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Evaluating the impact of the documentary series Blue Planet II on viewers' plastic consumption behaviors

Abstract

The global scale of the ocean plastics crisis demands a collective change in plastic consumption behaviors. The documentary series Blue Planet II has been praised for driving changes in consumer behaviors by raising awareness about this issue, yet there is little evidence that directly links the documentary to viewers' plastic consumption. We investigated the effectiveness of Blue Planet II as a behavior change intervention by conducting randomized control trials and used revealed preferences to measure plastic consumption behaviors. Although environmental knowledge was found to be positively influenced by Blue Planet II, this did not translate into a behavioral change among participants. Our results support the hypothesis that, due to the complexities of human behavior, exposure to a single documentary is unlikely to lead to a distinct increase in individual pro‐environmental actions. However, the potential for Blue Planet II to have an impact at a wider societal level, namely through influencing policy, remains unexplored.
CONTRIBUTED PAPER
Evaluating the impact of the documentary series Blue
Planet II on viewers' plastic consumption behaviors
Matilda Eve Dunn
1
| Morena Mills
2
| Diogo Veríssimo
3
1
Department of Life Science, Imperial
College London, Berkshire, UK
2
Centre for Environmental Policy,
Imperial College London, London, UK
3
Department of Zoology and Oxford
Martin School, University of Oxford,
Oxford, UK
Correspondence
Matilda Eve Dunn, Imperial College
London, Silwood Park Campus,
Buckhurst Road, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK.
Email: matilda.dunn17@imperial.ac.uk
Funding information
Imperial College London
Abstract
The global scale of the ocean plastics crisis demands a collective change in
plastic consumption behaviors. The documentary series Blue Planet II has been
praised for driving changes in consumer behaviors by raising awareness about
this issue, yet there is little evidence that directly links the documentary to
viewers' plastic consumption. We investigated the effectiveness of Blue Planet
II as a behavior change intervention by conducting randomized control trials
and used revealed preferences to measure plastic consumption behaviors.
Although environmental knowledge was found to be positively influenced by
Blue Planet II, this did not translate into a behavioral change among partici-
pants. Our results support the hypothesis that, due to the complexities of
human behavior, exposure to a single documentary is unlikely to lead to a dis-
tinct increase in individual pro-environmental actions. However, the potential
for Blue Planet II to have an impact at a wider societal level, namely through
influencing policy, remains unexplored.
KEYWORDS
behavior change, Blue Planet II, conservation messaging, marine pollution, nature documentary,
ocean plastics, theory of planned behavior
1|INTRODUCTION
Marine litter, particularly plastic debris, is an emerging
and critical environmental issue (Hartley et al., 2018),
occurring as a result of human actions (Pahl, Wyles, &
Thompson, 2017). Therefore to address plastic pollution,
alongside the implementation of environmentally con-
scious policy and infrastructure, conservationists must
also promote pro-environmental behaviors surrounding
the consumption and disposal of plastics (Steg &
Vlek, 2009).
The topic of marine plastics gained public attention
in the United Kingdom in the last decade, with the airing
of Blue Planet II, a nature documentary series on marine
life produced by the BBC, being reportedly one turning
point (Hunt, 2017). Unlike the series' predecessor, The
Blue Planet, the high level of conservation messaging
within Blue Planet II has been credited with raising
awareness of plastic pollution to a nationwide audience
(Jones et al., 2019), with total viewing figures reaching
14.01 million across the United Kingdom (BARB, 2017).
In line with the mission of the BBC, as a public service
broadcaster, to inform, educate and entertainviewers
(BBC, n.d.), Blue Planet II producers aimed for the show
to provide a platform that got the broader message
(about plastic pollution) out(Honeyborne, 2018). An
analysis of Twitter activity relating to plastic waste found
that conversations around this topic in the first quarter of
Received: 23 June 2020 Revised: 25 August 2020 Accepted: 26 August 2020
DOI: 10.1111/csp2.280
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original work is properly cited.
© 2020 The Authors. Conservation Science and Practice published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology
Conservation Science and Practice. 2020;e280. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/csp2 1of10
https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.280
2018 had more than doubled compared to the same
period in the previous year (Joyce, 2018). The airing of
Blue Planet II was not only linked with a boost in public
interest, but also allegedly with changes in plastic con-
sumption behaviors (Collins, 2018), a phenomenon
dubbed the Blue Planet Effect(Hunt, 2017). Although
it is difficult to determine if the series had intended to
influence plastic consumption behaviors, Blue Planet II's
specific focus on human's environmental impacts and
direct messaging highlighting a responsibility to care for
our blue planet(Blue Planet II, Episode 7), suggests that
the series hoped to create a call to action amongst
viewers.
However, the current evidence relating to the influ-
ence of Blue Planet II on viewer's plastic consumption is
largely anecdotal or based on self-reported behavior
(Collins, 2018), which is often an unreliable measure of
outcomes, with low correlations to observed behaviors
(Kormos & Gifford, 2014). As marine plastics become a
highly salient issue, individuals may also over-report pro-
environmental behaviors to comply with subjective social
norms (Pahl & Wyles, 2017). It is therefore important
that assessments of Blue Planet II use a meaningful mea-
sure of behavior and a robust experimental design to pro-
mote evidence-based evaluation and understand the true
impact of this series (Thomas-Walters, McNulty, &
Veríssimo, 2019; Veríssimo, 2013).
1.1 |Behavior change
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus across
conservation organizations of using media-based inter-
vention to encourage pro-environmental behaviors, in
response to the growing disconnect toward environmen-
tal problems in urban population with limited access to
nature (Thomas-Walters et al., 2019). Documentary film
has historically been used as a tool for promoting social
change (Karlin & Johnson, 2011), and wildlife documen-
taries have been highlighted as a potential avenue for cre-
ating pro-environmental change, as they are able to
articulate often complex ideas about environmental
issues to a wide-reaching audience (Janpol & Dilts, 2016).
Past studies have found nature documentaries to be able
to promote positive change through influencing viewers'
concern for the environment (Nolan, 2010), as well as
increasing support for conservation (Lin, 2013). However,
the ability of these programs to encourage specific behav-
ioral actions has not been as well documented.
Human behavior is highly complex and influenced by
an array of internal and external factors (Tonglet, Phil-
lips, & Read, 2004). Several theoretical frameworks for
identifying the influencers and barriers to pro-
environmental behaviors have been developed (Davis,
Campbell, Hildon, Hobbs, & Michie, 2015), one of the
most widely used being the theory of planned behavior
(TPB) (Ajzen, 1991). The TPB identifies the main con-
structs guiding behavioral intention to be: knowledge of
the behavior and its outcomes; attitudes towards the
behavior; subjective social norms around preforming this
behavior; and the perceived ability to exert control over
one's behaviors and the subsequent outcomes, or per-
ceived behavioral control. We used the TPB to guide this
research as this model has been previously found to be
an appropriate predictor of pro-environmental choice
behaviors such as plastic bag use (Sun et al., 2017) and
recycling (Tonglet et al., 2004). However, previous
research utilizing the TPB have often relied on inferred
changes either using these constructs as behavior change
proxies or relying on self-reported behaviors
(Ajzen, 2011). There is therefore a need for studies to
focus on measures of actual behavior change outcomes
when utilizing the TPB.
In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the popular media
hypothesis that the high levels of conservation messaging
in Blue Planet II had significantly impacted the plastic
consumption behaviors of viewers. We used a random-
ized control trial experimental design and actual
observed behaviors to answer two main research ques-
tions: (i) what is the effect of the conservation messaging
in Blue Planet II on the TPB constructs (i.e., knowledge,
attitudes, subjective social norms and perceived behav-
ioral control) when compared to a documentary on a
similar topic that holds no conservation messaging and
(ii) does the increased conservation messaging present in
Blue Planet II influenced viewers' actual choice of single
use plastics by increasing the likelihood of choosing a
pro-environmental alternative when compared to a docu-
mentary on a similar topic that holds no conservation
messaging. We used an active control group for this
research design in order to provide a relative-effect
estimate.
2|METHODS
We used randomized controlled trials to test the relative
influence of the conservation messaging within Blue
Planet II on plastic choice behaviors compared to a con-
trol group. We designed an experiment with two condi-
tions: the treatment condition (Blue Planet II, Episode
7, a nature documentary with high levels of conservation
messaging) and a control condition (The Blue Planet, Epi-
sode 1, a marine focused documentary with no conserva-
tion messaging) to which participants were assigned
randomly, unaware of which group they were in.
2of10 DUNN ET AL.
To select the specific episodes used for the control
and treatment interventions, we used the program NVivo
(12) to code the content of the scripts of each episode
across Blue Planet II and The Blue Planet. We identified
the recurring themes across the two documentary series
to be: animal behavior, natural histories, anthropogenic
impacts and conservation messaging (Table S3). We used
this framework to code the transcripts from each episode
of The Blue Planet and Blue Planet II and calculated the
total percentage cover of these themes across each epi-
sode. From this analysis, episode seven of Blue Planet II
was found to hold the highest cover of messaging on con-
servation and anthropogenic impacts, including specific
messaging about ocean plastics, and was therefore
selected as the treatment intervention. We designated
episode one of The Blue Planet as the control intervention
because it covered similar marine biology themes to the
treatment episode but held no conservation messaging or
information on anthropogenic impacts on the marine
environment.
Trials were conducted in and around London and
Oxford, United Kingdom, between June 2018 and July
2019 (Table S1). Participants were recruited through post-
ers distributed around the local area and online. Those
invited were offered to attend a screening of a nature doc-
umentary with the possibility to win a raffle prize worth
£50. We conducted a priori power analysis in RStudio
(version 1.2.5019) using the package pwr
(Champely, 2018). We used the following parameters to
determine our recommended sample size for testing the
difference between two groups: alpha = 0.05, power = 0.8
and between group effect size = 0.25 (Cohen, 1977).
Results determined that a minimum sample of 99 partici-
pants per group would be needed to detect this change.
Our final sample size was 150 participants, which pro-
vides a statistical power of 0.7.
Participants completed a questionnaire before and
after each intervention (Figure 1). We designed this ques-
tionnaire to elicit information on the behavioral con-
structs identified within the TPB model, including:
knowledge of environmental issues and behaviors; atti-
tudes towards pro-environmental actions; subjective
social norms around performing pro-environmental
behaviors; and perceived control of wider environmental
issues (Appendixes 1 and 2). The questions were struc-
tured as statements with a Likert scale response. We
included both a mix of questions relating to the specific
environmental issues in Blue Planet II, such as ocean
plastic pollution and coral bleaching, as well as more
general questions covering pro-environmental behaviors.
We included demographic questions to elicit information
on the participant's demographic background, including
their formal education level, age and gender. This infor-
mation was used to verify that the samples were compa-
rable across the control and treatment groups, and to
identify any possible confounding characteristics. In the
final section of the questionnaire, we asked the partici-
pants to identify their previous exposure to either The
FIGURE 1 Flowchart of our randomized control trial experimental design including pre-experimental and post-experimental
measures. The final nof the control and treatment groups did not add up to 150 sample due to incomplete surveys from four participants
DUNN ET AL.3of10
Blue Planet or Blue Planet II. We piloted our question-
naire on a sample of 13 postgraduate students studying
environmental sciences from Imperial College London in
order to test the general layout and clarity of the ques-
tions within the survey instrument.
The behavioral outcome was measured using revealed
preferences towards plastic or paper packaging (with
paper used as the pro-environmental alternative). We
asked participants to swap an allocated voucher for a
snack before and after the intervention screening
(Figure 1), with each snack option presented in both plas-
tic and paper packaging (Figure S1). The plastic packag-
ing used for these snack and drink options was similar to
that highlighted in the images of marine plastic pollution
shown in Blue Planet II, Episode 7. In order to reduce any
confounding variables in this choice, the flavors and sizes
of the drink and snack choices were controlled to be con-
sistent across the different packaging options (Appendix
3). We observed these choices, categorizing them into
either plastic or paper and matched this back to the par-
ticipants questionnaire through a corresponding number
found on their voucher. This observation was carried out
covertly in order to minimize social desirability bias. This
experimental design was approved by Imperial College
London research and ethics committee (IREC, case num-
ber: 2018-01383666-DUNN-M).
Four weeks following each experimental trial, we sent
participants a follow-up email regarding the £50 raffle
prize. The email required participants to select what
snacks they would like to spend their prize voucher on
from a mixture of options presented in both plastic and
paper packaging (Appendix 4). Responses were coded
into either a choice of paper or plastic and matched back
to the individual participant to determine the retention of
behaviors across both the control and treatment groups.
2.1 |Analysis
We calculated participant scores for knowledge, attitudes,
subjective social norms and perceived behavioral control
by summing the Likert scale scores across the questions
related to each construct. Questions that were negatively
worded were reverse scored and included in this calcula-
tion. We then coded participants' revealed preference
behaviors before and after the intervention as either 0 for
a choice of plastic or 1 for a choice of paper. We con-
ducted all statistical analysis using RStudio (version
1.2.5019), and the packages epiR (Stevenson et al., 2020)
and lme4 (Bates et al., 2015).
In order to examine the research questions: (i) what is
the effect of the conservation messaging in Blue Planet II
on the TPB constructs and; (ii) does the increased
conservation messaging in Blue Planet II influenced
viewers' choice of plastic, we first used odds ratio testing.
This effect size measure was used to examine the influ-
ence of the control and treatment interventions on both
the likelihood of change in questionnaire scores and pref-
erence choice behavior. Although this analysis is useful
for identifying the size and direction of the observed
effect, it does not take into account the influence of
covariates on the observed outcome. Therefore, a linear
mixed effects (LME) model and generalized linear mixed
model (GLMM) were also employed to measure the influ-
ence of the interaction between the intervention group
and pre-measure and post-measure on participant ques-
tionnaire scores for each TPB construct and participant
behavior, respectively. For both models, participant ID
and education level were also included as random effects.
3|RESULTS
Of the 150 participants that took part in this study,
146 individuals completed the full experiment and were
therefore included in the final sample, with 68 partici-
pants placed in the control group and 78 in the treatment
group. Most participants were aged between 18 and
25 (44%) and the sample was skewed towards females
(67%) (Table S2). When comparing the two groups using
Standard Mean Differences, education level was found to
have a medium mean difference (SMD = 0.50.3)
between the control and treatment groups, with more
participants with university qualifications in the treat-
ment group than the control (Table S2). This factor was
therefore included alongside participant ID as a random
effect within our mixed models.
Within the treatment group, scores for each TPB con-
structs (knowledge, attitude, subjective social norms, and
perceived behavioral control) increased from pre-inter-
vention to post-intervention. However, within the control
group, participants' knowledge and perceived behavioral
control scores were not found to change post the inter-
vention (Figure S1). Our analysis found participant's
knowledge to be significantly positively influenced by the
interaction between the intervention group and prepost-
stage of the questionnaire (LME model, F= 7.1, 95% Cis
[1.7, 11.1], p< .01). Participants in the treatment group
were 3.9 times more likely to increase their knowledge
scores post the intervention than participants in the con-
trol group (odds ratio testing, odds ratio = 3.9, 95% CI
[1.81, 8.51]) (Figure 2).
Despite results from odds ratio testing indicating a
higher likelihood of participants perceived behavioral
control and attitudes scores increasing post the treatment
intervention than the control (Figure 2), the LME model
4of10 DUNN ET AL.
did not find any of these constructs to be a significantly
positively influenced by the interaction between the
intervention group and prepost-stage of the question-
naire (F= 17.2, 95% CI [4.7, 13.2], p< .1; F= 3.1, 95% CI
[8.7, 0.4], p< .1, respectively).
A total of 117 participants completed both the before
and after revealed preference choice tests (54 participants
from the control and 63 participants from the treatment
group). Across both the treatment and control groups,
before the intervention 63% of participants chose plastic
packaging (Figure 3). Of the participants that displayed a
behavior change from pre to post the intervention, 40% of
participants within the treatment group went from
choosing plastic to paper packaging compared to 28%
within the control group (Figure 3).
However, the log odd estimate of participants choos-
ing paper over plastic was not found to be significantly
influenced by the interaction between the intervention
group and the prepost-stage of the intervention within
our GLMM (log odds estimate = 0.6, 95% CI [1.8, 0.4],
p= .2) (Table S4).
A final sample of 72 individuals participated in the
four-week follow-up choice experiment, a response rate
of 53%. Thirteen participants were removed from the
final count due to incomplete pre-intervention and post-
intervention choices creating a final sample of 59 (31 in
the treatment group and 28 in the control). Due to this
small sample size, we were only able to use descriptive
statistics on this dataset. Of these participants, 46% were
found to have retained their post-intervention revealed
FIGURE 2 Odds ratios of participants' questionnaire scores increasing post exposure to the treatment intervention for each TPB
construct assessed. The dashed line indicated an odds ratio of 1.0. The odds ratios were calculated using odds ratio testing. TPB, theory of
planned behavior
DUNN ET AL.5of10
preference, and 54% were found to have changed theirs.
We found that a higher proportion of participants in the
treatment group changed back to choosing plastic over
paper packaging after four weeks (45%) compared with
the control group (32%).
4|DISCUSSION
In addition to the adoption of government and industry
level regulations, efforts to combat plastic pollution also
rely on the collective actions of individuals reducing their
consumption of single-use plastics (Jambeck et al., 2015).
Therefore, in order for interventions to be successful,
they must be wide-reaching but also effective in targeting
demand reduction behaviors (Pahl & Wyles, 2017). As
such, an important aspect of evaluating mass media
interventions, and documentaries in particular, is to
ensure that reach is distinguished from impact (Jones
et al., 2019; Veríssimo et al., 2018). In the case of Blue
Planet II, the series reached millions of viewers, but this
offers no insight or guarantee into behavior changes tak-
ing place.
4.1 |Behavior change
Our results could not establish the behavioral influence
of the conservation messaging in Blue Planet II on an
observed change in revealed preference towards plastics
among the viewers studied when compared with our con-
trol intervention. This finding is counter to common
assertions that the series' messaging created a Blue
Planet Effectin reducing plastic consumption behaviors
FIGURE 3 The proportion of participants (%) within the control and treatment groups that chose plastic pre and post the intervention,
including 95% confidence intervals
6of10 DUNN ET AL.
(Hunt, 2017), but is the first to use a robust experimental
design as well as measure of observed behavior to test this
hypothesis. Currently, there are few robust evaluations of
nature documentaries (Thomas-Walters et al., 2019), but
the best available evidence broadly supports our main
findings. For example, Nolan (2010) found that despite the
documentary An Inconvenient Truth increasing viewer's
concerns about global climate change, this did not lead to
a sustained adoption of behaviors to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions. Similarly, the nature documentary series
Planet Earth 2 was found to increase species awareness
and stimulate engagement among audiences, however this
was not found to lead to proactive actions such as dona-
tion behaviors (Fernández-Bellon & Kane, 2019). Both
studies also highlight that awareness means very little in
the context of behavior change.
Furthermore, mass media interventions such as Blue
Planet II are vulnerable to rapid adoption and abandon-
ment (Mascia & Mills, 2018), and it is therefore important
to consider the future sustainment of any immediate
impacts on behaviors. The findings from our follow-up
choice experiment were consistent with those of previous
studies which have reported high relapses in any imme-
diate positive effects of an intervention (Howell, 2012).
However, our low sample size cannot offer a statistically
powerful conclusion to these findings. Additionally, as a
consequence of using photographs of snack choices
found at a cinema in order to fit the context of this
follow-up choice, the saliency of the plastic and paper
packaging options across these choices may have been
diminished. Thereby any signals indicating a sustained
influence of Blue Planet II on plastic preference behaviors
may have been truncated by this factor alone.
The benefits of the highly controlled setting used in
RCT, which limits the influence of confounding variable,
can also double as a limitation of this methodology in
reducing its real world replicability (Jadad &
Murray, 2007). In this study, we controlled for factors
such as how many episodes of Blue Planet II participants
watched and who they watched this with, which may be
counter to how viewers would have typically experienced
the series. It is therefore important to recognize these
limitations as well as the context of this experiment when
further applying the results of this research.
4.2 |Knowledge and attitudes
Despite the lack of evidence to support Blue Planet II as a
behavior change intervention, our analysis did reveal that
exposure to the show had a significant influence on increas-
ing viewers' knowledge of environmental issues. Although
our results demonstrate the value of increased conservation
messaging in media creating a far-reaching environmental
education opportunity (Barbas, Paraskevopoulos, &
Stamou, 2009), it also postulates that understanding alone
cannot drive action (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2002). This con-
clusion is supported by previous research (Abrahamse
et al., 2005; Howell, 2012; Janpol & Dilts, 2016), which
argues that interventions solely focused on information defi-
cit are over-simplistic (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2002), and is
in-line with the TPB model which hypothesizes that multi-
ple influences beyond understanding are necessary for a
behavior to be implemented (Ajzen, 1991).
Our results did not support previous studies that
found environmental documentaries to have an overall
positive influence on individual attitudes towards the
environment (Janpol & Dilts, 2016). Perhaps this is
because study participants had pre-existing high levels of
environmental attitude, with average pre-intervention
scores of 83% across both groups. These high baselines
could have resulted from self-reported bias of partici-
pant's scoring their own attitudes (Pahl & Wyles, 2017),
or a self-selection bias of the sample whereby those with
already positive attitudes about the environment were
interested in taking part in the study (Howell, 2011). As a
result of these pre-existing positive environmental atti-
tudes across both experimental groups, any difference
that was observed in the treatment group as a result of
the intervention could have been underestimated. It is
therefore not possible to assume our findings would be
true of an audience more similar to the wider UK popula-
tion, limiting the study's external validity.
Although the TPB has previously been found to be a
good framework for predicting pro-environmental behav-
ior change (Sun et al., 2017), additional factors could exist
outside of this model that also influence individuals' pref-
erence towards choosing plastic over paper. For example,
Triandis' theory of interpersonal behavior incorporates
the function of a habitual response in addition to social
and affective factors in influencing a given behavior
(Triandis, 1980), arguing that habits are mediators of
behaviors. Although this model has not been as widely
used as the TPB model, where it has been applied, studies
have found the addition of habits to have an increased
explanatory value, for example in the study of food waste
behaviors (Russell et al., 2017) and car use (Bamberg &
Schmidt, 2003).
4.3 |Wider impacts
Although individual change is an important measure of
intervention impact, research into the evaluation of films
and documentaries have called on expanding beyond this
to measure wider societal influences (Karlin &
DUNN ET AL.7of10
Johnson, 2011). In the case of Blue Planet II there is evi-
dence that the series resulted in much media attention
and increased conversation around the issue of marine
plastics, which may have led to upstream changes in all-
owing the topic of marine plastics to become more salient
and therefore creating a window of opportunity for policy
change. For example, the series was referenced in a
speech launching the UK governments' 25 year environ-
mental plan by former Prime Minister Theresa May, in
which she praised the show for vividly highlightingthe
problem of ocean plastics (May, 2018). Within this envi-
ronmental plan, the UK government committed to taking
increased legislative action to tackle plastic pollution.
This included the extension of a charge on using plastic
carrier bags, which has been credited with a decrease in
their use by 83% (HM Government, 2018) as well as the
setting of an ambitious target to eliminate avoidable plas-
tic waste by 2041 (HM Government, 2018). Additionally,
past research has also recognized interpersonal commu-
nications to be important motivators in the adoption of
new behaviors (Green et al., 2019). Therefore, subsequent
conversations about plastic consumption and pollution
triggered by Blue Planet II could still have influenced a
change in behavior, but this context was not something
that we accounted for within the experiment.
Previous research has found that an integration of dif-
ferent intervention strategies may be the most effective
way to sustain behavior change in an environmental con-
text (Salazar, Mills, & Veríssimo, 2019). Therefore, fur-
ther studies into the impact of documentaries and other
mass media interventions should consider both measures
of individual behavior change as well as broader societal
changes, for example, at the interpersonal or government
policy level, which could provide a more holistic and
nuanced understanding of impact.
4.4 |Conclusion
Despite the pressing issues of marine plastics and its
link to individual's behavioral choices, there is cur-
rently a lack of empirical research on how interven-
tions can be used to effectively target plastic
consumption behaviors (Hartley, Thompson, &
Pahl, 2015). This study offers an important example of
how to utilize and apply impact evaluation methods
to better understand intervention impacts on pro-
environmental behavior change. As nature documen-
taries become an increasingly popular television
genre (Koblin, 2020), the resurgence of these pro-
grams has also seen a change in narrative for the
shows, shifting their focus towards more conservation
themes (Jones et al., 2019). This study is the first to
present an understanding of the impacts of this narrative
shift on viewers pro-environmental behaviors using a
robust experimental design. We call on researchers to fur-
ther develop and deliver impact evaluation research
focused on nature documentaries and other mass media
interventions concerning biodiversity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank the study participants for their
contribution to this research. This study was supported
by Imperial College London.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
Matilda Dunn collected the data and lead the write up of
the article. Morena Mills and Diogo Veríssimo contrib-
uted to the writing and revisions of the article. All
authors contributed to the research design and analysis
of the research.
ETHICS STATEMENT
The research adhered to Imperial College London's
research and ethics committee with project case number:
2018-01383666-DUNN-M.
DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
The data that support the findings of this study are avail-
able from the corresponding author upon reasonable
request.
ORCID
Matilda Eve Dunn https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3075-
0625
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SUPPORTING INFORMATION
Additional supporting information may be found online
in the Supporting Information section at the end of this
article.
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documentary series Blue Planet II on viewers'
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10 of 10 DUNN ET AL.
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