2019)
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 5
1.2 Waste Resources Integration
Modern-day farming system models emphasize specializing agriculture such as
livestock or cropping alone. This has led to uncoupling of nutrient cycle ow
between both systems resulting in increasing waste in the agricultural system
(Varma et al. 2017; Kakraliya et al. 2017a,b). Wastes in agrarian systems and
agri-food industries are becoming valuable resources due to the essential elements in
them that are important to crop and livestock. Integrating the farming system with
livestock system is a crucial solution, with low nutrient input and efciency (Sutton
et al. 2013). Such croplivestock integration signies practical step in improving
resource use (Runo et al. 2009). It represents a means to increase output for every
used input and potential to derive maximum economic yield per unit of water applied
or crop planted (Singh et al. 2011). Assimilating livestock, crop, and agri-food
industry wastes offer the opportunity to circulate the nutrients that could lead to a
more efcient farming system.
1.2.1 CropLivestock System
Integrating diverse nutrient ows by linking animal wastes with cropping systems
could be a means to achieve NUE (Adegbeye et al. 2020). Increasing the use of these
waste resources is advantageous for resource-poor farmers, whose access to inputs
such as inorganic fertilizer, feed, and large land size is limited (Thornton et al. 2018).
The livestock system represents a means of gathering nutrients from the surround-
ings and agronomic-agroforestry systems and converting them to milk, meat, and
manure (Meena et al. 2020a,b). The milk, meat, and egg represent how nutrients are
pulledout of the agricultural system, while manure and wastewater represent the
means of returning nutrients to the cropping system and the pathways for coupling/
integrating livestock and crop system. Livestock offers multi-benets to crop system
such that instead of conserving crop residues for soil fertility, it could be fed to
livestock consequently adding more fertilizer value to the crop residue in the form of
feces/manure. Integrating agricultural farm systems is more resource-based than
location-based. It connects agronomic and agroindustry associated resources like
wastewater, manure, and crop residue with crop and livestock systems, to ensure
exchanges even when they are spatially separated (Adegbeye et al. 2020).
1.2.2 Human Wastes
The human need to return part of the nutrients pulled from the agronomic and
livestock systems. This is because many of the nutrients mined through agronomic
and livestock systems are primarily by humans. Therefore, integrating croplive-
stock systems and human wastes such as human excreta, kitchen, restaurant, and
grocery waste can improve NUE. Yearly, many teragrams (Tg) of N and P are lost in
human wastes, and many nd their ways into the water bodies. Most of these
6 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
nutrients lost are obtained from crop and livestock products consumed by humans.
Consequently, linking the agricultural system with human waste resources could
result in improved croplivestockhuman nutrient recycling. Coupling crop
livestockhuman ensures that wastes such as manure, wastewater, kitchen waste,
and human feces are recycled to valuable non-edible quality products such as
organic fertilizer and bioenergy used to generate cooking fuel and electricity for
humans and livestock.
1.2.3 Rural/Peri-urban Approach
Intensifying croplivestock integration ows and practices outside the rural setting
can bring about system efciency and resilience (Stark et al. 2018). Specialization
and intensication occur in peri-urban areas. Linking animal farmers with crop
farmers can ensure that animal feces are disposed of as manure, and this will ensure
cleaner and environment-friendly agriculture waste disposal method (Roessler et al.
2016; Yadav et al. 2020). For instance, biocharing, composting, vermicomposting,
processing of livestock and microlivestock manure, biodigester output, and other
agroindustry wastes can allow agriculture to achieve higher RUE in rural and peri-
urban areas from both input and output sides. On the input end, higher output is
obtained per input, and on the output end, nutrients in waste from other agricultural
production systems are recycled and used on crop elds. Therefore, by modifying
agricultural production and management systems through integration of livestock
system with the agronomic system, on-farm interaction of crop residues and manure
could bring about more efciency by exploiting nutrient resources (Fig. 1.2)
(Notenbaert et al. 2009).
1.3 Improving the Use of Agricultural Wastes
1.3.1 Insect
Insects are economically important biological resources in agriculture. They can
function as producers (honey), pollinators, and pests. As a matter of interest, these
insects can grow on dead woods, manure or feces, and many organic materials,
which suggest that they are excellent decomposers. Due to this ability, the insect is
playing and will increasingly play a key role in high-quality waste recycling. Insects
can convert high energy and brous wastes to high-quality protein, making it a
promising protein alternative in livestock production. They have a high feed conver-
sion efciency of waste to animal protein (Looy et al. 2013) and could produce 1 kg
(kilogram) insect biomass from 2 kg substrate (Collavo et al. 2005) at low cost and
breeding space (Makkar et al. 2014), with lower emissions compared to composting
methods (Mertenat et al. 2019). The role of an insect in RUE is based on its ability to
use inedible human waste to produce organic material of high-value protein and
energy within small connement. Insects could turn part of the roughly 1.6 billion
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 7
Fig. 1.2 Integration of waste resources
8 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
tons of agricultural produce being wasted yearly to high-quality protein (FAO 2013).
The aim of using insects to recycle agricultural, kitchen waste and manure is to
breakdown organic matter for the growth of insect larvae or y, while the remaining
may be used as organic fertilizer.
Several insects such as mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), house y(Musca
domestica), and black soldier y(Hermetia illucens) are being grown on agricultural
wastes; with a biodegradation potential in a range of 5481% (Nyakeri et al. 2016).
Insect larvae can be grown on brewers waste, the solid phase of pig manure, semi-
digested grass (Liu et al. 2018), and fecal sludge (Nyakeri et al. 2016). Besides, they
can survive on abattoir waste, food waste, human feces, fruits and vegetables
(Lalander et al. 2019; Cappellozza et al. 2019), and waragi waste (Dobermann
et al. 2019). Furthermore, due to the presence of volatile solids and N content,
insects can proliferate on grape (Vitis vinifera) and potato (Solanum tuberosum)
peels (Barragán-Fonseca et al. 2018), rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum
aestivum) straw (Manurung et al. 2016; Gao et al. 2019), cassava (Manihot
esculenta) peels (Supriyatna et al. 2016), mushroom waste (Cai et al. 2019), and
coconut (Cocos nucifera) endosperm waste with soybean (Glycine max) curd residue
(Mohd-Noor et al. 2016).
These cultivated insects are rich in unsaturated fatty acids and essential amino
acids like methionine (17.62 mg g
1
) (milligram per gram) and lysine
(19.78 mg g
1
) content sufcient to meet human and animal needs, but are missing
in many kinds of cereal and plant-based protein sources (Azagoh et al. 2016;
Cappellozza et al. 2019). Maize (Zea mays) straw is typically low in protein and
fat, but is high in ber, which is mostly indigestible for livestock. However, black
solider y grown on Aspergillus oryzae fermented maize straws yielded insect
protein that is low in saturated fatty acid, high in mono and unsaturated fatty acid,
and having 41.76, 30.55, and 8.24% crude protein, crude ber, and crude ash,
respectively (Gao et al. 2019). Various studies on the use of insects in livestock
have shown positive results. The replacement of shmeal with 60100% black
soldier larvae in the diet of guinea fowl improved its juiciness, texture, avor, and
acceptability (Wallace et al. 2018). Also, yellow mealworm larvae added at 50 and
100 g kg
1
improved feed intake, weight gain, body weight and had a positive effect
on carcass traits (Biasato et al. 2017), while defatted black soldier ies added at 5 and
10% of soybean meal improved live weight, an average daily gain of broilers
(Dabbou et al. 2018). This shows that biodegrading crop residue with insect leads
to the production of high valued protein, which is a means of increasing the nutrient
usage in agriculture.
Apart from the potential for animal protein, the remaining biodegraded and bio
converted inedible human waste can be used as organic fertilizer. For instance, the
biodegraded substrate left after the growth of larvae of the house y and black
soldier y was found to be rich in NPK with similarity to China-based standard
organic fertilizer (NY525-2012) (Bloukounon-Goubalan et al. 2019; Gao et al.
2019). Other studies showed that when such substrate leftover is used as fertilizer,
they improved the germination index of Chinese cabbage by 65.7% (Cai et al. 2019).
This implies that the insect leftover is usually rich in a nutrient that could be used as
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 9
an alternative soil improver. For other uses, the biodegraded waste produced from
insect farming can be anaerobically digested for biogas to generate electrical or
cooking energy. Thus, food waste could rst be converted to food and feed by the
insect before being used for biogas production and the biodigester waste used for
organic fertilizer.
1.3.2 Biogas
Biogas production from wastes can play a vital role in the waste management
system. It could serve as the value addition wing of the waste management sector.
Agricultural wastes are used as landlls and for mulching or manure, which some-
times trigger greenhouse gases (GHGs) and non-GHGs emission in both aerobic and
anaerobic conditions. Biogas production represents an anaerobic microbial biocon-
version of organic material into energy that could be used for cooking or electricity.
During anaerobic digestion, biogases contain methane (CH
4
) gas, which could have
various fuel applications. Generating energy from wastes offers the opportunity to
improve the efciency of organic matters in the agricultural system. For example, a
20100 kg of dairy cattle feces in a biodigester system can power biogas stove for up
to 3.510 h and biogas lamp for1025 h (National Biogas Program 2008). Apart
from the benet of renewable energy, biogas, the solid digestate from biogas plants
could be used as fertilizer due to its nutrient enrichment. Adding the anaerobic
digestate as 60% of total fertilizer used on maize plot had an NUE similar to 60% of
inorganic fertilizer and higher than 100% inorganic fertilizer (Moya et al. 2019).
Similarly, instead of using manure directly as fertilizer, the farmer can rst bio-digest
to reduce the nutrient load in feces and the resulting residue could be used as organic
fertilizer. One tonne of manure could be used to produce an energy value of 100 to
125-kWh (Burton and Turner 2003). Therefore, on large farms, such manure could
generate electricity or heat energy for brooding. Furthermore, it will reduce the cost
of running the generator and decrease the bills paid to electrical companies. If legally
permitted in the country, individuals can be selling biomethane gas on a small-scale
if they could successfully compress the gas under pressure. For instance, biogas
plants existing in Indian and Pakistan can produce CH
4
gases that are 98% pure,
store them in cylinders, which is then used to fuel gasoline-based auto-rickshaws and
diesel engines (Ilyas 2006; Kapdi et al. 2006). Biogas could also be used as a
renewable fuel instead of nonrenewable uid, commonly used in rural areas.
Farmers from countries in Asia and Africa operating croplivestock systems can
use their waste resources to generate energy for cooking instead of rewood.
The potential of energy in crop residues is enormous. From the annual agricul-
tural residues and livestock manure, up to 3,30,000 tons of fertilizers and
1.97 10
9
m
3
year
1
CH
4
can be produced, which has the electrical energy capable
of replacing 39% of annual energy consumption in Greece (Vlyssides et al. 2015).
Besides animal manure, human waste can also be used to generate biogas, and the
digestate can be used as organic fertilizer. The digestate of human feces subjected to
anaerobic digestion had 877-milligram (mg) liter (l)
1
total N and 42 mg l
1
total
10 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
P. This indicates that anaerobic digestion could be used to recover nutrient from
human feces and the digestate could be used for planting to enhance NUE.
To enhance biogas yield from lignocellulolytic wastes, fungal, chemical, thermal,
and mechanical pretreatment of biogas substrate has shown positive results
(Olugbemide et al. 2019; Abudi et al. 2019). For example, seven days substrate
pretreatment with 2% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) decreased lignin by 48.2% and
increased CH
4
yield by 407.1%, and the biogas production was completed in 24 h
compared to untreated materials that required 168 h for its biogas production (Shah
and Ullah 2019). This implies that pretreatment of lignocellulolytic material and
crop waste before digestion could lead to increased biogas production and decreased
production time (Fig. 1.3).
1.4 Wastewater
Water supply will increasingly become a global issue with the possibility of about
three and a half billion humans experiencing a different form of water scarcity that
could be economic or physical (WRI World Resources Institute 2019). This will be
particularly challenging for agriculture as agriculture is the biggest user of freshwa-
ter and contributes signicantly to freshwater eutrophication globally (Nasr et al.
2015). Treating and recycling wastewater are some ways by which agricultural water
scarcity can be managed. Enormous potential exists in deriving more value per unit
of water through integrated and higher value production systems (CAWMA 2007).
The need to improve water use is high in the tropics due to its dependence on green
water as its primary source is agricultural water (Rockström et al. 1999). It is
foreseen that only 5% of future grains increase will come from rain-based farming
areas, while the majority will be from irrigation-based farming areas (Taimeh 2013).
Therefore, in such a condition, irrigation with wastewater could be valuable for
developing countries facing one or more forms of water scarcity.
Wastewater consists of nutrients that cause environmental pollution or enter into
different water bodies, reducing the quality of available and accessible water.
Agroindustry/processing companies are the main culprits in wastewater genera-
tion and livestock production systems characterized by low water productivity
(Blümmel et al. 2015). Water management could be used for preserving, restoring
the ecosystem through integrating livestock and aquaculture systems (CAWMA
2007). Managing wastewater can get more products and value from the same
water, and with this, the resource-poor can benet from the water through the
crop, aquaculture, livestock, and mixed systems, improving water productivity
(CAWMA 2007).
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 11
Fig. 1.3 Biogas production to improve the resource use efciency
12 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
1.4.1 Productive Use of Wastewater from the Cassava Processing
Industry
Water demand is outstripping water supply in low- to middle-income countries with
fast population growth. Competition for water in agriculture and other sectors is
leads to environmental stress and socio-economic tension (FAO 2011). Wastewater
of such industries can be reused instead of disposing into rivers to pollute the
hydrosphere and aquatic habitats. Wastewater from starch industry contains quite a
large amount of nutrients; as such, microorganisms can recover part of the nutrients
in the starch for protein-rich microbial biomass that can be used to feed livestock.
Cassava processing industries produce a large amount of nutrient-rich water. Storing
this cassava our processing or cassava starch extract in large tank permit
sedimentations of high-starch paste known as cassava dregs. Such dregs can be
fed to ruminants as corn replacements. A report showed that the replacement of corn
with cassava dreg increased the concentration of eicosenoic and α-linolenic acids and
had a positive effect on the unsaturated fatty acid and avor (Cardoso et al. 2019).
These cassava dregs could be stored during the season of abundance and kept for dry
season when forages are scare and could be used during fattening. Another way of
improving wastewater use is through microbial growth. Cultivating edible fungi
(A. oryzae CBS 819.72 and Rhizopus oryzae CCUG 28958) on wastewater recov-
ered 4877% of the nutrients, generated protein-rich biomass at a rate of
7.8349.13 g l
1
of starch wastewater (Souza Filho et al. 2019). The remaining
wastewater could be used in aquaculture, piggery, or irrigating eld crops.
1.4.2 Wastewater from the Livestock
The piggery production system in the tropics requires the use of large volumes of
water. This is because of the relatively high temperature in the tropics, which
requires that pigs nd means of cooling their temperature. However, pigs do not
have sweat glands; therefore, wallows are provided for cooling. An expensive
alternative to wallows will be the use of the air conditioner in the piggery. Also,
the pigpen must be washed daily to maintain hygiene, which requires a large volume
of water. This wastewater could ideally be used for irrigation. However, the risk of
contaminating crop yield with food-borne pathogens during irrigation means that
efforts should be made to reduce the pathogenic contamination level of livestock
wastewater before it is used for irrigation. In Brazil, swine production takes about
15-l water animal
1
day
1
(Velho et al. 2012), which infer that thousands of liters of
water will be wasted on large farms daily. Creating a synergy between pig farmers
and crop farmers can improve water reusability, especially in the dry season, where
water is scarce and could encourage all-year-round farming. Although wastewater
contains high organic matter concentration and nutrients, it contains a lot of patho-
genic microbes. Management practices could improve the microbial quality and
decrease the nutrient content in the wastewater before reuse. Velho et al. (2012)
reported that piggery water collected from maturation pond and kept in a
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 13
stabilization reservoir for about 320 days showed that the total P, total Kjeldahl N
(TKN), biochemical oxygen demand, and Escherichia coli decreased by 68, 77,
85, and 99%, respectively. The reduction may be associated with the proliferation of
orafauna community (microbes and algae), decreasing the available substrate or
precipitation of P into calcium (Ca)-phosphate complex. Partial water treatment
through the method before it applies to irrigation could improve water use efciency.
However, care must be taken while using only wastewater as the source of water for
crop irrigation to avoid soil salinity and oil solidity. Therefore, recovered wastewater
could be mixed with fresh water from rivers or streams. This will place less demand
for clean water, and less agroindustry related wastewater will be pushed into water
bodies.
1.5 Nutrient Recovery/Recycling Methods
About 530% of livestocks total nutrient intake is retained, while others are
excreted, resulting in low efciency of nutrients, primarily N and P (Teenstra et al.
2015). These excretions have implications on surface and underground water,
aquatic organisms, air quality, global warming, etc.; therefore, recovering these
nutrients is essential. Low and declining soil fertility is one of the agricultural
intensication challenges in Africa (Vanlauwe et al. 2017). This results in soil
nutrient mining and land expansion by farmers that cannot afford inorganic fertilizer.
In contrast, livestock intensication increases the quantity of manure produced,
resulting in excess N, P, and K balances in agriculture (Vu et al. 2012; Abdulkadir
et al. 2013).
Manure use has not been optimally exploited as a local nutrient source among
resource-poor farmers (Sutton et al. 2013; Meena et al. 2018). Applying manure for
soil amendment rather than indiscriminate disposal is a way to ensure nutrient
cycling and soil fertility. This practice helps to return up to 80% of the nutrients
extracted by crops back into the soil system in sub-Saharan Africa (Stangel 1995).
However, the manures direct use leads to nutrient losses (ammonization, leaching,
runoffs etc.). Developing a closed nutrient cycling system in agriculture through the
efcient use of stored manure could increase crop yields (consequently their
by-productsas feed) and farm output (Thornton et al. 2018; Meena et al. 2019).
Improving manure processing will lead to optimal nutrient benets derivable from
manure and increase the fertilizer equivalence value. Vermicomposting, composting,
and anaerobic digestion represent one of the ways to utilize nutrient in the
manure properly. Soil nutrient amendment with manure contributes to greater
fertilizer use efciency (Fig. 1.4) (Nigussie et al. 2015).
1.5.1 Composting and Vermicomposting
Direct application of manure on the eld causes nutrient losses and pathogenic
contaminations. Pathogenic contamination like Salmonella spp. and Escherichia
14 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
Fig. 1.4 Nutrient recycling from manure
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 15
coli has been reported for Niamey in Niger (Diogo et al. 2010). To reduce the
problems, composting or vermicomposting could be used. Composting and
vermicomposting are efcient processes for recycling manure because they bring
stabilized and sanitized biodegraded end product for agriculture (Nasiru et al. 2014;
Meena et al. 2020a). It can be used to convert substrate or waste from livestock or
insect farming to organic fertilizer. Composting and vermicomposting processes
represent a medium of making cheaper, locally, and readily available natural mineral
through the decomposition of organic matter (Jangir et al. 2017,2019; Kumar et al.
2020). Composting technique requires low investment in transforming fresh organic
matter into fertilizer valuable organic matter by the microorganism. How-
ever, vermicomposting turns fresh organic matter into compost by joint activity of
earthworms and microorganisms, which help in bio-oxidizing and stabilizing the
organic matter into mature compost, thereby enhancing the micro- and macro-
nutrients prole of soil (Nasiru et al. 2014; Mushtaq et al. 2019). The earthworm
works by modifying the decomposing organic matter during their passage through
the earthworms in a gut-associated process (Dominguez and Edwards 2011). These
processes reduce N losses when fresh manure is applied, reduce odor, eliminate or
reduce pathogens spreading and reduce the volume and weight of biomass (Peigne
and Girardin 2004; Gomez-Brandon et al. 2008; Hristov et al. 2011).
1.5.1.1 Use of Human Feces Through Composting
and Vermicomposting
Human feces are richly embedded with N and P because they consume crop and
animal products. Efcient use of human feces could improve nutrient circulation in
crop productivity. Yearly, about 3 of 35 Tg P that humans excrete spreads to the
water bodies through the sewage system (Van Vuuren et al. 2010).
Vermicomposting and composting represent good ways to recover nutrients from
human feces and turn them to manure. Breakdown of organic matter during
composting is due to the enzymes that hydrolyze complex macromolecules present
in the decomposing materials (Delgado et al. 2004). Vermicomposting processes and
composting process have a different effect on the nutrient prole of compost. Moya
et al. (2019) showed vermicomposting of human feces resulted in higher nutrient
availability than human feces composted. The composting process can save up to
42% of N, which varies with the type of procedures involved (Gomez-Brandon et al.
2008). Total N was 23 and 11 g kg
1
in compost and vermicompost prepared from
human feces, respectively. Available N (ammonium and nitrate) in the feces
vermicompost was 346% higher, i.e., 1009 vs. 217 mg kg
1
, organic carbon
(g kg
1
) was 125% lower, i.e., 175 vs. 393 g kg
1
, P availability was ten times
higher than in composted feces. In contrast, available potassium (K) of composted
human feces was ve times higher than vermicompost prepared from human feces.
The CN (carbon/nitrogen) ratio of the compost and vermicompost feces was 17 and
16, respectively. This suggests that composting of human feces represents an
excellent carbon (C) sequestration method compared to vermicomposting. Never-
theless, vermicomposting is a right method of increasing the N availability, thus
decreasing its loss and environmental pollution. The P increase may be attributed to
16 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
the digestion process of worms, which transformed the P from an organically bound
to a soluble and available form. Other minor elements like zinc (Zn), magnesium
(Mg), manganese (Mn), and Ca available in compost and vermicompost range from
3.5349 and 0.9946 mg kg
1
, respectively. This shows that they can be used as an
alternative to mineral fertilizer. Inclusion of vermicompost and compost at 20% and
40% levels, maintained NUE at levels delivered by 40% inorganic fertilizer inclu-
sion. Lesser quantity of vermicompost was needed to produce a similar efciency to
inorganic fertilizer.
1.5.1.2 Vermicomposting of Agricultural Waste
Vermicomposting processes help to stabilize and promote mineralization of organic
matter and could be used as a soil health promoter or organic fertilizer. Earthworm
(Eisenia fetida) is widely known for its ability to make compost out of agricultural
wastes and animal manures (Edwards et al. 1998). Vermicomposting of cow dung
and biogas plant waste having 70% moisture content increased cation exchange
capacity (CEC) and mineral content (Ca, K, and P) by 25104%. It increased N by
237382% and decreased total C by 2235% resulting in 80.983.9% decrease in
CN ratio, which is below 15. The increase in the amount of P may be attributed to the
conversion of P from organic matter into available form by enzymes present in
earthworm gut such as acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases (Le Bayon and
Binet 2006). Sharma and Garg (2017) reported that compost produced from sheep
(Ovis aries), cow (Bos taurus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and goat (Capra aegagrus
hircus) manure with earthworm had higher N, P, and K values, produced odor free
and homogenous vermicompost, while the CN ratio ranged from 15 to 38%. High
biomass gains of earthworm were observed under buffalo manure, which indicates
the richness of nutrients in the manure. As such, vermicomposting could improve the
fertilizer value of ruminant manure such as cattle, buffalo, etc., in a country like
India, where it is reared extensively in the dairy industry.
1.5.1.3 Enrichment of Manure through Co-Composting
Continuous use of manure as fertilizer represents a way to improve nutrient use in
the agricultural system. To encourage manure use, there is a need to upgrade the
nutrient prole of manure to the fertilizer equivalence of inorganic fertilizer. The
poultry industry is the fastest meat-producing industry in the livestock sector.
Presently, there are over 22 billion poultry population globally (FAOSTAT
2017), the highest for any livestock. This represents a tremendous amount of nutrient
concentration of N, P, K, and other microminerals (Christensen and Sommer 2013).
The manure is nutrient-rich because broiler diet is nutrient-dense due to short
fattening days. Compost made from co-composting of 70% poultry waste, 30%
rice husk, and 2% rock phosphate was found to have improved the CEC and
decreased CN ratio of composted manure (10.8) compared to unenriched compost
(24.83) (Mushtaq et al. 2019). Application of about 100 kg-N ha
1
of such compost
improved growth and nutritional value of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The rock
phosphate bio-oxidate the C into carbon dioxide (CO
2
) thereby reducing the CN
ratio. Similarly, co-composting of poultry or cattle manure alongside organic waste
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 17
with non-reactive ground phosphate rock at 8:2 ratio increased organic P availability
in the poultry manure compost than cattle manure compost. Furthermore, microbial
population (bacteria, fungi, actinomycete) and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, alkaline
phosphatase) activity in cattle manure compost were signicantly ( p<0.05) higher
than poultry manure compost (Kutu et al. 2019). This shows that P content and the
fertilizer value of manure could be improved by co-composting with phosphate rock.
Fecal and crop waste recycling involves collecting croplivestock waste and
reducing their volume by composting. The organic matter from pineapple (Ananas
comosus) leaves, and chicken slurry is rich in C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, sodium (Na), Zn,
copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and Mn in a range of 13.4127,600 mg l
1
(Chng et al.
2013). Co-composting of pineapple leaves with chicken slurry increased CEC by
108%, N by 40%, and P by 59%; whereas, C content was reduced throughout the
co-composting resulting in decreased CN ratio (Chng et al. 2013). The combined
role of bacteria and fungi decomposed available cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and
some resistant material. Also, the combination of heat, switching from mesophilic to
thermophilic and microbial increase aid the breakdown of recalcitrant substances
and set loose the polymers and linkages holding the nutrient and minerals. This
compost can be used in vegetable and fruit production or garden plantation in urban
and peri-urban areas, and to encourage back-yard farming.
1.5.2 Soil Amendment with Abattoir and Slaughterhouse Waste
In slaughterhouses, blood and rumen digesta are waste that is human inedible, and
they contain part of the nutrient ow in agriculture. Despite nutrient content in blood,
the use of blood to feed livestock is not encouraged due to zoonotic diseases.
However, because the nutrient load is high, applying them to the soil could be a
way to recover the nutrient. In a study, 2:1 and 3:1 mixture of waste blood and rumen
digesta applied at 5 g kg
1
soil increased concentrations of C, N, and P and soil
microbial population higher than diammonium phosphate (Roy et al. 2013). Besides,
they also reported an increased number of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit
and weight by 90110, and 113130% respectively, whereas chili (Capsicum
frutescens) fruit number by 39100% and fruit weight by 129258%. Furthermore,
sensory evaluation such as sourness, sweetness, and hotness of the grown chili and
tomato was identical to usual tomato and chili. This method could be used to
improve soil value in back-yard farming or to cultivate this crop.
1.5.3 Biochar
Biochar is an organic material produced by subjecting biomass such as agricultural
and agroindustry waste products and animal wastes to pyrolysis in heat between
300 and 700 C with limited oxygen (Lehmann 2009; Bajiya et al. 2017). Biochar
represents a means of concentrating nutrients in large biomass into a char form.
Pyrolyzing animal waste and crop residues instead of disposing-off could result in
18 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
nutrient recovery and recycling (Adegbeye et al. 2020). During pyrolysis, carboxyl
and phenolic groups are decomposed, and properties like surface area, porosity,
labile, or recalcitrance of chemical elements are altered. Biochar can be made from
several sources such as husks, manures, crop shells, and sawmill residue (Speratti
et al. 2018; Mirheidari et al. 2019). Biochar nutrients could be less volatile, stable,
and compact, which give room for its use as organic fertilizer. Biochar represents a
means of C sequestration in agriculture through which agriculture can be
eco-friendly. Therefore, it could improve soil C storage better than those directly
from animal manure, crop wastes, and composts (Fig. 1.5) (Kimetu and Lehmann
2010).
1.5.3.1 Biochar from Animal Manure
Biochar could be included as additives in feed to improve livestock productivity.
Mirheidari et al. (2019) reported that adding biochar prepared from walnut shell and
chicken manure at the rate of 1 and 1.5% of the diet, respectively, improved milk
yield, milk composition and ber digestibility. The increasing demand for pork and
other animal products could increase animal density, potentially resulting in an
unprecedented increase in ammonia (NH
3
) and nitrous oxide (N
2
O) emissions
coming from swine houses and litter if swine production continues in its business
as usual manner (Adegbeye et al. 2019). Co-composting of animal manure rich in N
could reduce its losses and increase nitrogen use efciency. Compost made from a
mixture of pig manure and biocharmicrobial inoculant powder [made from rice
straw and >110
8
CFU (colony-forming units) g
1
facultative microbes
(consisting Lactobacillus,Flavobacterium,Candida,Bacillus, and Actinomadura,
etc.)] for 42 days increased the compost pH by 3.10%, decreased TKN, CN ratio, and
cumulative NH
3
emissions, degraded organic matter, and detoxied the compost
(Tu et al. 2019). The decrease in NH
3
is because biochar is efcient at its adsorption
during the composting process (Steiner et al. 2010). Therefore, co-composting with
biochar and microbial inoculants will help improve compost quality, and reduce
NH
3
and N
2
O released during composting.
1.5.3.2 Biochar from Crop Waste
Subsistence and medium-scale farmers are affected by limits in their access to
inorganic P fertilizers (FAO 2005; Bationo et al. 2006). This results in an inability
to ll the crop yields potential, leading to increased yield gaps and food crop
imports. Biochar of some croplivestock waste could improve the reuse of minerals.
The relatively small pool of native soil P causes phosphorous deciency in soils
globally (Vance et al. 2003). Using manure alone result in low to a suboptimal level
of soil P (Kutu 2012). In an era challenged with P pollution and depletion in
phosphate rocks, biochar could be an alternative source of organic P, resulting in
decreased use of inorganic P.
Biochar from sawdust, corn cob, rice husk, coffee (Coffea spp.) husk, and
groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) husk had 10.61, 10.68, 12.26, 15.83, and
20.50 mg kg
1
available P, respectively. Similarly, N and K range from
4.1711.34 g kg
1
and 2.165.43 c mol kg
1
, respectively (Billa et al. 2019).
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 19
Fig. 1.5 Biochar use in agricultural production (Adapted Adegbeye et al. 2020)
20 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
Surprisingly, sawdust had low available P despite containing higher P (86 mg kg
1
)
in its raw form (Adamu et al. 2014). This could be because wood-based biochar
minerals tend to be more recalcitrant (Wang et al. 2016). Presently in Nigeria,
sawdust is burnt because it has no commercial use, yet it is being produced in
large quantities in sawmills. Biochar could serve as a source of recovering some
nutrients in the sawdust. Biochar of poultry manure at 350450 C had
14.919.5 g kg
1
dry matter P and 1014.8 labile P g kg
1
feedstock, respectively,
and the N and K contents of poultry manure biochar increased (Keskinen et al.
2019). This could constitute a signicant source of both macro and micronutrients
for crop production. Alternatively, such biochar could be used as a source of organic
P in livestock. Pyrolyzing at a lower temperature may increase mineral availability,
which could be used as a supplement in livestock farming. A study found a higher N
and P in biochar made from poultry litter at 350 C compared to 700 C (UC Davis
Biochar Database 2019). This variation is because incomplete pyrolysis occurs at a
lower temperature and this results in a higher mineral element in labile forms. The
complete pyrolysis of biochar occurring at high temperature leads to the recalci-
trance of the mineral element. This suggests that pyrolyzing at a lower temperature
could increase the available P and other minerals. The use of labile biochar has been
able to improve soil microbial activity (Ameloot et al. 2013). This increase could be
due to better soil structure, moisture, and enhanced nutrient availability, which can
be linked with NUE. Therefore, the biochar could be applied in livestock feeding as a
partial substitute for inorganic P source.
1.5.3.3 Biochar on Plant Performance
Biochar has benecial effects on crop and animal production systems and even
reduced CH
4
emission in ruminants (Leng et al. 2012: Thuy Hang et al. 2019).
Further, it has improved soil microbial community structure, soil enzyme activities,
soil respiration, and C mineralization (Palansooriya et al. 2019). Also, its augmented
soil pH increases microbial population and community structure (Kolton et al. 2016),
soil moisture content, water retention capacity, water use efciency, and, ultimately,
crop yield (Fischer et al. 2019). Biochar applied at the rate of 1%, or 16 t ha
1
(tonne
per hectare) equivalent was able to improve crop productivity and soil nutrient status
(Speratti et al. 2018). Similarly, biochar of rice husk and straw compost (straw husk
ash, sawdust, water hyacinth, and prebiotic decomposers) improved the rice straws
growth, i.e., plant height and the number of tillers with higher yields (Nisa et al.
2019). Furthermore, Tibouchina biochar elevated soil mineral concentration (Mg, K,
Ca, and Zn), decreased soil acidity, increased soil microbiome species richness, and
improved cassava growth (von Gunten et al. 2019). Biochar improves soil structure,
soil moisture content, while inorganic fertilizer adds value to a nutrient-decient soil.
Co-application of biochar and inorganic fertilizer could work in a synergistic
relationship. A two-year study on an intensive ricewheat cropping system showed
that co-application of 25 t ha
1
biochar plus 270 kg urea ha
1
increased rice yield, N
uptake, and NUE (Wang et al. 2019). Likewise, Brazil nut husk biochar (1 ton ha
1
)
or biochar plus fertilizer improved seedling survival and growth of some tropical
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 21
trees (Lefebvre et al. 2019). Thus, biochar could be valuable in returning nutrients to
the agronomic and agroforestry system.
1.6 Fungi as a Source for Improving the Resource Use
Efficiency of Crop Residue
Fungi represent a vital source of improving the supply of nutrients through the use of
fermentation technology from available alternative feed resources. Several fungi
such as Phlebia brevispora,P. fascicularia,P. oridensis, and P. radiata (Sharma
and Arora 2011), Aspergillus terreus (Jahromi et al. 2011), Pleurotus orida and
Pleurotus eous (Sivagurunathan and Sivasankari 2015), and Pleurotus pulmonarius
(Ariff et al. 2019) have produced valuable materials or improved the nutritional
quality, digestibility and decreased the lignin content of crop residues. Therefore,
fungi could play a crucial role in enhancing the output derivable from crop wastes.
1.6.1 Fungi on Crop Residue Quality
Fungi grow on plant materials rich in cellulose and lignin because they can synthe-
size multiple enzymes such as ferulic acid, cellulase, lignases, amylase,
glucoamylase, esterases, and peptidases. These enzymes have ber degrading
properties capable of effectively biodegrading feed materials. Solid-state fermenta-
tion of crop residues with lamentous fungi represents a low-cost method of
upgrading the limiting nutritional content to feed grade quality by taking advantage
of natural enzymatic secretions. In practice, exogenous enzymes from Aspergillus
spp. and Trichoderma spp.improve feed digestibility, yet, they could be expensive
and inaccessible to farmers in many countries. Fungal inoculation and fermentation
could enhance the protein content and digestibility of low-quality crop residue.
Fermenting cassava residue for 7, 14, and 21 days with fungi Aspergillus oryzae
increased the protein content by 104, 140, and 246.6%, respectively (Hong and Ca
2013). The crude protein also increased as the fermentation days increased. This
affords farmers the choice of increasing the protein content of crop residue as
desired. Likewise, fermentation with A. oryzae FK-923 and A. awamori F-524
decreased acid detergent ber, neutral detergent ber, phenol, and lignin, and
improved the amino acid microbial protein. Also, the enzyme activity such as
cellulase, xylanase, amylase, glucoamylase, laccase, and phytase increased during
digestion (Fadel and El-Ghonemy 2015). Further, the enhanced enzymatic activities
broke down cell linkages, and the phytase increased the availability of P. The
increase phytase activity will release available P that is chelated with phytic acid
thereby preventing P pollution (Konietzny and Greiner 2002).
Lignin remains a signicant deterrent to effective digestibility of crop residues. It
limits the impacts of gut microbes and their enzymatic activity/secretion on the
lignocellulolytic materials. Many crop residues are lignocellulosic at harvest time,
which reduces ruminantsability to derive nutrients efciently. Corn straw
22 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
inoculated with Pleurotus ostreatus increased crude protein, soluble protein, and
carbohydrate and decreased neutral detergent ber. In vivo trial increased average
daily gain and decreased feed conversion ratio by 31.05 and 13.35%, respectively, in
Pelibuey lamb (Ramírez-Bribiesca et al. 2010).
White-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) produces a strong ligninolytic
enzyme with energetic oxidative efciency (Liang et al. 2010) and can efciently
degrade lignin into CO
2
(Hofrichter 2002). The use of 0.007% di-rhamnolipid
biosurfactant alongside white-rot fungus decreased lignin content in rice straw by
54%. The degradation was as a result of the establishment of terrace-like fragments
separated from the inner cellular bers and the release of simple compounds (Liang
et al. 2010). The biosurfactant improves the spread of water into rice straw pores,
enhancing mass oxygen transfer into large areas (Van der Meer et al. 1992: Fu et al.
2007). Therefore, as oxygen level increases, there is a production of hydrogen
peroxide and this induces lignocellulolytic activity (Sanchez 2009).
1.6.2 Fungi on Greenhouse Gases Mitigation
There is a positive correction between high brous diet, and GHGs production.
Therefore, there is a need to develop and implement feeding and management
strategies that reduce GHGs and subsequently increase feed digestibility (Faniyi
et al. 2019). Several herbs like neem (Azadirachta indica), garlic (Allium sativum),
moringa (Moringa oleifera), weeping willow (Salix babylonica) and exogenous
enzyme have been used as additives in either or both in vitro and in vivo studies to
reduce CH
4
production. Despite the relationship between high brous diet and CH
4
emission, fungi fermentation of brous materials could play a central role in
improving digestibility and mitigating CH
4
emission. For example, fermentation
with A. terreus can produce anti-methanogenic metabolites known as Lovastatin
(Jahromi et al. 2013).
Mohd Azlan et al. (2018) reported that rice straw fermented with A. terreus for
14 days decreased methanogens due to the lovastatin, decreased ber fraction and
improved the dry matter digestibility. Aspergillus terreus fermentation offers
farmers the ability to produce an animal protein with a less environmental footprint,
increase degradability of crop residues and the manure obtained can be used for
making vermicomposting or biochar for further nutrients recovery. Also, brown rot
(Serpula lacrymans) produced reducing sugar when used for fermenting cacao pod,
rice straw, corn cobs and leaves, and sugarcane (Saccharum ofcinarum) bagasse
(Nurika et al. 2019). This indicates multiple substrate metabolism, tolerance to
phenol, and ability to break up lignin structures.
1.6.3 Edible Fungi (Mushroom)
Fungi improve the nutrient content and digestibility of human-inedible plant bio-
mass. The growing edible mushroom provides farmers with the option of meeting
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 23
human nutritional needs from human inedible. Edible mushrooms are an option to
reduce waste and generate valuable materials in agriculture. Mushroom farming is an
efcient way of converting low-quality organic materials to quality food with higher
nutritional and economic value. Mushroom is a cheap source of balanced nutrition
due to the stable mineral and vitamin composition, ber and protein. The amino acid
prole is better than potatoes and carrots (Daucus carota) (Mattila et al. 2002).
Furthermore, it contains antioxidants, phenol, and antibacterial compounds that can
enhance the immune system and reduce stress (Borchers et al. 2008; Zhou et al.
2010). Mushrooms market represents a multi-billion-dollar industry, and its con-
sumption has increased by a minimum of 3.7 kg per capital post-millennium (Royse
et al. 2017). The substrate left after mushroom harvest can be anaerobically digested
for bioenergy, fed to livestock, or burnt for ash. Farmers can use different substrates
such as palm oil bunch and sawdust, etc., to grow mushroom.
1.6.3.1 Mushroom Growth/Fortification with Animal Waste/By-Product
Improving the biological efciency and quality of the mushroom depends largely on
the nutritional balance of the substrate (Rizki and Tamai 2011). Edible mushrooms
can be grown on human-inedible organic resources. Furthermore, edible fungis
nutritional value can be improved in the growth phase by biofortication with
organic minerals. Biofortication of white-rot fungi and Lentinus squarrosulus has
grown on either coconut husk or palm kernel ber and fortied with Ca-rich animal
waste (eggshell of chicken, snail shell, and the bone shaft of the cow) or Ca salts
produced Ca-enriched mushroom with adequate K, protein, and dietary bers with
low fat (Ogidi et al. 2019). The calcium compounds in the organic substrate
inuenced the growth and development of mushroom by stimulating the hyphal
apices (Royse and Sanchez-Vazquez 2003). Similarly, chicken manure alongside
paddy straw increased (Pleurotus orida and Pleurotus eous) growth by
100105 g 500 g
1
, biological efciency by 2021%, and the nutritional content
(carbohydrate and protein) of mushroom (Sivagurunathan and Sivasankari 2015).
This shows that chicken manure can be a source of N in mushroom farming.
However, the pathogenic load must be reduced.
1.6.3.2 Mushroom Waste and Spent Substrates
Spent mushroom substrates could be used as livestock feed because they have high
cellulose and smaller particles. The delignication caused by ligninolytic enzymes
like crude laccase and manganese peroxidase is also advantageous (Ariff et al.
2019). One percent oyster mushroom added as a substitute for maize in broiler
diet increased nal body weight, feed intake and had humoral immunity similar to
the control (Fard et al. 2014). About 12 tons of the highly degradable spent
mushroom substrate are produced from every 1 ton of mushroom harvested (Vijay
2005). These spent substrates are rich in C and other nutrients, and the multi-enzyme
mushroom residue makes them rapidly digestible. They could be used as materials
during anaerobic digestion for rural energy needs. The co-digestion of cattle dung
with 2% spent mushroom waste increased biogas production up to 30% (Malik et al.
2014). This increment in gas production might be due to the activities of
24 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
dehydrogenase, which increased by 12.8%. Likewise, the enzyme residue naturally
present in mushroom may have enhanced the degradation of organic matter in cow
dung, giving access to more surface area for an anaerobic microbial breakdown.
1.7 Waste and Their Use in Livestock Feeding
Increasing NUE from existing feed resources or tapping new non-conventional feed
resources represents a way to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of
feedstuff (Wadhwa and Bakshi 2016). Agroindustry and agri-food processing
wastes, kitchen and restaurant waste are common resources available in crop
livestockindustrialhuman interactions. Agricultural waste streams are not to be
considered nutrient debiting/loss, rather valuable resources (Grimm and Wösten
2018). Therefore, diverting food waste into feed can replace the cereal-based diet
of livestock with human-inedible resources (NAS 2019). The use of these inedible
human waste and human-edible-but-wasted products as livestock feed may be an
efcient way to recycle nutrient to produce high-value consumable livestock
products. However, using the kitchen, agronomic and agri-food wastes alone in
monogastric diet represents a threat to protein and micronutrient security. Feeding
livestock with only human-inedible feedstuffs will reduce global livestock meat
from poultry and swine by 53 and 91%, respectively, and egg production by 90%
(Schader et al. 2015).
1.7.1 Cassava and Fruit Waste
Inedible human materials constitute over 80% of global livestock feed (Mottet et al.
2017). Despite environmental issues, ruminant farming permits incorporation of
human-inedible wastes into livestock diet without adverse effect on global beef
and milk production. Cassava (Manihot esculentus) is widely grown in the tropics
and is a source of different product such as starch, fuel, and our products. In cassava
processing industries, there are bioethanol cassava wastesa lignocellulolytic mate-
rial containing some dissolved solids (mainly starch and minerals) are available at
low cost. The nutrient in it shows that it has the potentials to be used in livestock feed
as a substitute to established materials. Partial replacement of a conventional protein
source Holstein-Friesian calvesration with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
fermented cassava bioethanol wastes at the rate of 520% did not negatively affect
nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristic (rumen pH,
rumen microbes, and total volatile fatty acids) (Cherdthong and Supapong 2019).
Similarly, fermented cassava bioethanol waste added to duck diet at the rate of 5%
improved the average daily gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio (Lei et al.
2019). Therefore, incorporating fermented cassava bioethanol into livestock diet
may reduce environmental pollution from cassava industry and improve values
derivable from cassava.
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 25
Pineapple fruit residue can be a treasured local resource alternative or a comple-
ment to green fodder as livestock feed. Adding 62% ensiled pineapple fruit residue
to cattle diet improved the nal body weight, digestibility, increased total average
milk yield and milk fat, and decreased feed cost per kg gain by 24.19% compared to
maize green fodder silage (Gowda et al. 2015).
1.7.2 Antinutritional Factor/Plant Metabolite Removal
Tannins could have both positive and negative impact on livestock. Tannins could
be an antinutritional factor and it could be a phytochemical additive that manipulates
the rumen ecosystem, mitigates CH
4
emission, and reduces fecal egg count, etc.
Many non-conventional feed ingredients that are rich in protein have limited use
because of secondary plant metabolites. Therefore, there is a need for processes that
will reduce the antinutritional metabolites. The treatment of wheat straw with
tannase reduced tannin content by 49.791.1% and further fermentation of wheat
straw with white-rot fungi (Ganoderma spp.) plus 0.1% tannase increased crude
protein, acid detergent ber, and lignin degradation by 28, 17, and 57%, respectively
(Raghuwanshi et al. 2014). The acid detergent ber (ADF) and lignin degradation
may be attributed to the increase in laccase and xylanase enzymatic activity during
fermentation. Therefore, pretreatment of tannin-rich unconventional ingredient with
Penicillium charlesiia tannase producing enzymecould be used to decrease
tannin. Further fermentation with well-established fungus species such as Aspergil-
lus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Trichoderma spp., etc., could improve the crude protein
and decrease the ber fraction components. Such fermentation process could help to
improve the use of ingredients within the unconventionalcategories.
1.7.3 Kitchen and Dairy Waste
Kitchen, restaurant, and party wastes are valuable feedstuff for animal nutrition.
They are available at little to no cost depending on the location of acquisition. They
consist of bones, pepper, and other food ingredients which qualify them as a junk of
nutrients.However, before use, there is a need to improve the nutritional quality
and microbial safety of these wastes. Probiotics can be used to advance food
processing and quality, and amino acid utilization by lowering protein degradation
(Mikulec et al. 1999). Application of Lactobacilli group (L. acidophilus,L. casei,
L. plantarum,andL. reuteri) in fermenting restaurant waste increased the gross
energy (1.558.1%), crude protein (3.3911.97%), as well as increased dry matter
content of restaurant waste (Saray et al. 2014). The proliferation of Lactobacilli
using the carbohydrate and N compound in the trash as a source of protein could
have increased the microbial protein resulting in an increased crude protein of the
material. Besides, Lactobacilli can produce metabolites such as bacteriocin hydro-
gen peroxide, lactacins, and reuterin (b-hydroxy-propionaldehyde) (Avall-
Jaaskelainen and Palva 2005; Parvez et al. 2006; Takahashi 2013). These
26 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
compounds have vast antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microbes and could
inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms, leaving available free N for
microbial growth. This processed restaurant waste could be fed to pigs and poultry.
Dairy production is one of the most valuable agricultural products sector that
resource-poor farmers can participate without much capital. Milk is a readily avail-
able animal protein source to smallholder farmers that are into ruminant farming.
During processing, milk liquid (whey) is produced due to the coagulation of total
solids in milk, and it is eliminated in both formal and informal cheese-making
industry. However, in Nigerias informal market, whey is sold together with the
raw cheese wàrà.Whey is rich in proteins, mineral elements (Ca, P, and sulfur),
vitamins, and sugars, including lactose). Therefore, the use of whey in livestock diet
is a means of recovering P, protein, and other minerals. Application of dried whey
powder as replacements for soybean at the rate of 25100% in lambs diet improved
total body weight gain by 17.6556.87% and decreased feed conversion ratio
(Kareem et al. 2018). Therefore, whey could be added as protein alternatives in
sh, poultry, pig, and ruminant diet. It could be used to wet swine feed or mixed with
sh feed before pelleting.
1.8 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Recovery and Release
A system that allows increased output compared to input and at the same time
provides an opportunity for the reuse of the output within the producing system
increases nutrient use efciency (Runo et al. 2006). The amount of N and P lost in
crop and livestock production systems indicate poor NUE in the agricultural pro-
duction systems (Adegbeye et al. 2020). An oversupply of nutrients especially
overfeeding in intensive systems, or imbalance between nutrients (Sutton et al.
2013) causes these. Nitrogen utilization efciency in livestock is low and it is usually
in the range of 545% depending on animal species, system, and management
(Oenema 2006), while the rest are passed out in feces and urine. Over 80% of N
and 2575% of P used, if not stored in the soil, gets lost to the environment (Sutton
et al. 2013), indicating low NUE in agricultural systems. To improve the NUE in
agrarian operations, there is a need for precise application of minerals tailored
towards crop and animal needs, and recovery and recycling of nutrients from
livestock manure and human feces.
If human excreta were collected over the globe, it would consist about one-third
of the current N, P, and K consumption (Ellen MacArthur Foundation 2013). Human
urine consists of 13% C, 1418% N, 3.7% P, and 3.7% K, whereas the feces consist
of >50% C, 57% N, 35.4% P, and 12.5% K (Vassilev et al. 2010; Rose et al.
2015). Furthermore, about 3 Tg P out of 35 Tg P in human excreta annually seeps
into the river through sewage leaks (Van Vuuren et al. 2010). It is also projected that
N (6.4 Tg) and P (1.6 Tg) emission at the beginning of the millennium would have
increased by 87.5150 and 85139.5%, respectively, in 2050 (Van Drecht et al.
2009). This will be due to increased human population and improved economic state
of developing countries of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, resulting in a transition
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 27
from cereals-based diets to animal protein, fruit, and vegetables rich diets. This
necessitates the need to turn human excreta to organic fertilizer and recover some
nutrients from it. In many countries of Africa under energy decit, the recovery of
nutrient from human excreta and manure could be a source of energy and
biofertilizer. Similarly, biochar of human feces could be a means of recovering N,
P, and other micro-elements (Adegbeye et al. 2020). It will help to reduce the
quantity of any nutrient that could be lost and increase the value derivable from
organic resources. This biochar of human excreta should be incompletely pyrolyzed
to enhance available N, P, and K to ensure maximum nutrient recovery before its use
as a soil conditioner.
1.8.1 Phosphorus Use: Recovery and Release
Direct application of urine or manure slurries to soil decreases N-xing ability of soil
(Di et al. 2002) and it causes overapplication of P than is needed by crop (Burns and
Moody 2002). Furthermore, the nonrenewable of rock phosphate, and the possibility
of P shortage in the future call for the need to get P from another source, which might
include the recovery from wastewater and manure. To reduce P pollution, precipita-
tion of struvite could be a medium of recovering P from animal manure (Burns and
Moody 2002).
Struvite is a mineral substance that contains an equimolar amount of Mg,
ammonium, and phosphate ions, and is measured as a good P source (Barak and
Stafford 2006). Precipitation of struvite occurs during supersaturationwhere over
three ions in wastewater exceed struvite solubility (0.2 g l
1
) (Barak and Stafford
2006) or at a pH between 8.5 and 9.5 (Uysal et al. 2010). A 1 to 0.5 ratio of cow urine
to brine (inexpensive source of Mg) produced the best struvite, and the struvite was
added at up to 2 g kg
1
of soil, it resulted in optimal growth of green gram (Vigna
radiata) (Prabhu and Mutnuri 2014). If up to 40 g struvite is produced per liter of
urine, up to 12,176 t of struvite could be produced in a day. This has the potential to
be used as a good source of phosphate fertilizer. Similarly, application of nitric acid
to dairy cattle slurry allows the recovery of P content in 2.5 h and anaerobic digesta
in 48 hours by 100 and 90%, respectively, and further precipitation with Mg:N:P in
ratio 1:1:1 at pH 8.0 resulted in the formation ofamorous Ca-phosphatesa
potential fertilizer (Oliveira et al. 2016).
The use of phytasea hydrolytic enzymeto initiate the dephosphorylation of
phytate (Abdel-Megeed and Tahir 2015) or decreasing the phytic acid in feed
ingredient could be an effective way to reduce inorganic P excretion and accumula-
tion on livestock farms. Therefore, as phytic acid decreases, an increase in phytase
indicates improved availability of imbedded or inherent organic P. Wheat straw
fermented with fungal Aspergillus cuum at 30 C increased phytase production by
22-folds and decreased phytic acid by 57.4% after 144 h of incubation (Shahryari
et al. 2018). Thus, fermenting wheat straw or crop residues abundant in phytate
before feeding them to livestock could increase the availability of organic P and
decrease P excretion to the environment.
28 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
1.8.2 Controlled Release of Nitrogen
Controlled release of urea with the barrier to decrease its dissolution rate represents a
way to minimize N losses from the eld (Shavit et al. 2003). Low cost, nontoxic, and
biodegradable suitable coating barrier could improve nutrient efciency and, reduce
the environmental risks (Tomaszewska et al. 2002). Application of bio-polymeric
materials, such as lignin from waste lignin controlling N released from urea. The
waste lignin modied by acetylation reactionacetylated kraft lignin and sulte
lignin slowed the release of N by enhancing its hydrophobicity (Behin and Sadeghi
2016). This delayed water permeability and mineral release. Furthermore, the
dissolution rate of urea decreased by 2545% as coating material increased from
5 to 15%. This could be applied in coating other mineral compounds to control its
release in livestock. For example, coated urea in the ruminant feed caused the
controlled release of N in the rumen, thereby decreasing the N
2
O emission and
total GHGs emission potentiality (Reddy et al. 2019a,b).
1.9 Microlivestock Farming
Bushmeat (meat from animals in the wild) from a giant rat, antelope, cane rat, deer,
monkey, and snails have always served as an alternative source of animal protein
among rural dwellers. This contradicts the public opinion that rural dwellers lack
animal protein. However, recent endemic diseases such as Ebola, Lassa fever, and
Monkeypox in Nigeria were linked with consumption of bushmeat. As alternatives,
domestication of some microlivestock in developing countries can serve as a means
of improving protein security. Examples of microlivestock that could be reared are
snails, grasscutter, and rabbit, etc. Rearing these animals requires fewer resources
such as land, water, and feed. Sales of unprocessed or processed bushmeat empower
women because it provides nancial leverage and security. Meat from
microlivestock such as grasscutter, snail, and rabbit commands premium price
than beef, chevon, mutton, milk, and egg in Nigeria, etc. Therefore, rearing these
animals could improve the use of land as agricultural resources (Fig. 1.6).
1.9.1 Snail Farming
Snail farming is also known as heliculture. The meat of snail is high in protein, Fe,
Ca, Mg, and low in fat. Breeds of snail such as Archachatina marginata and
Achatina achatina can be reared and fed with fruit waste and leaves, as well as
other household and food processing by-product. However, they must not contain
salt. Snails can be fed with concentrate, pawpaw (Asimina triloba) fruit, eggplant
(Solanum melongena), banana (Musa spp.), plantain (Plantago major), tomatoes,
cucumber (Cucumis sativus), palm fruits, maize chaffa by-product of ogi extract,
and potato peel, etc. This provides a means of improving the use of space on the
farms by producing a high-quality protein that could be sold at a premium price, both
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 29
in Nigeria and West African regions. Their hermaphrodite nature permits them to
reproduce quickly, laying up to 400 hatchable eggs. Setting up a snail farm is cheap;
it could be raised in vehicle tire, drum, pots, old tanks, baskets, and cages.
1.9.2 Rabbits Farming
Domestication of rabbits is well documented. Rabbit production empowers women
and children (El-Adawy et al. 2019). It offers smallholder farmer who cannot afford
large livestock the chance to produce animal protein, as well as provide a source of
fertilizer. The gestation period of a rabbit is short about 31 days and they are a highly
prolic animal that can produce up to 510 bunnies per kindling. Rabbit can be fed
fruits, forages, and some wastes that are not stale. Anecdotal observation indicates
that it tastes better than chicken. Besides, the manure of rabbit is rich in N, P, and K
so that it could be used as fertilizer. The N, P, and K in rabbit feces are 140, 75, and
53% higher than chicken manure, respectively (Lebas et al. 1996). Furthermore,
Tabaro et al. (2012) reported that rabbit farming could be integrated with aquaculture
reared in an earthen pond and the pond fertilized with rabbit feces produced higher
sh mass and sh-net production.
1.9.3 Grasscutter
Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) farming is highly protable. The grasscutter
reproduces quickly and in good numbers. Grasscutter has a gestation period of
140150 days and can produce up to 820 young ones/years, and an adult, it can
reach up to 36 kg. They are herbivores, as such; they can be maintained on cheap
Fig. 1.6 Microlivestock farming
30 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
materials such as elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), guinea grass
(Megathyrsus maximus), sugarcane, gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus), root and
pitch of oil and coconut palm, pawpaw, groundnut, cassava, etc. Financially,
grasscutter commands a premium price in a big restaurant. Other non-conventional
ingredients can be used to formulate the diet of grasscutter. Edoror and Okoruwa
(2017) fed grasscutter with cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao) shell and cocoyam
(Colocasia esculenta) peel as a replacement for grass, i.e., CS30 (30% cocoa
beans shell + 40% cocoyam peel and 30% concentrate diet) and CS40 (40% cocoa
bean shell + 30% cocoyam peel and 30% concentrate diet). The CS30 and CS40 had
nal bodyweight that is 6 and 24.81% higher than control diet and lower feed
conversion ratio.
1.10 Phytotherapy
Phytotherapy is the application of the phytochemicals existent in the plant for health
benets in animals. Phytotherapy provides a means of improving the health and
growth performance of livestock among farmers that cannot afford drugs and
veterinary services. Furthermore, the use of phytogenic feed additives to improve
growth performance and feed digestibility also plays a part in RUE. For resource-
poor farmers, the use of herbs from local plant serves as alternatives to expensive and
inaccessible commercial anthelmintic. These plants may be referred to as
nutraceuticals based on health benet derived from them rather than a direct contri-
bution to animal nutrition (Waller and Thamsborg 2004). Frequent applications and
improper dosage result in the ineffectiveness of acaricidal and antihelminth. Further-
more, the interest of consumers to go greenin most of their consumables has
drawn attention to the agelong but abandoned practices of using herbs for animals
health benet. This practice known as ethnoveterinary medicine draws inspiration
from traditional practices where the range of plant(s) or plant extract suitable for
treating almost every parasitic disease of livestock is used (International Institute of
Rural Reconstruction 1994). Diseases that phytochemicals seek to address are both
internal and external parasites such as helminths, mange, ringworms, mastitis, foot
rot, etc.(Table 1.1).
Several plants from both agronomic, botanical and agroforestry system in the
form of herbs, seeds, root, and barks have been used in treating livestock. Neem and
pawpaw seed were able to decrease the population of parasitic egg in poultry chicken
(Feroza et al. 2017). In Nigeria, Usman (2016) reported that nomadic farmers use
herbs, stems, seeds, leaf extract to control diarrhea, fever, ringworm, mastitis,
mange, poor milk let down, foot and mouth disease through topical, oral, or feeding
to animals. In small ruminants, intestinal worms such as Haemonchus contortus,
Strongyloides spp., and Trichostrongylus spp.are prevalent parasites, and herbs can
control them. Ameen et al. (2010) reported that both aqueous extract and the dry seed
of pawpaw decreased Haemonchus contortus,Trichostrongylus spp., Strongyloides
spp., and Ostertagia spp. population in West African Dwarf sheep. Adebayo et al.
(2019) report that 10% inclusion of scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) in the diet
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 31
Table 1.1 Summary of plants inuence on pathogens
Pathogen
Animal
species Plant parts Form Quantity Effects Reference
Not specied Zebu
cattle
(Bos
taurus
indicus)
Neem leaf and Ata leaf
(Annona reticulata)
Powder 200 mg kg
1
8495% decrease in fecal egg
count in 28 days
Sarker
(2014)
Haemonchus contortus Sheep Neem, Tobacco (Nicotiana
spp.), Calotropis procera
ower, and Trachyspermum
ammi seed
Aqueous
herbal
formulations
2 g and
4gkg
1
body weight
Decreased fecal egg count by
91.6 and 96.2% after 15 days
Zaman
et al.
(2012)
Mixed nematode
(Haemonchus contortus,
Trichostrongylus spp.,
Oesophagostomum
columbianum, and
Trichuris ovis)
Sheep Trianthema portulacastrum
whole plant and leaves of
Musa paradiasiaca
Crude
aqueous
methanolic
extract
8gkg
1
Decreased the fecal egg by
85.6 and 80.7%, respectively,
on 15 days post-partum
Hussain
et al.
(2011)
Gastrointestinal nematode Goats Neem, pineapple, bitter gourd
(Momordica charantia), and
clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
Ethanol
extract
100 mg kg
1
7383% decrease against
gastrointestinal nematodes in
goats within 9 days
Sujon
et al.
(2008)
Eimeria spp.,
Trichostrongylus spp., and
Strongyloides spp.
Grazing
goat
Neem seed extract and garlic
extract
Extract
mixed with
feed bock
1.53 and
2%,
respectively
Decreased Eimeria spp., by
5193%, Trichostrongylus
spp. by 3.835%, and
Strongyloides spp. by 5473%
in 60 days
Sales
et al.
(2016)
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus
In vitro A methanol extract of pawpaw
seeds
100 mg ml
1
Killed over 80% of their larvae
and over 90% adults in
15 days, inhibited egg mass per
replicate
Shyma
et al.
(2014)
32 M. J. Adegbeye et al.
reduced fecal worm egg count in west African dwarf goat. The reduction in the
counts of goat fed scent leaf diets could be attributed to the presence of
antinutritional factors especially tannin and phenolswhich can control some
endoparasites in animals (Butter et al. 2001).
Grazing animals and those in an extensive system of ruminant production are
mainly affected by worm and other parasitic infestation. To control this parasitic
infection requires regular treatment with anthelmintic. Applying herbs in block licks
could help reduce the population of these endoparasites. In application, herbal
extracts with anthelmintic potential could be added during mineral and salt lick
production as a means to control internal parasites (Sales et al. 2016).
Ticks are economically signicant parasites in the tropics and subtropics and are
prevalent in wet seasons (Bram 1983). Besides their potential to cause anemia, their
sites of binding could cause injury to animals and be a source of secondary
infections. However, prolonged use and overuse of chemical ectoparasites resulted
in the large-scale development of resistance in these parasites (Adenubi et al. 2016).
Extract of pawpaw seeds inhibits egg mass per replicate and oviposition, prevents
the reproduction of tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus) and killed over 80%
of larvae (Shyma et al. 2014). This shows that topical application of such extract
could be used to control tick both in the rainy and dry season in tropical regions
where nomadic farming is still in practice.
1.11 Conclusions
The sustainable practices in agriculture of today will be essential for food security.
To ensure food security in developing countries of the world, smallholder farmer
must be given feasible options that would help them in providing nutrient from their
soil and ensure that nutrient in the agricultural system continues to ow in circular
manure through the coupling of crop and livestock system even if they are spatially
apart. In the agricultural industry, nutrient recovery and recycling remain the feasible
option than is economical, eco-friendly, easily adoptable, and multi-benecial to
farmers and livestock feeding. Insect farming, anaerobic digestion, wastewater
reuse, composting, vermicomposting, biochar, fungal intervention, and
microlivestock farming are options that could aid the reuse and even add values to
waste generated in the agricultural system. Tremendous cooperation will play an
imperative role in developing the recovery of phosphate from urine and also the
development of portable or xed biogas chamber for anaerobic digestion. These
options will ensure that smallholder farmers can increase the efciency of essential
agricultural resourcesland, water, and nutrients.
1 Waste Recycling for the Eco-friendly Input Use Efficiency in Agriculture and... 33
1.12 Future Perspectives
Resources distribution/availability towards agriculture will continue to shrink as
other industries compete for the same agriculture related bio-resources for agriculture
and livestock feeding. This chapter provides insight into the enormous benets that
could be derived from recycling waste. Wastes in agriculture may not be a bad
thing but rather, an opportunity to convert organic materials to other forms. We
reckon that through the transformation of wastes or linkage of wastes from one
agricultural system to the other, nothing will be termed as waste. Smallholder/
resource-constrained farmers will nd great potential in collaborating on the use of
by-products as rich resources. Large-/medium-scale farmers can turn waste to
economically valuable resources through biochar, water recycling, composting,
mushroom production, and nutrient recovery. Due to the scarcity of water resources
in regions, agriculture-industry wastewater can be redistributed after applying mini-
mal treatment to convert it into valuable irrigation resources in the future. Similar,
human and animal wastes could be a source of fertilizer and raw materials for mining
nitrogen and phosphorus. The nitrogen and phosphorus obtained from it may not be
as the common inorganic fertilizer as we know it today, but if these minerals are
mined from both human and animal feces, they could reduce environmental pollu-
tion. Besides, vermicomposting and composting processes can serve as an alterna-
tive to inorganic fertilizer or can work in synergy with inorganic fertilizer thereby
reducing the quantity of inorganic fertilizer used. Furthermore, microlivestock is of
great potential as it will bring the wildnearer to consumers and help to reduce
encroachment into the wild thereby reducing the dangerous wildlife are exposed to
in the hand of a poacher. Similarly, due to the controlled condition of rearing it will
reduce the chance of zoonotic diseases. Finally, microbes especially fungi have an
enormous role in ensuring resource use efciency. The roles range from enhancing
rumen degradation, food production in mushroom, greenhouse gas mitigation,
increasing the nutritional value of food by decreasing common antinutritional factors
in plants. Increasing the reuse or recycling of agricultural system wastes through
redistribution, recovery, value addition, etc., will improve nutrient use efciency.
However, nothing is a waste in agriculture.
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... Land, water, and nutrients are essential resources on which agriculture owes its function and existence. The effective use of these resources provides access to food produced and is also a feature of a good agricultural system (Adegbeye et al., 2020). However, due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizer (CF) in agricultural production and the separation of farming and breeding caused by the development of agricultural industrialization, the current agricultural system is faced with problems, such as deterioration of soil quality, nutrient loss, and irrigation water pollution (Cui et al., 2018;Duan et al., 2021), which seriously affect the sustainable development of the agricultural system. ...
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... Feeding maize stover to livestock, especially under communal grazing system implies that N in the maize straws is exported out of the field, and the recycling process is neglected (table 3). However, this could have been effective if farmers consider livestock manure as a source of nutrients in the cropping systems, as it would form a viable strategy of developing a closed nutrient cycling system (Adegbeye et al 2020). The activity of burning the crop residues is associated with the emission of large amounts of GHG, including methane (CH 4 ) and N 2 O, that are harmful to the environment (Romasanta et al 2017). ...
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Full-text available
Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) is one of the established metrics for benchmarking management of Nitrogen (N) in various systems. Numerous approaches to calculate NUE exist, making it difficult to compare the performances of systems depending on the methodology used. This study adopted the conceptualized framework by European Union Nitrogen Expert Panel (EUNEP) to calculate NUE values for cereal crops to determine future trends for the first time in the Lake Victoria region. Data were collected through in-person interviews among maize and rice smallholder farmers within the Lake Victoria region. A total of 295 observations were recorded. Collected data on yield and N fertilizer were used to make projections on the changes of NUE based on scientific and policy recommendations for Sub-Saharan Africa for 2020 (base year), 2025, 2030, and 2050. Significant differences in maize grain yield for both fertilized and unfertilized farms were observed with very low yields of 2.4 t ha ⁻¹ (fertilized) and 1.4 tha ⁻¹ (unfertilized). The graphical representation of NUE of both maize and rice showed that most farmers were in the zone of soil N mining. Projected results showed that most maize farmers within Lake Victoria region will continue to experience NUE values >90%, low N inputs <50 kg N ha ⁻¹ ) and less than 5 t ha ⁻¹ maize crop yield over the years. For rice farmers, Nyando and Nzoia catchments had surpassed the set target of both yield (6 t ha-1) and N input (50 kg N ha ⁻¹ ). However, NUE values remain higher than the optimal ranges of 50-90% (127.14% -267.57%), indicating risks of depleting soil N status. The unbalanced N fertilization also showed a trend below the linear neutrality option and the average N output for good N management for both crops. Therefore, farmers need to explore various crop management options that could increase N use efficiencies. This should be coupled with policies that promote farmers to access more N input and advocate for optimal management of N and improved quality of the cereals
... One of the ways to reduce soil nutrient loss is to adopt conservation tillage where mechanized tillage is reduced to the barest minimum. Integrated crop-livestock system created room for a close-circuit recycling on nutrient (Adegbeye et al. 2020a). Through integrated crop livestock system, sustainable agriculture is possible. ...