Miejsce obszarów funkcjonalnych w polskim systemie planowania przestrzennego

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Obszary funkcjonalne są coraz częstszym przedmiotem dyskusji naukowych. Nie jest to przypadkowe, ponieważ istotne zjawiska przestrzenne oraz społeczno-gospodarcze nie zamykają się już w granicach administracyjnych miast. Stanowi to wyzwanie dla polityki publicznej, która powinna być realizowana ponad oficjalnymi granicami. Kluczowe jest tu planowanie przestrzenne, które w obecnych uwarunkowaniach jest niejako bezsilne wobec obszarów funkcjonalnych. Podłoże tego problemu jest dualistyczne – systemowe i merytoryczne. Zgodnie z obowiązującymi regulacjami prawnymi, planowanie to zostało włączone do planowania wojewódzkiego. Co więcej, brakuje precyzyjnych wytycznych odnośnie planów zagospodarowania przestrzennego miejskiego obszaru funkcjonalnego ośrodka wojewódzkiego. Celem artykułu jest zatem zaproponowanie rozwiązania, które pozwoliłoby na bardziej efektywne kształtowanie przestrzeni obszarów funkcjonalnych. Available online:

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... A county may only prepare nonbinding "analyses and studies concerning spatial development" and may be consulted and asked for opinions about planning documents prepared by the voivodeship and municipal government. At the initiative of the municipalities concerned, it may establish a county urban planning and architectural commission serving as an advisory body in municipalities that do not have their own commissions of this kind [86,98]. The status of a metropolitan association in the sphere of spatial planning, despite the statutory declaration about its role in spatial policy [86] (Article 3), is similar to the status of counties. ...
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As the level of development increases, spatial planning is becoming more significant among public management tools. Although the issue of spatial planning and its mechanisms has been repeatedly investigated in the literature, the issue of clashing of interests of different actors remains to be examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the enforcement mechanisms of the public interest in the spatial planning systems of Poland and Portugal. The analysis was based on a comparative analysis of the legal basis of the spatial planning systems of the countries. The research confirmed the hypothesis that even with some sociocultural and economic similarities, different countries do not have to create similar mechanisms for the realisation of the public interest in spatial planning processes. The specific solutions adopted in Poland and Portugal differ so much that the enforcement of the public interest proceeds with very few similarities. The integrated Portuguese planning system, with its hierarchical elements, facilitates the achievement of the objectives of public entities. On the other hand, the Polish system, with the dominant position of the municipality, pushes great possibilities of influencing the planning by land administrators, and the poor location of spatial planning in all public tasks makes it difficult, and sometimes even impossible, to achieve public goals in space.
... For this purpose, the Concept identifies functional areas, distinguished by a set of common characteristics (both spatial and socio-economic) that determine the nature and intensity of internal (and external) interactions (Raczyk and Dołzbłasz 2017). What links the two approaches is that both take into account intensive socio-economic and institutional relations as factors that mould adjacent areas into broader spatio-functional units that are not consistent with existing administrative divisions (Trykacz 2020). ...
Preparations for the EU’s post-2020 Multiannual Financial Framework have brought increased interest to the functional approach as a major paradigm of the EU policies towards cross-border areas. This approach aims to focus cross-border programmes on territories where there is a high degree of cross-border interaction. Cross-border functional areas (CBFAs) can be a potential instrument for this, fostering further reduction of cross-border barriers and enhancing flows of people, goods, materials and knowledge. However, certain aspects of this notion are rather vague. This includes both the way how to turn the rather discursive concept of the CBFA into more material-institutional practices, and how CBFAs can be identified in practice to successfully implement the EU’s cohesion policy. This paper debates the concept of the CBFA and proposes understanding CBFAs as spatially specific territorial complexes, located on two (or more) sides of a state border(s) that are not defined by administrative borders, but by cross-border functional linkages, a system of cooperative relationships and the existence of governance mechanisms. The paper proposes a novel approach for CBFA’s identification based on a four-level model, taking into account the selected criteria. The proposed framework enabled to identify CBFAs and potential CBFAs at the borders of Poland.
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