Article

Hartmann's procedure versus Intersphincteric APE (HiP Study):A Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study

Authors:
  • NHS Highland, Inverness, Scotland
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Abstract

Introduction: In patients with low rectal cancer, it is occasionally necessary to avoid a low colo-anal anastomosis due to patient frailty or poor function. In such situations there are two alternative approaches: Hartmann's procedure [HP] or intersphincteric APE [IAPE]. There are little data to guide surgeons as to which of these two procedures is the safest. The aim of this study was to determine the surgical complication rates associated with each procedure. Methods: This was a multicentre, non-randomised prospective cohort study of patients undergoing either HP or IAPE. The primary objective was to determine surgical complication rates. Secondary objectives included length of stay, time to adjuvant therapy and quality of life at 90 days. Results: 179 patients were recruited between April 2016 and June 2019; approximately two thirds of patients underwent HP and one third IAPE. The overall complication rate was high in both groups: 54% [HP], 52% [IAPE]. Surgery specific complication rates were also high, but not significantly different: 43% [HP], 48% [IAPE]. The pelvic abscess rate in HP was 11% and was significantly higher in patients with a palpable staple line (15% vs 2%). There was a higher incidence of serious medical complications following IAPE[16% vs 5%], along with a reduction in 90-day QoL scores. Conclusions: This is the largest prospective study comparingHP and IAPE in patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery where primary anastomosis is not deemed appropriate. With similar complication rates, these data support the ongoing use of either HP or IAPE in this patient group.

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... The literature comparing these two techniques in terms of postoperative morbidity after rectal cancer surgery is limited. A recent non-randomized study pointed to the equivalence of both procedures, with no significant differences in postoperative outcomes [9]. Additionally, a randomized controlled trial designed to compare the efficacy and morbidity associated with low HP and intersphincteric resection of the rectal stump is underway [10]. ...
... The literature search of the databases identified 124 publications. Irrelevant publications were excluded, and 7 observational studies were found suitable for the meta-analysis [9,[14][15][16][17][18][19]. A manual search of the references identified another suitable publication [20]. ...
... The study characteristics with details of inclusion and exclusion criteria are given in Table 1. A conventional extrasphincteric APR was compared with HP in some older studies [14][15][16]20], whereas more recent publications reported a comparison of intersphincteric APR with HP [9,[17][18][19]. A separate analysis of intersphincteric and extrasphincteric APR versus HP along with a cumulative comparison of APR with HP was carried out systematically for a better comprehension and evaluation of postoperative complications. ...
Article
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Background Non-restorative surgery for rectal cancer is indicated in patients with comorbidities, advanced disease and poor continence. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the postoperative morbidity of Hartmann’s procedure (HP) with that of extrasphincteric and intersphincteric abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer.Methods The Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for publications comparing postoperative morbidity of HP and APR. The incidence of overall surgical complications, pelvic-perineal complications and pelvic abscess was analysed as primary endpoints. Readmissions requiring reintervention and postoperative mortality were also compared.ResultsA cumulative analysis showed a significantly higher rate of overall complications (odds ratio (OR) 0.553, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.320 to 0.953 and P value 0.033) and pelvic-perineal complications (OR 0.464, 95% CI 0.250 to 0.861 and P value 0.015) after APR. The incidence of isolated pelvic abscess formation was significantly higher after HP (OR 2.523, 95% CI 1.383 to 4.602 and P value 0.003). A subgroup analysis of intersphincteric APR compared with HP did not show any significant difference in the incidence of overall complications, pelvic-perineal complications or pelvic abscess formation (P values of 0.452, 0.258 and 0.100, respectively). There was no significant difference in readmissions, reinterventions and mortality after HP and APR (P 0.992, 0.198 and 0.151).Conclusion An extrasphincteric APR is associated with higher overall and pelvic-perineal complications and may be reserved for tumours invading the anal sphincter complex. In the absence of sphincter involvement, both HP and intersphincteric APR are better alternatives with comparable morbidity.
... The increasing incidence of rectal cancer, especially among older people, compels surgeons to reconsider the treatment for rectal cancer [1,2]. The role of HP as a treatment option for rectal cancer has long been debated and its use varies widely between countries [3][4][5]. ...
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Background Results of previous studies regarding pelvic sepsis after Hartmann’s procedure (HP) for rectal cancer have been inconsistent and few studies report the risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pelvic sepsis after HP, identify risk factors and describe when as well as how pelvic sepsis was diagnosed and treated. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry on all patients undergoing HP for rectal cancer in the county of Skåne from 2007–2017. Patients diagnosed with pelvic sepsis were compared with patients without pelvic sepsis and risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis were analysed in a multivariable model. Results A total of 252 patients were included in the study, with 149 (59%) males, and a median age of 75 years (range 20–92). Altogether, 27 patients (11%) were diagnosed with pelvic sepsis. Risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis were neoadjuvant radiotherapy (OR 7.96, 95% CI 2.54–35.36) and BMI over 25 kg/m ² (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.80–19.50). Median time from operation to diagnosis was 21 days (range 5–355) with 11 (40%) patients diagnosed beyond 30 days postoperatively. The majority of cases 19 (70%) were treated conservatively and none needed major surgery. Conclusion Pelvic sepsis occurred in 11% of patients. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and higher BMI were significant risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis. Forty percent of patients were diagnosed later than 30 days postoperatively and most patients were successfully treated conservatively. Our findings suggest that HP is a valid treatment option for rectal cancer when anastomosis is inappropriate, even in patients receiving neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
Preprint
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Background Results of previous studies regarding pelvic sepsis after Hartmann’s procedure (HP) for rectal cancer have been inconsistent and few studies report the risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pelvic sepsis after HP, identify risk factors and describe when as well as how pelvic sepsis was diagnosed and treated. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry on all patients undergoing HP for rectal cancer in the county of Skåne from 2007-2017. Patients diagnosed with pelvic sepsis were compared with patients without pelvic sepsis and risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis were analysed in a multivariable model. Results A total of 252 patients were included in the study, with 149 (59%) males, and a median age of 75 years (range 20-92). Altogether, 27 patients (11%) were diagnosed with pelvic sepsis. Risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis were neoadjuvant radiotherapy (OR 7.96, 95% CI 2.54-35.36) and BMI over 25 kg/m² (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.80-19.50). Median time from operation to diagnosis was 21 days (range 5-355) with 11 (40%) patients diagnosed beyond 30 days postoperatively. The majority of cases 19 (70%) were treated conservatively and none needed major surgery. Conclusion Pelvic sepsis occurred in 11% of patients. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and higher BMI were significant risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis. Forty percent of patients were diagnosed later than 30 days postoperatively and most patients were successfully treated conservatively. Our findings suggest that HP is a valid treatment option for rectal cancer when anastomosis is inappropriate, even in patients receiving neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
Article
Background: Non-restorative options for low rectal cancer not invading the sphincter includes low Hartmann's procedure (LH) and inter-sphincteric abdominoperineal resection (ISAPR). There is currently little comparative data to differentiate these options. Objectives: The aim of this review was to assess the peri-operative morbidity of LH, and then to compare it to that of ISAPR. Data sources: An up-to-date systematic review was performed on the available literature between 2000-2020 on PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. Study selection: All studies reporting on non-restorative surgeries for rectal cancer were analysed. Outcomes were firstly analysed between LH and non-LH groups, with further sub-analysis comparing the LH and ISAPR groups. Main outcome measure: The main outcome measures were the rates of pelvic sepsis, rates of overall post-operative complication rates, oncological outcomes, and survival. Results: A total of 12 observational studies were included. There were 3526 patients (61.1%) in the LH group, and 2238 patients (38.9%) in the non-LH group, which included 461 patients who underwent ISAPR. The LH group had a higher rate of pelvic sepsis as compared to the non-LH group (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.39-2.29, P < 0.001). The difference is more marked in the sub-analysis comparing LH and ISAPR alone (OR: 3.94, 95% CI: 1.88-7.84, P < 0.01) corresponding to a higher rate of unplanned re-intervention. LH was associated with a higher rate of short-term post-operative mortality as compared to the non-LH group. Conclusion: ISAPR is the preferred option for non-restorative rectal surgery, with a more favourable peri-operative morbidity and short-term mortality profile as compared to LH.
Preprint
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Background Results of previous studies regarding pelvic sepsis after Hartmann’s procedure (HP) for rectal cancer have been inconsistent and few studies report the risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pelvic sepsis after HP, identify risk factors and describe when as well as how pelvic sepsis was diagnosed and treated. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry on all patients undergoing HP for rectal cancer in the county of Skåne from 2007–2017. Patients diagnosed with pelvic sepsis were compared with patients without pelvic sepsis and risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis were analysed in a multivariable model. Results A total of 252 patients were included in the study, with 149 (59%) males, and a median age of 75 years (range 20–92). Altogether, 27 patients (11%) were diagnosed with pelvic sepsis. Risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis were neoadjuvant radiotherapy (OR 7.96, 95% CI 2.54–35.36) and BMI over 25 kg/m² (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.80–19.50). Median time from operation to diagnosis was 21 days (range 5-355) with 11 (40%) patients diagnosed beyond 30 days postoperatively. The majority of cases 19 (70%) were treated conservatively and none needed major surgery. Conclusion Pelvic sepsis occurred in 11% of patients. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and higher BMI were significant risk factors for developing pelvic sepsis. Forty percent of patients were diagnosed later than 30 days postoperatively and most patients were successfully treated conservatively. Our findings suggest that HP is a valid treatment option for rectal cancer when anastomosis is inappropriate, even in patients receiving neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
Article
I read with great interest the excellent study by Hayley Fowler et al. and led by Dale Vimalachandran titled: Hartmann’s procedure versus Intersphincteric APE (HiP Study): A Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study¹. This is a relevant topic of clinical interest within the colorectal community. With the rising numbers of elderly in the population, management of distal rectal cancers are increasing in risk and the avoidance of a primary anastomosis is a sensible approach in these often frail individuals. Low Hartmann’s operation (LHO) is a well‐established option, whilst Intersphincteric APE (IAPE) is popular in certain quarters.
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Background: The prevalence of major low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) after rectal cancer surgery varies from 17·8 to 56·0 per cent, but data from high-quality studies are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LARS and its association with quality of life (QoL) in a large, well defined, population-based cohort. Methods: This was a population-based study that included all patients who had curative rectal cancer surgery with total or partial mesorectal excision in Stockholm County in Sweden between 2007 and 2013. Patients without a remaining stoma, free from cancer and alive in April 2017 were eligible for the study. The LARS score questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-C30 and Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence score were used as outcome measures. Adjusted mean scores (and differences) of EORTC QLQ-C30 for LARS groups were calculated using repeated measures ANCOVA regression models while adjusting for predefined confounders. Results: In total, 481 patients (82·6 per cent response rate) were included in the analysis. Mean follow-up time was 6·7 (range 3·4-11·0) years after surgery. The prevalence of LARS was 77·4 per cent (370 of 478 patients), with 53·1 per cent (254 of 478) experiencing major LARS. Patients with major LARS reported worse on all EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales (except for financial difficulties) than patients without LARS. A higher mean LARS score was associated with a greater impact on bowel-related QoL. Conclusion: After anterior resection for rectal cancer, the majority of patients suffer from major LARS with a negative impact on QoL.
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Background: Low Hartmann's procedure (LHP) and intersphincteric abdominoperineal resection (iAPR) are both surgical options in the treatment of distal rectal cancer when there is no intention to restore bowel continuity. This study aimed to evaluate current practice among members of the Dutch Association of Coloproctology (WCP). Methods: An online survey among members of the WCP who represent 66 Dutch hospitals was conducted. The survey consisted of 15 questions addressing indications for surgical procedures and complications. Results: Surgeons from 37 hospitals (56%) responded. Thirty-six percent does not distinguish low from high Hartmann's procedures based on estimated length of the rectal remnant. Overall, iAPR was the preferred technique in 86%. If asking whether operative approach would be different in tumours at 1 cm from the pelvic floor compared to 5 cm distance, 62% stated that they would consider a different technique. The incidence of pelvic abscess after LHP was thought to be higher, equal or lower than iAPR in 36%, 36% and 21%, respectively, with the remaining respondents not answering this question. Conclusions: The vast majority of the respondents considers iAPR as the preferred non-restorative procedure for rectal cancer not invading the sphincter complex, which contradicts with population based data from 2011.
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Background: Existing models for forecasting future care needs are limited in the risk factors included and in the assumptions made about incoming cohorts. We estimated the numbers of people aged 65 years or older in England and the years lived in older age requiring care at different intensities between 2015 and 2035 from the Population Ageing and Care Simulation (PACSim) model. Methods: PACSim, a dynamic microsimulation model, combined three studies (Understanding Society, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II) to simulate individuals' sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, 12 chronic diseases and geriatric conditions, and dependency (categorised as high [24-h care], medium [daily care], or low [less than daily] dependency; or independent). Transition probabilities for each characteristic were estimated by modelling state changes from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Years in dependency states were calculated by Sullivan's method. Findings: Between 2015 and 2035 in England, both the prevalence of and numbers of people with dependency will fall for young-old adults (65-74 years). For very old adults (≥85 years), numbers with low dependency will increase by 148·0% (range from ten simulations 140·0-152·0) and with high dependency will almost double (increase of 91·8%, range 87·3-94·1) although prevalence will change little. Older adults with medium or high dependency and dementia will be more likely to have at least two other concurrent conditions (increasing from 58·8% in 2015 to 81·2% in 2035). Men aged 65 years will see a compression of dependency with 4·2 years (range 3·9-4·2) of independence gained compared with life expectancy gains of 3·5 years (3·1-4·1). Women aged 65 years will experience an expansion of mainly low dependency, with 3·0 years (3·0-3·6) gained in life expectancy compared with 1·4 years (1·2-1·4) with low dependency and 0·7 years (0·6-0·8) with high dependency. Interpretation: In the next 20 years, the English population aged 65 years or over will see increases in the number of individuals who are independent but also in those with complex care needs. This increase is due to more individuals reaching 85 years or older who have higher levels of dependency, dementia, and comorbidity. Health and social care services must adapt to the complex care needs of an increasing older population. Funding: UK Economic and Social Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research.
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Background The use of Hartmann’s procedure in the old and frail and/or in patients with fecal incontinence is increasing, even though some data have reported high postoperative rates of pelvic abscesses. Abdominoperineal excision with intersphincteric dissection has been proposed as a better alternative and is performed increasingly both nationally and internationally. However, no studies have been performed to support this. The aim of this study is to randomize patients between Hartmann’s procedure and abdominoperineal excision with intersphincteric dissection and compare post-operative surgical morbidity and quality of life. The hypothesis is that intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision provides less pelvic and perineal morbidity. Methods/design In this multicentre randomized controlled study, Hartmann’s procedure will be compared with intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision in patients with rectal cancer unsuitable for an anterior resection. The patients are operated in different ways around the ano-rectum, otherwise the same procedure is performed with total mesorectal excision and all will receive a colostomy. The one-month postoperative control will focus on post-operative surgical complications, especially the perineal-pelvic, reoperations and other interventions. After one year, late complications such as pain in the perineal or pelvic area or disorders such as secretion or bleeding from the anorectal stump will be recorded and a follow-up of quality of life performed. Histological and oncological data will also be recorded, the latter up to 5 years post-operatively. Discussion The HAPIrect trial is the first randomized controlled trial comparing standard low Hartmann’s procedure with intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision in patients with rectal cancer with the aim of categorizing the post-operative surgical morbidity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01995396. Date of registration November 25, 2013.
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Purpose Intensified treatment for distal rectal cancer has improved oncological outcome, but at the expense of more perineal wound complications in patients undergoing an abdominoperineal resection (APR). The aim of this study was to analyse perineal wound healing after APR with primary perineal wound closure over time. Method All patients undergoing APR for primary rectal cancer with primary wound closure between 2000 and 2013 were included and analysed in three consecutive time periods. Both early (
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Background Advancing age is independently associated with poor postoperative outcomes. The ageing of the general population is a major concern for healthcare providers. Trends in age were studied among patients undergoing surgery in the National Health Service in England. Methods Time trend ecological analysis was undertaken of Hospital Episode Statistics and Office for National Statistics data for England from 1999 to 2015. The proportion of patients undergoing surgery in different age groupings, their pooled mean age, and change in age profile over time were calculated. Growth in the surgical population was estimated, with associated costs, to the year 2030 by use of linear regression modelling. Results Some 68 205 695 surgical patient episodes (31 220 341 men, 45·8 per cent) were identified. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5·3 days. The surgical population was older than the general population of England; this gap increased over time (1999: 47·5 versus 38·3 years; 2015: 54·2 versus 39·7 years). The number of people aged 75 years or more undergoing surgery increased from 544 998 (14·9 per cent of that age group) in 1999 to 1 012 517 (22·9 per cent) in 2015. By 2030, it is estimated that one‐fifth of the 75 years and older age category will undergo surgery each year (1·49 (95 per cent c.i. 1·43 to 1·55) million people), at a cost of €3·2 (3·1 to 3·5) billion. Conclusion The population having surgery in England is ageing at a faster rate than the general population. Healthcare policies must adapt to ensure that provision of surgical treatments remains safe and sustainable.
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Background: Induction of a clinical complete response with chemoradiotherapy, followed by observation via a watch-and-wait approach, has emerged as a management option for patients with rectal cancer. We aimed to address the shortage of evidence regarding the safety of the watch-and-wait approach by comparing oncological outcomes between patients managed by watch and wait who achieved a clinical complete response and those who had surgical resection (standard care). Methods: Oncological Outcomes after Clinical Complete Response in Patients with Rectal Cancer (OnCoRe) was a propensity-score matched cohort analysis study, that included patients of all ages diagnosed with rectal adenocarcinoma without distant metastases who had received preoperative chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 daily fractions with concurrent fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy) at a tertiary cancer centre in Manchester, UK, between Jan 14, 2011, and April 15, 2013. Patients who had a clinical complete response were offered management with the watch-and-wait approach, and patients who did not have a complete clinical response were offered surgical resection if eligible. We also included patients with a clinical complete response managed by watch and wait between March 10, 2005, and Jan 21, 2015, across three neighbouring UK regional cancer centres, whose details were obtained through a registry. For comparative analyses, we derived one-to-one paired cohorts of watch and wait versus surgical resection using propensity-score matching (including T stage, age, and performance status). The primary endpoint was non-regrowth disease-free survival from the date that chemoradiotherapy was started, and secondary endpoints were overall survival, and colostomy-free survival. We used a conservative p value of less than 0·01 to indicate statistical significance in the comparative analyses. Findings: 259 patients were included in our Manchester tertiary cancer centre cohort, 228 of whom underwent surgical resection at referring hospitals and 31 of whom had a clinical complete response, managed by watch and wait. A further 98 patients were added to the watch-and-wait group via the registry. Of the 129 patients managed by watch and wait (median follow-up 33 months [IQR 19-43]), 44 (34%) had local regrowths (3-year actuarial rate 38% [95% CI 30-48]); 36 (88%) of 41 patients with non-metastatic local regrowths were salvaged. In the matched analyses (109 patients in each treatment group), no differences in 3-year non-regrowth disease-free survival were noted between watch and wait and surgical resection (88% [95% CI 75-94] with watch and wait vs 78% [63-87] with surgical resection; time-varying p=0·043). Similarly, no difference in 3-year overall survival was noted (96% [88-98] vs 87% [77-93]; time-varying p=0·024). By contrast, patients managed by watch and wait had significantly better 3-year colostomy-free survival than did those who had surgical resection (74% [95% CI 64-82] vs 47% [37-57]; hazard ratio 0·445 [95% CI 0·31-0·63; p<0·0001), with a 26% (95% CI 13-39) absolute difference in patients who avoided permanent colostomy at 3 years between treatment groups. Interpretation: A substantial proportion of patients with rectal cancer managed by watch and wait avoided major surgery and averted permanent colostomy without loss of oncological safety at 3 years. These findings should inform decision making at the outset of chemoradiotherapy. Funding: Bowel Disease Research Foundation.
Article
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Article
In distal rectum cancers, when the sphincters are not affected and it is not possible to perform a coloanal anastomosis because of the presence of comorbidities or the advanced age of the patient, a low Hartmann resection with total mesorectal excision can be performed. Low Hartmann resection is usually considered to be a shorter procedure and to have an inferior morbidity compared with abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. This study aimed to compare the postoperative outcome of a series of patients with low rectal cancer who have undergone either low Hartmann resection or abdominoperineal resection. This study is a retrospective analysis of data collected in a prospective database. This study was conducted in a specialized Colorectal Unit, Department of Surgery, of a tertiary teaching hospital. Patients who underwent low Hartmann or abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer between 1996 and 2009 at our specialized Colorectal Unit were considered. The main interventions were low Hartmann resection vs abdominoperineal resection. The main outcome measures were 60-day morbidity and mortality. The pelvic abscess rate was 12.2% in patients who underwent low Hartmann resection and 3.0% in those who underwent abdominoperineal resection (P = .02). The reoperation rate was 14.6% in the Hartmann group and 3.8% in the abdominoperineal group (P = .013). The rehospitalization rates in the Hartmann and abdominoperineal groups were 7.3% and 0.7% (P = .015). No differences were found in the other variables analyzed. At multivariate analysis, the surgical technique performed was the only independent risk factor for pelvic abscess development, readmission, and reoperation. : This study was limited by its retrospective nature. In our series, low Hartmann resection was associated with higher pelvic abscess, reoperation, and readmission rates. These findings suggest that in patients with rectal cancer without sphincter infiltration and who are unsuitable for coloanal anastomosis, abdominoperineal resection should be a valid alternative to low Hartmann resection.
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In managing advanced low rectal adenocarcinomas in medically fit patients, surgical resection offers the best palliation. Tenesmus, bleeding per rectum, sacral pain, and sciatic pain are common complaints, which are not relieved by radiotherapy or fulguration. The most appropriate resection, however, remains controversial. Abdominoperineal resection is faster and simpler to perform but leaves behind a perineal wound with associated complications. Hartmann's procedure requires adequate mobilization below the tumor and may be technically more demanding but avoids a perineal wound. Therefore, an analysis of outcome in patients treated by Hartmann's procedure vs. abdominoperineal resection was made. Fifty-four symptomatic patients with advanced rectal adenocarcinoma arising within a median of 5 (range, 4-8) cm from the anal verge treated between June 1989 and October 1995 were studied. Twenty-eight patients (17 males; mean age, 67.6 +/- 10.3 years) had Hartmann's procedure, and 26 patients (12 females; mean age, 68.8 +/- 8.3 years) were treated by abdominoperineal resection. Mean follow-up was 23.5 months (+/-17.5) and 18.6 months (+/-12.9) in Hartmann's procedure and abdominoperineal groups, respectively. Mean operative time was 138.4 +/- 26.7 minutes for Hartmann's procedure group and 124.6 +/- 27.1 minutes for the abdominoperineal resection group (P > 0.05; not significant). Postoperatively, Hartmann's procedure group started oral intake at a mean of 2.3 days, and stomas were functioning at a mean of 3.1 days compared with 2.6 days for oral intake and 3 days for stoma functioning in the abdominoperineal resection group. Hartmann's procedure group was ambulant after a mean of 2.4 days vs. a mean of 3.2 days in the abdominoperineal resection group. Postoperative abdominal wound infection occurred in 18 and 19 percent, respectively, in Hartmann's procedure and abdominoperineal resection groups. Forty-six percent of patients had perineal wound sepsis, and 38 percent had perineal wound pain in the abdominoperineal resection group. These complications were absent in Hartmann's procedure group. Postoperative stay was similar in both groups. We conclude that Hartmann's procedure offers superior palliation compared with abdominoperineal resection because it provides good symptomatic control without any perineal wound complications and pain.
Article
To compare patients having low Hartmann's resection (LHP) with abdominoperineal resection (APR) by investigating postoperative complications. Retrospective comparative analysis of preoperative state and postoperative course for patients having surgery from 1 January 1997 to 1 July 2001, by the surgeons of the Colorectal Unit, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. Over a 54-month period 65 patients underwent either LHP or APR (29 LHP, 36 APR). The median age/sex (male:female) of patients for LHP was 76 years (51-90 years) (14:15), for APR 72 years (31-93 years) (19:17). The indication for surgery was predominantly cancer (LHP 89.6%, APR 94.4%). There was a high rate of preoperative comorbidities: LHP 75.9% (cardiac 62.1%, pulmonary 17.2%), APR 75% (cardiac 50%, pulmonary 15.9%). Preoperative chemoradiation was used in 10.3% of patients having LHP and 30.6% with APR. There was no difference in postoperative non-septic complications. There was a significant difference in the types of septic complications (P = 0.018), with a higher rate of pelvic abscesses after LHP (5). Perineal wound infection occurred in five patients having APR (14.3%). The median time to heal a perineal wound was 1 month (0.5-7 months). The median length of stay was 13 days for LHP (5-33 days) and 11 days for APR (6-19 days) (P = 0.0266). This non-randomized, retrospective, cohort study shows a surprisingly high rate of pelvic abscesses after LHP compared with APR. Perineal wound healing was a problem after APR, but less of a management problem than the septic complications after LHP. Both LHP and APR might be associated with significant morbidity. A high pelvic abscess rate following LHP is associated with a high likelihood of further surgical intervention and a prolonged length of stay.
Article
An extended Hartmann's procedure is occasionally useful in rectal resections, because anastomotic, perineal, and functional problems are eliminated. This study was designed to examine the occurrence of pelvic sepsis after this procedure and identify possible risk factors. Medical records were available for 163 patients (89 females) undergoing rectal resection with colostomy and closure of the rectal remnant. Information about pelvic sepsis and possible risk factors was obtained by review of the medical records. Pelvis sepsis developed in 31 of 163 patients (18.6 percent). When the rectum had been transected <2 cm above the pelvic floor, 24 of 73 patients (32.9 percent) developed an abscess in contrast to 7 of 90 (7.8 percent) after higher transsection (P = 0.0001). Other risk factors were male gender and missing foot pulses. Only 61 percent of pelvic abscesses healed after a median of 59 days, leaving 39 percent unhealed after an observation period of 277 (range, 20-1,643) days. Surgical alternatives should be considered to an extended Hartmann's procedure when the level of transsection is <2 cm above the pelvic floor, particularly in males.
Article
Nonhealing perineal wound is an unpleasant complication of surgical excision of the rectum and anus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors for impaired perineal wound healing after abdominoperineal resection (APR) of rectum for adenocarcinoma, particularly with the increasing use of neo-adjuvant chemoradiation. The study included 38 consecutive patients (29 men, nine women; median age 66 years, range: 43-86), who underwent surgical excision of rectum and anus for adenocarcinoma from 1999 to 2004. Thirty-seven patients underwent APR of rectum and one patient, who developed carcinoma in the background of chronic ulcerative colitis, had panproctocolectomy. Associations between the failure of the perineal wound to heal and a number of patient, tumour and treatment-related variables were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Multivariate statistical technique of principal component analysis was also used to identify risk factors and their relative contribution to impaired healing. Impaired healing of the perineal wound was observed in 10 (26%) of 38 patients. In four of them (11%) the wound remained nonhealed in 1 year after surgery. Preoperative radiotherapy, delayed primary closure of the wound and alcohol consumption in excess of 28 units/week was statistically significantly associated with impaired wound healing. Principal component analysis identified the following seven factors that cumulatively contributed to 96% of impaired healing: (i) distant metastases, (ii) preoperative radiotherapy, (iii) T-stage of the tumour, (iv) smoking, (v) perioperative blood transfusion, (vi) preoperative chemotherapy and (vii) development of side effects of preoperative chemoradiation. Patients who undergo APR of rectum are prone to impaired healing of the perineal wound if radiotherapy is used to treat malignancy prior to surgery and wound closure is delayed. In addition, the wound may not heal in patients with distant metastases, excessive alcohol consumption, present and past smokers and those who suffer adverse effects of preoperative chemoradiation and require blood transfusion.