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Odor nuisance and health risk assessment of VOC emissions from a rendering plant

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are generated from animal rendering facilities, some of which are malodorous, while others are considered hazardous. Odor annoyance potential, possible carcinogenic risks, and toxic effects due to VOC emissions from a rendering plant unit in Southwest Greece were evaluated for the general population residing in the near vicinity. Nine air samples were collected from the facilities of an integrated rendering plant and the surrounding area, over a 9-month period. Volatile compounds were absorbed onto solid sorbents containing Tenax TA/Sulficarb via active sampling and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Sixty-three organic compounds, mainly volatile fatty acids, aldehydes, aromatic, and sulfur compounds, were quantified, in concentrations ranging from < 0.01 to 210 μg m−3. The compounds contributing most to odor nuisance were butanoic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and octanal, exceeding their odor threshold by up to 24, 36, and 117 times, respectively. Cancer and non-cancer risks were determined by a probabilistic risk assessment method. The cumulative lifetime cancer risk for the general population was calculated to be on average 10 times higher than the acceptable risk (one-in-a-million). The cumulative mean hazard quotient was 3.3 and its 95th percentile was 4.0, indicating a high risk of adverse health effects. Control measures to prevent the generation of the VOCs responsible for both odor nuisance and potential adverse health effects should be adopted.
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Odor nuisance and health risk assessment of VOC emissions
from a rendering plant
Eleni Sazakli
&Michalis Leotsinidis
Received: 29 July 2020 /Accepted: 1 September 2020
#Springer Nature B.V. 2020
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are generated from animal rendering facilities, some of which are malodorous, while others
are considered hazardous. Odor annoyance potential, possible carcinogenic risks, and toxic effects due to VOC emissions from a
rendering plant unit in Southwest Greece were evaluated for the general population residing in the near vicinity. Nine air samples
were collected from the facilities of an integrated rendering plant and the surrounding area, over a 9-month period. Volatile
compounds were absorbed onto solid sorbents containing Tenax TA/Sulficarb via active sampling and analyzed by thermal
desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Sixty-three organic compounds, mainly volatile fatty acids,
aldehydes, aromatic, and sulfur compounds, were quantified, in concentrations ranging from < 0.01 to 210 μgm
. The
compounds contributing most to odor nuisance were butanoic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and octanal, exceeding their odor
threshold by up to 24, 36, and 117 times, respectively. Cancer and non-cancer risks were determined by a probabilistic risk
assessment method. The cumulative lifetime cancer risk for the general population was calculated to be on average 10 times
higher than the acceptable risk (one-in-a-million). The cumulative mean hazard quotient was 3.3 and its 95th percentile was 4.0,
indicating a high risk of adverse health effects. Control measures to prevent the generation of the VOCs responsible for both odor
nuisance and potential adverse health effects should be adopted.
Keywords Odorous compounds .Health risk assessment .Rendering .Emissions .VOCs .Health hazards
Animal rendering is the process of converting slaughter-
housesby-products into safe, nutritional, and economically
valuable products. Rendering offers both the retrieval of nu-
tritional commodities and the hygienic disposal of animal car-
casses and thus promotes circular economy and minimizes
potential hazards to animal and human health. However, the
production and emission of malodorous volatile organic com-
pounds (VOCs), occurring in rendering plants, due to soft
tissue decomposition and post-mortem decay is a major envi-
ronmental problem (Bhatti et al. 2014).
Odor is defined as anything able to stimulate the olfactory
system. In fact, the theoretical minimum concentration of
odorant stimulus necessary for odor detection in the 50% of
the population is defined as the odor detection threshold
(USEPA 2001). The olfactory receptor neurons involved in
the perception and recognition of odors are 610 millions
(Ignatieva et al. 2014), enabling the human nose to sense more
than 3000 odors and many times at concentrations even lower
than those detectable by advanced analytical methods, such as
gas chromatography (USEPA 2001). An odor is recognized
through the olfactory nerve, while the sensation of pungency
(burning, freshness, prickling, irritation, stinging) is mediated
by the trigeminal nerve (McGinley and McGinley 1999).
After being detected, the intensity, character, and hedonic tone
of the odor stimulus are determined. Intensity refers to the
perceived strength of the odor sensation and is proportional
to the logarithm of odor concentration, as described by
Fenchers law or Stevensmodel. Odor character or quality
is the verbal description of the type of smell, while hedonic
tone relates to pleasantness or unpleasantness of the odor, first
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
( contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
*Michalis Leotsinidis
Eleni Sazakli
Lab of Public Health, Medical School, University of Patras, GR-265
04 Patras, Greece
/ Published online: 11 September 2020
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health (2021) 14:301–312
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... The Department of Environmental Inspection of the Ministry of Environment and Energy together with the Development Directorate of the Prefecture, in response to the complaints of the residents, carried out several inspections, certified environmental violations in the operation of the plant and imposed fines. At the same time, the Laboratory of Public Health of the University of Patras investigated the quality of the surrounding ambient air with respect to the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted by the plant and evaluated the health risks to the inhabitants due to these organic emissions (Sazakli and Leotsinidis 2021). In response, in May 2020, the Deputy Regional Governor of the Prefecture took the decision of permanent cessation of the operation of the factory. ...
... Four air sampling campaigns were conducted after activity termination of the rendering plant, in June and September of 2020 and 2021, that is one and four months after closure and the corresponding months one year later. Additionally, seven air samples had been collected during the operation period (Sazakli and Leotsinidis 2021). The sampling sites along with the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling, for both periods (before and after the closure) are presented in Table 1. ...
... Experimental design and the detailed protocol of sampling and chemical analysis for VOC determination have been reported in a previous publication (Sazakli and Leotsinidis 2021). In brief, active sampling was conducted in two-bed sorbent conditioned tubes containing Tenax TA/Sulficarb (Markes International Ltd., UK), at a flow rate of 50 mL·min −1 for 60 min. ...
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Despite its significant positive impact on environmental quality, rendering industry still suffers, on a global basis, from nuisance odour problems that can contribute to public complaints about health problems, social and individual life disruption. This study was carried out in the surroundings of the animal rendering plant in Southwest Greece, after compulsory cessation of operation in May 2020. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the ambient air in four sampling campaigns and the Odour Activity Values (OAVs) were calculated for odorants. Past and present odour nuisance perceived by residents was assessed through a questionnaire. The results revealed a significant reduction by half in the total concentration of VOCs. Main offensive odorants totally disappeared. The sum of OAVs decreased by 89% in 2020 and 71% in 2021, in relation to the operation period. Residents reported a significant reduction in the frequency, intensity, duration and annoyance of the odour after termination of the rendering activities. Non-specific health symptoms (nausea, respiratory problems, etc.) that participants were experiencing in the past, no longer occurred. Given that the rendering industry follows by default the concept of circular economy, and adds to environmental safety, economy and public health protection, its operation should be kept pursued but under odour abatement strategies. Rendering facilities should be settled at industrial areas and utilize existing modern and environmentally friendly technologies to effectively control odour emissions and eliminate health and social impact.
... Traditional methods used to measure VOCs at contaminated sites are usually based on gas collection through summa canisters followed by off-line analysis with chromatographic techniques, e.g. chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) or gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Duan et al. 2022;Sazakli and Leotsinidis 2020). These methods can provide accurate qualitative and quantitative results for the prepared samples. ...
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released along with soil disturbance during the remediation of abandoned industrial sites have attracted great attention due to their possible toxicity and odour. However, the real-time emission characteristics of these VOCs and their subsequent effects on health and olfaction are less understood. In this study, the gaseous VOCs released from soil disturbance by excavators and drilling rigs at an abandoned chemical pesticide plant were monitored online with a laboratory-built single photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SPI-TOFMS). Twelve main VOCs with total mean concentrations ranging from 2350 to 3410 μg m−3 were observed, with dichloromethane (DCM) having a significant contribution. The total concentrations of the remaining 11 VOCs increased substantially during soil disturbance, with the total mean concentrations increasing from 18.65–39.05 to 37.95–297.94 μg m−3 and those of peak concentrations increasing from 28.46–58.97 to 88.38–839.13 μg m−3. This increase in VOC concentrations during soil disturbance leads to an enhanced heath risk for on-site workers. The distinctive difference between the mean and peak concentrations of VOCs indicates the importance of using mean and peak concentrations, respectively, for risk and olfactory evaluation due to the rapid response of the human nose to odours. As a result, the cumulative noncarcinogenic risk at the relatively high pollutant plot was higher than the occupational safety limit, while the total carcinogenic risks at all monitored scenarios exceeded the acceptable limit. Among the VOCs investigated, DCM and trichloroethylene (TCE) were determined to be crucial pollutants for both noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of VOCs. With regard to olfactory effects, organic sulphides, including dimethyl disulphide (DMDS), dimethyl sulphide (DMS), and dimethyl trisulphide (DMTS) were identified as dominant odour contributors (78.28–92.11%) during soil disturbance.
... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are well known to potentially have adverse impacts on human health and environment (Nguyen et al., 2019;Rai, 2018;Widiana et al., 2019Widiana et al., , 2017Yang et al., 2012Yang et al., , 2014Zhang et al., 2019) whereas odour nuisance associated with the emission of these species is becoming a matter of public concern in the last decades (Aatamila et al., 2011;Dincer and Muezzinoglu, 2008;Jiang et al., 2017;Lewkowska et al., 2016;Sazakli and Leotsinidis, 2021). ...
The investigation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emission from wastewater basins is a challenging issue. In particular, the quantification of an accurate emission rate appears quite tricky, since the release of VOC compounds from this type of source, and the subsequent dispersion into the atmosphere, is ruled by different complex phenomena, potentially affected by a variety of external chemical and physical parameters. In this regard, the wind velocity and the liquid temperature represent variables that are worth investigating. Given this, the present paper discusses an experimental study aimed at evaluating the influence of these variables on the emission rate of VOCs (i.e. acetone, toluene and butanol) in solution with water at low concentrations (0.5 mL/L and 5 mL/L). The experimental trials are conducted using a wind tunnel system, changing the sweep air flow from 0.02 m/s to about 0.06 m/s and the liquid temperature from 20 °C to 35 °C. This study reveals that while the wind velocity seems to slightly influence the emission rate of VOCs estimated by wind tunnel sampling, the effect of the temperature appears much more significant. This behaviour is also confirmed by experimental trials conducted on real-case industrial wastewater, coming from an equalization tank. In view of this, the approach commonly applied to evaluate the influence of wind velocity (i.e. a dependence of the odour emission rate on the square root of the wind velocity) appears not fully consistent with the experimental results obtained at low concentrations by wind tunnel sampling. Also, the influence of temperature seems more pronounced in the case of butanol, in accordance with the theoretical trend of Henry constant as a function of temperature.
... Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in industrial/ waste odorous emissions has become an increasingly studied topic due to their possible impact on human health [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. An increasing number of industrial/waste management activities are subject to odour emission monitoring. ...
A comparison among different sampling methods (3 types of sorbent tubes and polymeric bags) commonly adopted in chemical analyses of odorous emissions was performed. To investigate the different performances, a lignocellulosic biomass storage plant was selected to obtain preliminary information about the chemical nature of odorous emissions. Samples of odorous emissions were collected at different biomass piles and analysed by dynamic olfactometry and TD-GC-MS. By comparing the two adopted sampling methods (tubes and bags), different performances are shown, depending on their specificity. By the comparison among the three types of sorbent tubes (Multi-sorbent bed (Carbotrap, Carbopack X and Carboxen 569), Tenax and Sulphur), Sulphur and Multi-sorbent bed present similar performance, while Tenax TA tubes show a different trend in terms of type and numerosity of detected compounds. In addition, from the comparison between tubes and polymeric bags, the number and types of compounds detected in bags are more comparable to those observed in the Multi-sorbent bed and Sulphur tubes. However, a difference between the two methods appears, especially in the detection of low-molecular weight organic compounds. In this study, it is possible to highlight that, due to the complexity of odorous emissions, the selection of the sampling material may affect the obtained chemical results. The detection of different classes of compounds, is a crucial point, to obtaining the most complete characterization of mixtures and comparing the chemical profile with olfactometric results: care must be taken in the choice of sampling material and procedure.
... The most common outdoor and indoor air pollutants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are defined as any compound of carbon in atmospheric photochemical reactions, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) [6]. VOCs can be natural and anthropogenic sources and some of them are known to be of health concern [7][8][9][10][11]. Outdoor air pollutants are a heterogenous class of molecules that include particles such as bioaerosols, semi volatile compounds (SVOCs), volatile (VOCs), and very volatile compounds (VVOCs). ...
Full-text available
There are several analytical procedures available for the monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air, which differ mainly on sampling procedures. The Coriolis micro air sampler is a tool normally designed for biological air sampling. In this paper, the Coriolis micro bio collector is used to evaluate its ability to sample organic contaminants sampling and detecting them when combined GC-MS. We also compare the use of the Coriolis micro with a standardized sampling method, which is the use of a lung box with a Nalophan® bag. The results show that the Coriolis micro sampling method is suitable for the sampling of organic contaminants. Indeed, the Coriolis micro allows to sample and detect mainly semi-volatile molecules, while the lung box/Nalophan® bags allow to sample more volatile molecules (highly volatile and volatile). These results were confirmed in the controlled air lab with a slight difference with the field. The simultaneous use of the both techniques allow to sample and detect a larger number of molecules with specific physicochemical properties to each sampling technique. In conclusion, the Coriolis micro can sample and detect volatile organic compounds present in air. We have shown that the development of alternative sampling methods and the use of non-target analysis are essential for a more comprehensive risk assessment. Moreover, the use of the Coriolis micro allows the detection of emergent molecules around the Thau lagoon.
... [27]. Octanal smells like fruity aromas [20]. The concentrations of octanal in fresh COS and dry COS were 1.18 pg/mg and 14.39 pg/mg, respectively, and no octanal was detected in COS PB. ...
The headspace-solid phase microextraction method with the off-flavor database was used to establish odor components in Camellia oleifera shells (COS) and the corresponding particleboard (PB). The concentration of the odor components remarkably varied in fresh COS compared with dry shell and particleboard, owing to the reaction of volatile aroma compounds during drying and hot pressing. Relative odor activity value (ROAV) analysis was used to compare the key and characteristic aroma components of different products. There were four key aroma compounds found in fresh COS, which were m-cresol, p-cresol, borneol, and 2,3-xylenol; 16 found in dry COS, including 2-nonenal, n-decanal, geraniol, borneol, etc.; and 13 found in COS PB, including n-decanal, 2-nonenal, vanillin, isoeugenol, etc. Among them, m-cresol, p-cresol, 2-nonenal, n-decanal and 2,3-xylenol may be the main difference in fresh COS with dry COS and COS PB. The spatial distribution region of principal component analysis reflects the variances among samples. During the drying of the COS, the gradual peroxidation or reduction of fatty acids through lipoxygenases affect the content of the aroma substances, which leads to the difference of the compounds among samples. This study helps to realize the utilization of Camellia oleifera shells as a new interior decoration and building material by providing basic information on aroma substances.
... Odors are complex mixtures consisting mainly of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide; of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including aromatic, aliphatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, terpenes, short chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and ketones; and of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and amines (Borrás et al. 2016;Sazakli and Leotsinidis 2021). Under anaerobic conditions, such as those found in urban rivers polluted predominantly by domestic sewage, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) resulting from dissimilatory sulfate reduction is the main RSC emitted into the atmosphere, causing unpleasant odors (Zhou et al. 2011). ...
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Odors are often associated with nuisance and health risks. In this study, the atmospheric levels of H2S and NH3 were determined in 5 sites near polluted urban rivers during rainy and dry periods in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as the relationships between these odorous compounds and meteorological and water quality parameters applying multivariate analysis, and the non-carcinogenic risks (as hazard quotient—HQ). The compounds H2S and NH3 were passively sampled and determined by molecular spectrophotometry. Average concentrations were lower in the rainy period (6.56 ± 0.83 μg m−3 for H2S; 8.67 ± 2.50 μg m−3 for NH3) than in the dry period (8.05 ± 1.44 μg m−3 for H2S; 10.62 ± 4.39 μg m−3 for NH3), probably due to lower water and air temperatures, which contribute to lower water–air transfer rates and higher precipitation and relative humidity values, thus favoring the removal of these compounds from the atmosphere. The PCA and HCA results confirmed these relationships, as well as showing strong positive correlations between NH3, N-NH4+, TN, Twater, BOD, and EC, and strong negative correlations between H2S, pH, and DO, indicating that these water quality parameters also influence the levels of H2S and NH3 in air, thereby confirming a common source for the gas emissions as being mainly from polluted rivers. The maximum H2S concentrations were above the odor threshold value established by the WHO in both periods. According to deterministic health risk assessment, the HQ values for NH3 were below the acceptable limit set by USEPA (HQ = 1). However, all HQ values found for H2S (4.28, 2.80, 1.46 at 95th percentile) for the 3 groups of the exposed population in the dry period using probabilistic risk assessment with Monte Carlo simulation were above this limit, therefore indicating human health risks.
Odor pollution has become a global environmental issue of increasing concern in recent years. Odor measurements are the basis of assessing and solving odor problems. Olfactory and chemical analysis can be used for odor and odorant measurements. Olfactory analysis reflects the subjective perception of human, and chemical analysis reveals the chemical composition of odors. As an alternative to olfactory analysis, odor prediction methods have been developed based on chemical and olfactory analysis results. The combination of olfactory and chemical analysis is the best way to control odor pollution, evaluate the performances of the technologies, and predict odor. However, there are still some limitations and obstacles for each method, their combination, and the prediction. Here, we present an overview of odor measurement and prediction. Different olfactory analysis methods (namely, the dynamic olfactometry method and the triangle odor bag method) are compared in detail, the latest revisions of the standard olfactometry methods are summarized, and the uncertainties of olfactory measurement results (i.e., the odor thresholds) are analyzed. The researches, applications, and limitations of chemical analysis and odor prediction are introduced and discussed. Finally, the development and application of odor databases and algorithms for optimizing odor measurement and prediction methods are prospected, and a preliminary framework for an odor database is proposed. This review is expected to provide insights into odor measurement and prediction.
L’étang de Thau est un site naturel de grand intérêt non seulement d’un point de vue économique pour ses activités (ostréiculture, mytiliculture, pêche, tourisme) mais aussi d’un point de vue écologique car il abrite un écosystème diversifié et fragile (Natura 2000). Les évaluations des risques sanitaires et/ou environnementales sont des outils indispensables pour déterminer les risques associés à la présence de contaminants. L’émergence de l’analyse non-ciblée en environnement permet aujourd’hui de déterminer l’ensemble des molécules pouvant être présentes dans un échantillon. L’approche proposée dans cette étude est basée sur la complémentarité des approches ciblée et non ciblée dans deux matrices l’eau et l’air. Dans un premier temps, l’analyse non ciblée, jamais réalisée auparavant sur l’étang de Thau, a permis de mettre en évidence l’ensemble des contaminants présents dans les matrices eau et air en différents points autour de l’étang. Une priorisation parmi les 729 molécules retrouvées a permis la sélection de 22 molécules pour une quantification. Dans un second temps, l’analyse ciblée a été élargie à des contaminants dont la présence était suspectée notamment certaines cynaotoxines (microcystine-LR, anatoxine-A, BMAA et ses isomères), pesticides et PPCPs permettant ainsi pour certains de confirmer leur présence et ainsi aboutir à une étude préliminaire du risque pour l'environnement et/ou la santé humaine. Parmi les molécules identifiées, la BMAA et ses isomères ont ensuite été testées sur un modèle animal, le poisson zèbre (D.rerio), montrant que l’isomère AEG semble avoir le plus d’effet.
Aniline has attracted much concern for its long degradation half-life and huge toxicity to the environment and human beings. Therefore, the development of a multi-functional device for visual detection and efficient removal of aniline was highly anticipated. In our work, the small-size [email protected](COOH) was obtained by post-synthesis modification (PSM), and then the film-based fluorescent sensor was prepared by crosslinking reaction. The films not only showed incredible mechanical stability and potential for large-scale preparation, but also have excellent fluorescence response to aniline in solutions and gas phase. As the concentration of aniline increased, the fluorescence of films gradually increased at 350 nm, while the fluorescence gradually quenching at 620 nm, and the detection limits (LOD) of aniline in water and air were 0.27 ppb and 0.086 ppb, respectively. In addition, the adsorption performance of the film for aniline has also been confirmed and the maximum adsorption capacity was 32.6 mg/g, which is a strong guarantee for the realization of ultra-trace detection and toxicity reduction of aniline. In summary, the multi-functional film sensor has been designed for ultra-trace detection and efficient removal of aniline in solutions and gas phase, and have significant value for pollutant treatment, ecological restoration and early prevention.
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This study assessed and compared the carcinogenic risks and hazard ratios of exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) within different units of a municipal solid waste disposal facility (Tehran, Iran), including the leachate treatment plant (LTP), the landfill, and a composting unit. Eight stations within the landfill site were sampled during summer and winter using NIOSH method 1501. The health risk assessment was conducted using the probabilistic risk model Oracle Crystal Ball. The probability distributions of risks were estimated. The average concentrations (±SD) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and total BTEX were 9.01 (± 5.22), 11.44 (± 6.62), 14.56 (± 9.8), 24.06 (± 14.86), and 59.09 (± 32.38) ppbv, respectively. BTEX concentrations were significantly higher downwind of the disposal site compared to those in the upwind direction. The maximum carcinogenic risks of benzene in LTP, landfill, and composting unit were in excess of 1 × 10−4. Hazard ratios of BTEX were sufficiently low so as not to pose a significant risk to the workers’ health. However, maximum hazard ratios of benzene and total BTEX within landfill exceeded 1. In general, lifetime cancer risks and hazard ratios of BTEX were higher in landfill area compared to leachate treatment plant or the composting unit. Sensitivity analyses indicated that concentration and exposure duration had the largest impacts on the variance of the estimated risks. Individuals working in the landfill were at higher risk. An action plan is needed to reduce the risks from BTEX exposure in waste facilities by reducing the concentrations and/or exposure duration.
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Rendering is a global industry that recycles by-products resulting from butchering operations, which process billions of animals per year. About 50% of the weight of livestock is not consumed by humans and must be processed by rendering operations, which cook and separate the material into its protein and fat components. These products serve as a sustainable food source for livestock, feedstocks for oleochemicals, and raw material for biodiesel refineries. Due to the scale and nature of the raw materials and the cooking process, rendering operations emit a significant, but as yet poorly quantified, VOC load. Assessing this VOC load is important in order to calibrate the industry’s contribution to global VOC emissions, and to help address nuisance odor problems. We conducted VOC air sampling of two facilities in California, USA during the winter and summer seasons. VOC and reduced sulfur analyses were conducted using 8 h ambient air samples. Analyses for amines, ammonia, aldehydes/ketones, and volatile fatty acids were conducted using sampling pumps. These analyses detected 43 compounds at the facilities, and the number and concentration of detectable compounds were seasonally dependent. The compounds present at the highest concentrations included: ammonia (1600–2800 ppb, i.e., winter–summer levels), acetic acid (80–320 ppb, along with twelve other fatty acids ranging from ~0.5–140 ppb), acetone (55–241 ppb, along with nine other aldehyde/ketone products ranging from 0.4–60 ppb), and ethanol (15–81 ppb). These constituents have low odor thresholds and thus contribute to nuisance odor problems. Further, the overall VOC contribution arising from rendering facilities on a global scale is as yet very poorly characterized. This analysis will be useful to guide the development of new odor abatement strategies and strategies for the reduction of VOC emissions associated with this critical industry.
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Odorous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an annoyance for neighboring communities. This article, for the first time, quantitatively reports on an evaluation of the presence of fecal odorants identified in air samples from two exemplary WWTPs by the odor profile method (OPM) and chemical analysis. The fecal odorants indole and skatole were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The odor threshold concentration of skatole was determined to be 0.327 ng/L (60 pptV) in Teflon Bags by an expert panel. Skatole was found to be the primary chemical leading to fecal odor, due to its odor concentration to odor threshold concentration ratio that ranged from 2.8 to 22.5. The Weber-Fechner law was followed by pure skatole, but was not applicable when there was a mixture of fecal odorants and other odorant types present in WWTP air emission samples. This is probably caused by antagonism with other odorant types. Several existing odor control treatment methods for fecal odorants were evaluated at different wastewater treatment operations at two WWTPs by the OPM and chemical analysis for indole and skatole. Chemical scrubbing and biofiltration performed best in removing fecal odors among current control technologies.
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As part of the Mediterranean region, Greece has a high mean temperature. Consequently, the amount of toxic gas emissions from intensive hog farming operations (IHFOs) is greater than that from equivalents in northern Europe and USA. This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people who live near IHFOs in central and southern Greece. The collected data from 72-item self-report questionnaires, obtained from 377 residents in vicinity with three IHFOs, have been analyzed. The experimental group consisted of 209 people living within 3 km from IHFOs (near IHFOs), while the control group consisted of 168 people living more than 3 km but less than 5 km away from IHFOs (far IHFOs). There was a statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups in the following: wheezing (26.9 vs. 7.8 %), night-time awakenings due to dyspnea (24.5 vs. 7.2 %), night-time awakenings due to coughing (41.6 vs. 16.8 %), and night or day coughing for at least 3 months per year (42.5 vs. 17.3 %). Subjects living near IHFOs had increased odds for suffering from wheezing, night-time awakenings due to dyspnea, night-time awakenings due to coughing, and night or day coughing for at least 3 months per year. Our research verified that IHFOs adversely affect respiratory and mental health as well as the quality of life of nearby residents.
In this study, occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the rendering plant of poultry slaughterhouse was determined and subsequently, carcinogen and non-carcinogenic risks were assessed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods of 1501 and 1600 were used to measure VOCs in the breathing zone of the workers. Samples were analyzed by GC/MS. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks and sensitivity analysis were carried out using Monte Carlo simulations technique. The concentration of benzene and CS 2 was higher than the occupational exposure limits (OEL). The hazard quotient (HQ) values for all measured compounds was more than 1, which indicating the high potential for non-carcinogenic risks. Furthermore, the calculated Lifetime Cancer Risks (LCR) for carcinogenic compounds revealed that cancer risk due to benzene is higher than the maximum acceptable level provided by USEPA (10 ⁻⁶ ). Based on the sensitivity analysis, the concentration and exposure frequency are the most important variable influencing both carcinogen and non-carcinogenic risks. Therefore, the concentration levels of the VOCs and exposure frequency should be controlled using engineering control measures.
Since publication of the first edition in 1971, Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients has remained the standard reference for flavor ingredients throughout the world. Each subsequent edition has listed more flavor ingredients and allied substances, including those conferred food additive status, substances generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by qualified scientists (including the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association Expert Panel) and those substances having undergone GRAS Notification with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). New in the Sixth Edition 200+ newly approved flavor ingredients Ingredient's safety standing with the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association and/or the FDA Extensive and expanded information on aroma and taste thresholds Updated regulatory information on each flavor ingredient New discussion on botanical substances that serve as flavoring ingredients The fourth and fifth editions added more than 300 new entries and represented a total reorganization and updating of the text, consistent with new data and regulations. This, the sixth edition, is likewise expanded with over 200 new entries, including many botanicals and other natural substances. The addition of botanicals is a response to an expanded readership with an interest in dietary supplements, in which a number of flavoring botanicals serve a dual role.
This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems. It presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to address chemical exposure and public health risk management problems in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. On the whole, the book represents a collection and synthesis of the principal elements of the risk assessment process that may be used to more effectively address issues pertaining to human exposures to chemicals found in modern societies. This also includes an elaboration of pertinent risk assessment concepts and techniques/methodologies for performing human health risk assessments. Written for both the novice and the experienced, the subject matter of this book is an attempt at offering a simplified and systematic presentation of public health risk assessment methods and application tools – all these facilitated by a layout that will carefully navigate the user through the major processes involved. A number of illustrative example problems are interspersed throughout the book, in order to help present the book in an easy-to-follow, pragmatic manner.
Stringent requirements of ambient air quality regarding odour concentration levels are being implemented worldwide. Frequently, the conventional technologies available (scrubbers, conventional biofilters, activated charcoal filters…) are unable to achieve the required emission or immission limits when these are very stringent due to the presence of vulnerable receptors in the vicinity. High Performance odour abatement technologies, such as Advanced Biofilters or Thermal Oxidation, have been developed and applied in order to overcome these limitations. The Advanced Biofiltration systems can achieve better odour removal efficiencies (besides other enhanced capabilities) than conventional ones, allowing a suitable depuration of the odoriferous emissions. In this work we have conducted an assessment of the performance of 3 Advanced Biofilters used for the treatment of odour emissions and removal of VOCs from: a) an Animal Waste Rendering Plant in Hamar, Norway (where an Advanced Biofilter was installed in 2008 that has successfully minimized important odour-related problems) b) a Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant in Middelfart, Denmark (treating anemission of 1,500m3/h) c) a WWTP sludge Composting Plant in Mallorca, Spain. Thus, several parameters were measured at the inlet and at the outlet of such biofilters: odour concentration was measured by means of dynamic olfactometry in order to determine their odour reduction efficacy. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were determined as well. Speciated VOC analyses were performed in order to assess the reduction efficacy regarding significant odoriferous VOCs.